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/V^urreo-! , "3ohn y publisher , Ls* 
Murray's Handbook for Modern London,. 

MODERN LONDON; 




[Tempib Bab." 



LONDON : 
JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET. 

1851. 



■y. 



By the same Author, 

ANCIENT AND MODERN LONDON; OR, A 

HANDBOOK FOR LONDON; PAST AND PRESENT. Alphabetically 
arranged so as to facilitate reference. Second Edition, most carefully and 
thoroughly revised, with an Index of Names. Post 8vo, 16s. 

" A dictionary, in which any building, street, institution, or other particular 
of London topography, may be looked out and found in its alphabetical place." 

Quarterly Review. 

" We can conceive no companion more welcome to an enlightened foreigner 
visiting the metropolis than Mr. Cunningham, with his laborious research, his 
scrupulous exactness, his alphabetical arrangement, and his authorities." 

The Times. 

"A work useful in purpose, and national in character." Morning Chronicle. 

"A carefully compiled, amusing, and instructive manual of popular antiquities 
and street history." M'Culloch's GeograxMcal Dictionary. 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY j its art, architecture, and 

ASSOCIATIONS S. New Edition. lGmo, Is. 



Also now reoJy, 

A HANDBOOK TO THE ANTIQUITIES IN THE 

BRITISH MUSEUM. By W. S. W. Vaux, F.S.A. With numerous 
Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



I have endeavoured in this work to place myself 
in the position of a well-informed guide seeking 
to give a stranger visiting London for the first 
time, all requisite information respecting lodgings, 
eating-houses, places of amusement, &c. ; of one 
whose aim it is to point out those features of the 
metropolis best worth seeing, with the way in 
which they may be seen to the best advantage. 

"By the help of Murray," it has been ob- 
served by a writer in the Times* "the veriest 
cockney, the greenest school-boy, and the meekest 
country clergyman may leave his counter, his 
school, or his parsonage, and make his way through 
all Europe comfortably, cheaply, and expeditiously. 
We are not aware," the same writer adds, " of any 
London guides that would give the foreigner such 
an entire command of this metropolis, as Galignani's, 
for example, gives to the Englishman in Paris. 
What we want, however, is something more com- 
pendious." I will not undertake to say that this 

* The Time*, Dec. 2, 1850. 

a 2 



IV ADVERTISEMENT, 

little volume embodies the idea thrown out by 
the writer of the article ; but I have worked in 
the spirit of its suggestion, and, I hope, not 
unsuccessfully. 

For other particulars, and for a more detailed 
and historical account of antiquarian London, and 
of streets and places no longer existing, the reader 
is . referred to the " Handbook for London, Past 
and Present," by the same author. 

PETER CUNNINGHAM. 

Victoria Road, Kensington, 
July 26, 1851. 



CONTENTS. 



TAGS 

Introductory' Hints and Suggestions ix 

The Crystal Palace xlix 

Palaces of the Sovereign and Household Offices . . 1 

Houses of the Principal Nobility and Gentry ... 8 

Parks and Public Gardens 27 

Houses of Parliament 37 

The Thames and its Bridges, Thames Tunnel, Pool and 

Port of London 41 

Government Offices 48 

Commercial Buildings and Docks 59 

Markets 70 

Breweries 75 

Water Companies 76 

Sewerage 78 

Tower of London 79 

Churches 92 

Cemeteries 130 

Courts of Law and Justice 13-4 

Inxs of Court and Chancery . . , 138 

Prisons, Penitentiaries, and Places of Execution . . 145 



vi CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Permanent Free Exhibitions 149 

Theatres and Places of Amusement 175 

Learned Institutions '< 181 

Colleges and Schools 191 

Hospitals and Charitable Institutions 203 

Club Houses 215 

The City and the Citizens 223 

Eminent Persons born in London ....... 239 

Eminent Persons buried in London 240 

Houses in which eminent persons have lived . . . 244 

Streets, &c, (houses unknown or not standing) in which 

eminent men have lived 248 

Places and Sites connected with remarkable events . 249 

Out-door Monuments and Public Statues 253 

Principal Thoroughfares, Squares, and Lanes . . . 255 
Diary Calendar of London Occurrences in 1851-2 ; arranged 

according to months, for the use of Strangers . 307 
Index 319 



5List of ^larts ana fHaps. 

Hyde Park 28 

St. James's Park 30 

Regent's Park 33 

The New Houses of Parliament 36 

Bank of England, and its various Offices fob Divi- 
dends, &c. 59 

Tower of London. 80 

Westminster Abbey • • -94 

St. Paul's Cathedral 110 

British Museum ' 150 

Clue-Map of London, at the Bud. 



INTRODUCTORY HINTS AND 

SUGGESTIONS. 



1. Situation of the Metropolis. — 2. Population.— 3. Statistics of its 
Consumption, &c. — 4. Political and Municipal Divisions. — 5. Social 
Divisions— the West End.— 6. The City.— 7. Great Thoroughfares 
running East and "West. — 8. Ditto running North and South. — 
9. Kailway Stations.— 10. How to see London quickly. — 11. How to 
see London leisurely. — 12. Its Six great Architectural Centres. — 
13. The Parks.— 14. The Silent Highway and its Bridges.— 15. A 
Sail from "the Pool" to Gravesend. — 16. A Sail from Hampton 
Court to "Westminster Bridge.— 17. General Hints to Strangers. — 
18. Cabs. — 19. Omnibuses. — 20. Letters. — 21. "Where to Lodge. — 
22. "Where to Dine and Sup. — 23. Theatres and Operas.— 
24. Panoramas and Miscellaneous Exhibitions. — 25. Performances 
of Interest to the Musician.— 26. Objects of Interest to the Painter 
and Connoisseur.— 27. To the Sculptor. — 28. To the Architect and 
Engineer. — 29. To the Antiquarian. — 30. Places and Sights which 
a Stranger must see. — 31. Remarkable Places near London which 
a Stranger should see.— 32. Residences of Foreign Ambassadors 
and Consuls. 

T ONDOJST, the Metropolis of Great Britain and Ireland, the 
Mart of the world, and, according to Sir John Herschel, 
the centre of the terrestrial globe, is situated upon the River 
Thames, about fifty miles from its mouth ; the northern or 
richer portion lying in the counties of Middlesex and Essex, 
the southern in Surrey and Kent. This great capital, formed 
by the cities of London and Westminster, and the boroughs 
of Tower Hamlets, Southwark, Lambeth, Finsbury, and 
Marylebone, was not inaptly described by M. Say, the French 
political economist, when he said of it, " Londres n'est 'plus 
wne ville: c'est une province couverte de maisons/" 

§ 2. Its population, according to the census of 1851, has 
reached the enormous number of 2,363,141, (1,10L358 males; 
1,258,785 females). The stranger who passes along its main 



viii § 3. CONSUMPTION OF VICTUALS. [The Stirrer 

thorouglifures, or traverses its river, however much he might 
be struck with its magnitude, is yet totally unable thereby 
to form a true notion of what it really is ; it is only when 
he looks at the aggregate of the petty details, that make 
no striking appearance at the moment, that he finds, indeed, 
what a vast camp of human beings is around him. 

§ 31 In the year 1849, the Metropolis consumed 1,600,000 
quarters of wheat ; whilst 240,000 bullocks, 1,700,000 sheep, 
28,000 calves, and 35,000 pigs, represented the butchers' 
meat upon its groaning board ; and one market alone 
(Leadenhall) supplied 4,024,400 head of game. This, toge- 
ther with 3,000,000 of salmon, irrespective of other fish and 
flesh, was washed down by 43,200,000 gallons of porter and 
ale, 2,000,000 gallons of spirits, and 65,000 pipes of wine. 
To fill its milk and cream jugs, 13,000 cattle are kept. To 
light it by night, 360,000 gas-lights fringe the streets, con- 
suming, every 24 hours, 13,000,000 cubic feet of gas. Its 
arterial or water system supplies the enormous quantity of 
44,383,328 gallons per day, while its venous or sewer system 
carries off 9,502,720 cubic feet of refuse. To warm its people 
and to supply its factories, a fleet, containing upwards of a 
thousand sail, is employed bringing annually 3,000,000 tons 
of coal, the smoke of which has been often traced as far as 
Beading, 32 miles' distance, where, at times, it was so dense 
that the elder Herschel was unable to take observations. To 
clothe its multitudes, we find, by the " London Directory," that 
there are 23,517 tailors, 28,579 bootmakers, and upwards of 
40,000 milliners and dress-makers ; whilst the domestic 
servants amount to an army of 168,701. By the colossal 
proportions of these detached statistical fragments, we are 
enabled to judge of the vast extent of this mighty city; as 
by the sight of the gigantic granite hand in the British 
Museum the imagination speedily builds up the towering 
statue of the ancient Egyptian god. 

§ 4. The first and most natural action of a stranger, upon his 
first visit to London, is to consult its map — just as he scans 
narrowly the face of a new acquaintance. Let us spread out 
Wyld's Post-office Map, which is as good as any other, and 
run over with him its main divisions and characteristic 
features. Its political and municipal divisions are soon told. 



iu Loudon.] § 4. MUNICIPAL DIVISION. — § 5. WEST END. ix 

The City of London is that space which anciently lay 
within the walls and liberties, having for its base the K. 
side of the river, its W. line running up Middle Temple-lane, 
crossing Fleet-street at Temple Bar (the only City barrier 
remaining), Holborn at Southampton-buildings, skirting 
Smithfield, Barbican, Finsbury-circus on the N., crossing 
the end of Bishopsgate-street "Without, and pursuing its 
way southward down Petticoat-lane, across the end of 
Aldgate-street, and along the Minories, until it reaches the 
Thames at the Tower. This portion of the Metropolis 
alone possesses a corporation, the oldest, richest, and 
most powerful municipal body in the world. The City is 
divided into 108 parishes, of which 97 are called "Without," 
and 11 "Within/' the walls. This distinction is, however, 
merely nominal, as the walls have long since disappeared. 
It sends four Members to Parliament, and its population is 
about 160,000. 

The E. line of the City of Westminster coincides with the 
W. line of the City of London. It is bounded to the IS". 
by Oxford-street, from its Tottenham-court end to its 
suburban extent at Kensington Gardens ; it then courses in 
a very singular manner through the centre of the Serpentine 
in Hyde Park, and reaches the Thames at Chelsea Hospital. 
The City of Westminster possesses no municipality, and 
though far more populous than " the City," containing not 
much under 300,000 inhabitants, sends only two members 
to Parliament. The five boroughs send two members each 
to the House of Commons. The most important, Marylebone, 
Finsbury, and Tower Hamlets form a continuous line lying 
to the N. and E. of these two cities, whilst Lambeth and 
Southwark are situated on the S. side of the river, the latter 
being styled emphatically "the Borough." 

§ 5. Having thus pointed out the political divisions of 
London, let us turn for a moment to its social demarcations, 
beginning with that portion vaguely defined by the term 
"West End" or fashionable London. The body and centre 
of this district is bounded by Regent-street and Waterloo-place 
on the E. ; the Mall, in St. James's Park, on the S. ; Park-lane 
and the Queen's-walk, Green Park, on the W. ; and by Oxford- 
street, extending from Regent-street to Hyde Park on the N. 



X § 5. TYBURNIA. BELGRAVIA. [Tuc Stranger 

This square and compact body which contains the man- 
sions of the nobility, the Club-houses, and the squares, 
in which reside the Mite of fashion, is supported on the N. 
and S. by two new districts which spread their widely 
extending wings into the green fields of our Metropolitan 
" Far West." 

Tyburnia, or the northern wing, is that vast city which 
has sprung up within the last 12 years from the sod, known 
as the Paddington district. Having been built at one time, 
it assumes in consequence a regularity of appearance con- 
trasting strangely with the older portions of the Metropolis. 
Fine squares, connected by spacious streets, the houses being 
of great altitude, give a certain air of nobility to the district. 
The sameness, however, caused by endless repetition of 
" Compo " decorations, and the prevailing white colour of the 
houses, distresses the eye, especially after the red brick of 
Grosvenor, and the older and still great fashionable squares. 
Tyburnia is principally inhabited by the gentry, professional 
men, the great City merchants, and by those who are 
undergoing the transitional state between commerce and 
fashion. Its boundaries may be said to be the Edge ware- 
road on the E., Bayswater on the W., Maida-hill on the N"., 
and Hyde Park and Kensington Gardens on the S. The 
point of junction with the great centre of fashionable 
London being the Marble Arch at Cumberland Gate, Hyde 
Park. 

Belgravia, or the southern wing of the West End, is 
comprised in the space enclosed by Grosvenor-place on the E., 
Sloane-street on the W., Knightsbridge on the N., and by 
Ebury-street on the S. E. This space includes Belgrave 
and Eaton-squares, whose houses, palatial in character and 
size, denote the high social position of their occupants. 
Regularity and largeness of proportion mark this newly- 
built neighbourhood, and as a whole it may be said to 
carry a more imposing air than the district of Tyburnia. 
Contiguous to Belgravia lie Brompton and Chelsea : the 
former lying low, and the air being moist and warm, is 
the resort of consumptive persons — it is the Torquay, in 
short, of the Metropolis. Close also to Belgravia on its 
south-eastern side lies squalid Westminster proper, like 



»n London.] § 6. THE CITY. xi 

the beggar at the rich man's gate. This district still is, as it 
was long before the Reformation, the head-quarters of low 
characters. Private liberality has lately, however, attempted 
to cure the plague spot by the erection of three new churches. 
Malaria and disease also prevail here ; the drains lying beneath 
the level of the Thames at high water. 

To the jST.E. of Tyburnia lies the Regent's Park district, 
containing some fine terraces, and pretty villas. Here dwells 
Middle Class London. Marylebone lies between Oxford- 
street and the Regent's Park, and contains the still famous 
Portman, Manchester, and Cavendish -squares. From this 
neighbourhood, fashion, in its "West End course, is fading fast. 
Still further E. we come to the Bloomsbury district, with its 
well-built houses and squares, erected towards the latter 
portion of the last century. This portion of the Metropolis 
is chiefly occupied by lawyers and merchants ; its noble 
mansions no longer hold, as in the time of the later 
Georges, the rank and fashion of the Town. Still further 
E. we recognise the architecture of the era of Anne, and 
here, in the capacious dwellings of Great Ormond-street and 
Queen-square, now given up for the most part to lodging- 
house keepers, we mark the continuation from Great Queen- 
street, Lincoln's-Inn-fields, of that westward march which 
fashion has taken within the last 150 years. To the S. of 
this line is the Strand district, which is strictly trading, with 
the exception of those streets running at right angles from 
it to the Thames, principally occupied by lodging-houses, 
and which, from their central situation, are much Bought 
after by visitors. 

§ 6. The peculiarities of the City, which we now reach, are 
many and marked. Its principal thoroughfares are built in 
the peculiarly ugly style that prevailed during the reigns of 
the last Stuarts, dingy brick predominating everywhere. The 
streets are narrow and inconvenient ; of picturesqueness there 
is none (unless we consider the interiors of many of thepalaOM 
of the old merchant princes, now converted into counting- 
houses and chambers), and with the exception of the modern- 
ised portions, of convenience or of beauty there is as little. 
Wren, under whose direction the City was rebuilt after the 
Great Fire, originally intended to have laid out the Btreetl 



xii § 6. THE CITY. [The Strange* 

ill a regular manner : the principal thoroughfares radiating 
from St. Paul's with a width of not less than 70 feet. His 
magnificent design was not, however, adopted, and economy 
prevailing, the City arose as we now see it. To the antiquary 
it presents few features of interest, to the architect only the 
churches built by Wren and his pupils, and one or two more 
modern public buildings. 

The City is, par excellence, the head-quarters of the trade 
and commerce of the country. Here everything is brought 
to a focus, and every interest has its representative. In 
Lincoln's Inn and the Temple the lawyers find all the 
quiet and retirement so congenial to their pursuits. In 
the great thoroughfares retail trade is triumphant. In the 
narrow, dim lanes, which scarce afford room for carriages 
to pass each other, the wholesale Manchester warehouses 
are congregated. In Thames-street, commerce is repre- 
sented by its Custom House and its great wharfs. The 
fruit and the fish trade dwells also in this thronged 
thoroughfare. In Lombard-street the money power is 
enthroned. In Houndsditch the Jews most do congregate. 
In Paternoster-row and its neighbourhood booksellers are 
located. St. Paul's forms the religious clement of this 
strange compound of interests. The Exchange and the Bank, 
placed side by side, might be likened to the two ventricles 
of the great City heart, and grouped around from first floor 
to garret in almost every house, are the offices of the Brokers 
who form the medium of circulation of the world's wealth. 
Yet this spot, teeming with its hundreds of thousands by day, 
its streets gorged to impassability by carriages, cabs, and 
carts, presents at night, and still more so on a Sunday, the 
spectacle of a deserted city. The banks closed, and tho 
post gone, the railway carriage, the omnibus, and the steam- 
boat, disperse like some centrifugal force those busy throngs 
of men, — the clerks to the out-skirts, the merchants and 
principals to their villas and mansions at the West End, 
only to return them fresh and invigorated for the succeeding 
morning's work. 

The space which extends down the N. bank of the river 
as far as Blackwall is occupied by the various docks, wharfs, 
and warehouses, and inhabited by slop-sellers, crimps, [\n<] 



in London.] § ,. GREAT THOROUGHFARES EAST i WEST, xiii 

sailors — everything here has reference to maritime affairs. 
To the N. of this district lies Spitaifielda and Bethnal- 

grecn, through which the Eastern Counties Railway cuts 
like a knife, and reveals the shops of the silk-w. 
readily distinguishable by the large garret 'windows, through 
■which their hand-looms may be seen at work. Adjoining 
Spitalfields, on its western side, is Clerkenwcll, the seat of 
the watch trade, inhabited by the best-paid and best-informed 
class of artisans in London. The parish of Islington, to the 
N., is mostly inhabited by the middle classes, and those 
immediately beneath them in the social scale. It lies very 
high, and is considered one of the healthiest portions of the 
metropolis. 

If we now cross to the Surrey side of the river, we come 
to the boroughs of South wark and Lambeth, the former, in- 
cluding Eermondsey, the great seat of the tanning trade ; 
whilst the latter is occupied generally with manufac- 
tories. Shadwell and Rotherhithe are the head quarters of 
sailors, and are but meanly built and inhabited — indeed the 
whole of the light bank of the Thames at London is much ' 
inferior in wealth and importance to that portion of the 
metropolis lying on the left or Middlesex shore, and to " the 
"West End" it is a "terra incognita.'' 

§ 7. To enable the visitor to find his way from point to point, 
the best plan will be to fix in his mind the direction of the 
great thoroughfares. These generally run from E. to W., 
and from K to S. The great E. and W. lines of streets 
are those which lead from either side of Hyde Park to 
the Bank, and then fork off again, and terminate in the re- 
mote E. side of the metropolis, forming a design some- 
what in the shape of an hour-glass. 




^2^2}. £ Cheapaide.^-S Cornhfll. Lca-lenl.Ml • 






To the X. of these lines sweep the New and City 
which run like a boulevard almost completely round the 



xiv § 8. GT. THOROUGHFARES NORTH & SOUTH. [The Stranger 

N. and E. of the metropolis. On the S. side of the 
river, Stamford-street and the York-road follow for some 
distance the curve of the water, and, together -with the New 
Cut and its continuations, intersect the different roads lead- 
ing from the bridges. 

§ 8. The streets running N. and S., in the West End, 
are the Edgeware-road, leading from the end of Oxford-street 
to St. John's-wood; Portland-place and Eegent-street, running 
from Eegent's Park to Charing-cross : Hampstead and Tot- 
tenham-court-roads, connecting Hampstead with Holborn. 
The City is brought into connection with its northern 
suburbs by Gray's Inn-lane, which runs from Holbom-hill to 
the New-road; by Aldersgate-street and Goswell-street, which 
lead in a direct line from the Post Office, at St. Martin's -le- 
Grand, to the Angel at Islington ; and by the lines of Grace- 
church-street, Bishopsgate-street within and without, Norton- 
folgate, and Shoreditch, which bring Kingsland and Hoxton 
in direct connection with London Bridge and the Borough. 
There are many other streets which run parallel to these, but 
we have given the main omnibus routes, as the lines most 
useful to the stranger. 

On the Surrey side of the water the roads converge from 
the different bridges to the well-known house, the Elephant 
and Castle, which is about equi-distant from all of them 
(excepting Vauxhall Bridge) ; from the tavern they again 
diverge, the North Kent-road leading to Greenwich, and 
the Kennington and Newington-roads leading to Brixton 
and Tulse Hill. 

The streets of the Metropolis, if put together, would extend 
3000 miles in length — the main thoroughfares, such as we have 
mentioned, are traversed by 3000 omnibuses, and 3500 cabs 
(besides private carriages and carts), employing 40,000 horses. 

In addition to these noisy and thronged thoroughfares, we 
have what has been called "the silent highway " of the Thames, 
running through the heai't of the Metropolis, and traversed 
continually by hundreds of steamboats, which take up and set 
down passengers at the different places between Chelsea and 
Blackwall, Greenwich and Gravesend, and when the tide 
serves running up as high as Hampton Court, calling at all 
the intermediate places on the banks of the Thames. 



in London.] § 9. RAILWAY STATIONS. XV 

§ 9. So rail cli for the internal communications of the Metro- 
polis. Its connection with the provinces is kept up by the 
various railways which diverge from it in every direction : — the 
Great Western Railway from its station at Paddington ; the 
North- Western from Euston-square, by the New Road ; the 
direct Northern from King's-cross ; the Eastern Counties from 
Shoreditch; the Blackwall from Mark-lane ; the South- Western 
from Waterloo Bridge ; whilst the London Bridge station 
has 5 separate lines supplying the counties of Kent, Sussex, 
and Surrey with railway communication. By means of these 
different lines, along which the telegraph is laid down, the 
Metropolis is put in instant connection with upwards of a 
hundred of the chief cities and towns of the United Kingdom ; 
the wires converging from the different stations to the 
Central Telegraph Office at Lothbury, where messages are 
received and transmitted night and day. The telegraph is 
also laid down beneath the streets between the City and the 
West End, a branch office being situated at the Strand, 
(sending a wire to the Government offices at Whitehall), and 
another near the Albert Gate, Knightsbridge, communicating 
with the Crystal Palace, thus putting the various provincial 
exhibiting manufacturers in constant communication with 
their houses of business. From the London Bridge wharf and 
from the Tower-stairs, start the various Continental steam- 
boats, and from the former especially, the Margate and 
Ramsgate boats, which often make excursions on the Sunday 
to those places and back the same day. 

§ 10. Having put the stranger in possession of the '-bearings" 
of the different streets, it will be as well to show him how he 
can comprehend in the quickest way the most remarkable 
features of the Metropolis. He can do this in no better 
and more economical manner than by taking the box-seat on 
an omnibus, and making friends with the driver. Let him take 
for instance a Kensington omnibus, and go as far eastward 
as the Bank. In this manner he will make himself acquainted, 
by the driver's help, with the characteristic features of Picca- 
dilly, with its noble mansions, and of the great thoroughfares of 
the Strand, Fleet-street, and Cheapside. If he has a wish to 
penetrate the far east, he can do so by taking a Blackwall 
omnibus, but we should not advise the journey, as he would 



xvi § 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. [TM Stranger 

meet with nothing on his way to repay him for his time 
and trouble. The return drive might be made by a 
Paddington omnibus, which will take him through Holborn, 
New Oxford and Oxford-streets, as far as the Marble Arch 
at Cumberland Gate. A direct N. and S. section of the 
MetrojDolis might be viewed by taking a '"Waterloo" 
omnibus, which starts from the York and Albany Tavern, 
Regent's Park, and pursues the line down Regent-street, past 
Charing-cross, and so along the Strand over Waterloo Bridge ; 
also by an ' Atlas ' omnibus, which traverses the same line as 
far as Charing-cross, and then turns down Whitehall, and 
goes along Parliament-street across Westminster Bridge to the 
Elephant and Castle. These three routes show at a rapid 
glance most of the architectural features of the Metropolis. 

§ 11. For those, however, who have time to examine the 
public buildings, in a more leisurely manner, we would 
recommend a walk from London Bridge westward to 
Trafalgar-square ; then an exploration of the irregular cross, 
formed by Whitehall, Pall-mall, and Regent-street, which 
springs from this open place. By this means he will pass 
the six great centres of life and the architectural centres 
which pervade the metropolis. 

§ 12. The first of these— London Bridge— is the one the 
Foreigner naturally sees first, and it is the spot above all 
others calculated to impress him most with the power and 
ceaseless activity of this great capital. The bridge itself, 
crowded with an ever-moving line of people and vehicles, 
and lined at the same time with the heads of curious 
spectators, crowded as thickly as pins in a paper, all 
gazing tipon the busy waters below, is a curious picture 
of the manner in which the two currents of business* 
men and sightseers are continually shouldering each other 
in the metropolis. On the other hand, the water below is 
equally instinct with life ; above bridge we see the stairs of 
the penny iron steam-boats, landing and taking in West End 
or Greenwich passengers, amid a perfect din of bell-ringing and 
cloud of steam-blowing. Below bridge we see the u Pool," 
looking, with its fleets of colliers moorod in the stream, like 
the avenues of a forest in the leafless winter. The Custom- 
. with its long columniated%ade,and the Italian-looking 



in London." § 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. xvii 

fish-inarket at Billingsgate, also strike the eye. On either 
hand the foot of the bridge is Hanked with great buildings 
— one, the Fishmongers' Hall, belonging to one of the richest 
of the City companies ; the other, the Shades Hotel. Passing 
up Fish-street-hill we view, from base to summit, the Monu- 
ment, erected to commemorate the Great Fire — still the most 
beautiful and picturesque of all the metropolitan columns. 
A little farther on, William IV.'s statue, worked in granite, 
stands guard at the entrance of King- William-street — one 
of the new thoroughfares built within these last few years. 
At the end of this we come to the great commercial 
and architectural centre of the metropolis — the Bank, a 
low, richly-adorned building — admirably adapted to the 
purposes of its foundation. The open space just here is sur- 
rounded on every side by several striking architectural ele- 
vations. The Exchange, the Sun Fire-office, the Mansion- 
house, and the towers of St. Mary's Woolnoth, mark the sky 
line in a most picturesque manner. The Poultry and Cheap- 
side present few features of interest. Passing King-street, 
however, the pseudo-Gothic front of Guildhall, standing full 
in the light at the end of a gloomy narrow street, strikes 
one as picturesque and perhaps noble, notwithstanding the 
viciousness of its style, while the stately steeple of Bow 
Church (Wren's finest steeple) never fails to arrest the 
attention of the stranger. The comparative narrowness of 
Cheapside, and the turn which it takes into St. Paul's-church- 
yard, brings the visitor upon the cathedral quite unexpectedly, 
and its size is, perhaps, magnified by the close opposition of 
the houses which surround it on all sides. The Post Office 
close on the right — a rather heavy Grecian building of the 
Ionic order — is the centre of the postal system of Great 
Britain and Ireland. 

As we pass down Ludgate-hill and along Fleet-street and 
the Strand, we gradually see how the characteristic features of 
the one city mingle with those of the other. How West- 
minster loves to spend lavishly what London has laboriously 
earned. The counting-houses of the "City" have slowly dis- 
appeared, and the shops have put on a gayer and more 
miscellaneous aspect; at last Charing-cross is reached, and 
we recognise at once the great West End architectural 

b 



xviii § 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. [The8tn*0( 

centre, from which improvement has shot out on even- 
side. Standing on the raised platform beneath the portico 
of the National Gallery, we see before us the rising towers 
of the seat of the Legislature, and the perspective of the leading 
Government offices forming a line of street by themselves ; 
on the left hand the beautiful church of St. Martin's-in- 
the-Fields, and on the right the perspective of Pall-mall, 
with its splendid Club-houses. Well might the late Sir 
R. Peel have designated it " the finest site in Europe." The 
square itself, with its ugly fountains and its ill-proportioned 
column, will require entirely remodelling before it will be 
worthy of its position, and we have purposely turned our 
visitor s back to the National Gallery that he might not be 
offended with its meanness. Charing-cross might be con- 
sidered the centre of the arts, as the Bank is the centre of 
commerce. Turning directly down Whitehall, we come to 
the quarter of the city devoted to the principal Government 
offices and the Legislature; on the left hand Ave pass the 
Admiralty (distinguished by its gloomy portico) from which 
the fleets of England are governed ; close beside is the 
Horse Guards, from which her armies receive the word of 
command. The long range of buildings on the right, which 
look so rich in perspective, consists of the Home Office, the 
Privy Council Office, and the Treasury, all under one roof, 
and the little narrow street forming a cul de sac, which 
terminates it, is the world-famous Downing-street, containing 
the official residences of the Prime Minister, the Foreign 
Office, and the Colonial Office. On the opposite side of the 
way is Gwydyr House, the office of the Board of Health, 
and the Banquetting-house of the old Palace of Whitehall, 
the most beautiful work of Inigo Jones; in front of which 
King Charles I. was beheaded. 

The fourth great architectural centre of the Metropolis is 
at the end of Parliament-street. Here the Church, the Law, 
and the Legislature, are represented. The first in the noble 
old Abbey, the second in the Courts off Westminster Sail, 
and the third in the New Palace of Westminster, srhoM 
towers, rising to a gigantic height, break in from point to 
point upon the sight. This spot, indeed, might be considered 
the intellectual centre of the Metropolis — within so small a 



iu London.. § 12. ARCHITECTURAL CENTRES. xix 

.space, the earth, perhaps, holds not so many distinguished 
men amongst the living and the dead. 

As we have described at full length the interesting build- 
ings of this quarter in another portion of the volume, we shall 
return at once to Charing-cross, and passing along its northern 
thoroughfare come to Waterloo-place, not inaptly called 
the centre of social and political life. Here we are in the heart 
of Club-land. Looking towards the Duke of York's Column, 
which terminates the view, we have on our right hand the 
Athenaeum, chiefly frequented by literary men ; on the left, 
and exactly opposite it, the United Service Club, whose mem- 
bers are naval and military veterans. Next to the Athena3um, 
which stands at the commencement of Pall-mall west, is the 
Travellers'. The Reform, which is observable from its great 
size and from its Italian architecture, follows. The Carlton, 
the head-quarters of the Conservatives, succeeds. At present 
this Club presents a very unfinished appearance, one half 
being of the Tuscan order, and the other, lately erected, 
being a copy of a Palazzo at Venice. When the whole Club 
is rebuilt in this style, it will be one of the handsomest in 
London. The Oxford and Cambridge and the Guards Club 
houses complete this side of the street of palaces. On the 
opposite side, at the corner turning into St. James's-square, 
is the newly-erected Army and Navy Club, the most 
elaborately decorated of them all. 

At the bottom of St. James's-street stands St. James's 
Palace, a dingy but picturesque old building full of historical 
associations. Ascending the street, on the left hand side is 
seen the Conservative Club, Arthur's and Brooks's (the whig 
head-quarters), whilst near the top is the old famous or 
infamous Crockford's. " White's " and " Boodle's," once 
fashionable political Clubs, but now principally resorted to 
by elderly country gentlemen, stand on the opposite side 
near the top. The stranger should endeavour to procure 
orders (given by members) to see some of these Clubs, 
especially the Reform, famous for its central hall, and its 
kitchen planned by M. Soyer, and the Conservative and 
Army and Navy Clubs, the staircases and apartments of 
both of which are very beautiful. 

Returning now to Waterloo-place, after noticing for a few 

b 2 



XX § 13. THE PARKS. Th< Stranger 

moments the noble park front of Carl ton-terrace which 
stands upon the site of Carlton House, the visitor will 
walk with us up Regent-street. This street was built by 
Nash, and is varied in its architecture if not blameless in taste 
— the Quadrant, which takes a sweep immediately above the 
Circus, is certainly a beautiful feature in the street. A few 
years since, a piazza covered in the footways on both sides of 
the street, and the double cmwe of columns thus formed had 
a noble effect at the distance, but their removal has certainly 
contributed to the decency and cheerfulness of the street. 
The lath and plaster style of its architecture has given rise 
to the reproach that it cannot stand either wind or weather. 
Nevertheless, it is the brightest and most cheerful street in 
the Metropolis, and its sunny side with its shops (many of 
which are French) filled with elegancies of all kinds, especially 
those pertaining to the female toilet, is one of the liveliest 
promenades in the Metropolis between the hours of 3 and 
6 o'clock in the afternoon. Portland-place, a wide monotonous 
street, forms the continuation of Regent-street ; this debouches 
upon Park-crescent, a fine sweep of houses forming the 
entrance to the Regent's Park, and called by its architect, 
Nash, the key to Marylebone. 

When the visitor has well surveyed the routes we have 
pointed out to him, and passed along New Oxford-street 
which the Commissioners of Woods and Forests of the Crown 
have lately ei-ected, and which presents an irregular pattern 
card of almost every style, he will have made himself master 
of the entire street architecture of London. 

§ 13. The parks of the Metropolis, which have been aptly 
called the lungs of London, surround, as with a necklace, its 
dense mass of houses — the West End being better supplied witli 
them than any other portion. Indeed, so close do St. James's, 
the Green Park, Hyde Park, and Kensington Gardens, lie to each 
other, that the lounger might walk from Charing-cross, the 
very heart of the Metropolis, to Bayswater, a distance of 
three miles, scarcely taking his feet off the sod. These 
three parks enclose London on its W. Bide, whilst Regent's 
Park lies to the N.W., and tho Victoria Park to the N.E. ; 
and it is in contemplation to lay out public pleasure-grounds 
in the borough of Fiusbury, a spot midway I as to 



THE THAMES AND ITS BRIDGES. X Xl 

make the chain complete on the N. banks of the river. 
The S. side has hitherto been very deficient in public 
pleasure-grounds, but Battersea Park, as yet unfinished, will 
supply the deficiency which was in part made up by the large 
suburban parks of Greenwich and Eichmond and Kew 
Gardens, lying to the extreme Eastern and Western limits 
of the Metropolis. Besides these open spaces, which are 
beautifully laid out, the ventilation of the Great Babylon 
is in some degree provided for by its numerous squares, some 
of them of large extent, and planted with trees, its Botanic 
Gardens, Cemeteries, and Nurseries, which, taken together, 
occupy many hundred acres of ground. 

To make the stranger comprehend at a rapid glance the 
immense amount of business done in London as a Port, we 
would take him along Upper and Lower Thames-street, and 
Tooley-street in the Borough, whose gigantic warehouses 
keep the thoroughfare in a perpetual gloom, and whose cranes 
hold in mid air during the day the varied produce of the 
world. The Custom-house quay, with its long room ; Bil- 
lingsgate-market, and the Coal-market close at hand, might 
be taken in the walk, which would be terminated by St. 
Katherine's and the London Docks. 

§ 14. Having traversed the principal streets, both architec- 
tural and commercial, let us take boat with our visitor and 
showhim the great water thoroughfare of the Metropolis, which 
displays in a more complete manner, perhaps, than any other, 
what London really is both in extent and character. Taking 
one of the twopenny steamers at Westminster Bridge, he 
sees before him several specimens of that bridge architecture 
which has made London so famous. Westminster Bridge, 
under whose shadow he for a moment rests, was built in the 
middle of the last century — it spans the river with 1 5 arches, 
and is 1066 feet in length. In all probability, the visitor 
will look upon this once imposing structure for the last time, 
as it has long been in a dangerous condition, and will 
make way, at no distant day, for a new one, built in the per- 
pendicular or Tudor style, and in keeping with the adjacent 
Houses of Parliament. 

Through the arches of the bridge this magnificent building 
might be seen rising from the water like some great coral 



XXli § 14. THE THAMES AND ITS BRIDGES. [The Stranger 

island, the perpendicular lines which characterise its architec- 
ture giving it considerable lightness and beauty. The banks 
of the river on either side for some distance are occupied 
by mud-banks, mean wharfs and buildings, which, though at 
times somewhat picturesque, are certainly not metropolitan 
in their character. Hungerford Suspension Bridge, starting 
on the Middlesex shore from the Italian-looking Hungerford- 
market, next hangs its thread-like chains across the widest 
portion of the Thames. In contrast with this gossamer-like 
structure is the Waterloo Bridge, with its nine arches, the 
centre one having a span of 120 feet. This bridge, which is 
quite level, and built of the finest granite, is certainly a 
beautiful structure, and well becomes the noble facade of 
Somerset House, which rises from a terrace immediately below 
it, on its right hand, and extends for 400 feet along the river. 
A little farther along on the same shore, the pleasant Temple 
gardens stand out, green and nourishing, amid the sur- 
rounding blackness of the city. Blackfriars Bridge, over 
which peers the stately dome of St. Paul's, is next passed 
under ; then comes " the thick " of the City, on the left 
bank, and the sky is penetrated by the spires of numerous 
churches, indicating by their numbers, though in that respect 
imperfectly, the ancestral piety of London. Southwark 
Bridge, built of iron, is remarkable for the vast span of its 
central arch, which is no less than 240 feet. 

London Bridge, the last or most sea-ward of the metropo- 
litan bridges, with its five granite leaps crossing the Thames, 
divides London into " above" and " below" bridge. " Above 
bridge," the only occupants of the river are coal barges — the 
bright-coloured and picturesque Thames hoys, laden with 
straw, — and the crowded penny and two -penny steam -boats, 
darting along with almost railway rapidity. Immediately 
the arches of the bridge are shot, the scene is changed at 
once. The visitor finds himself in a vast estuary, crowded 
with ships as far as the eye can reach. All the great 
commercial buildings lie on the left bank of the Thames. 
The Fish-market (Billingsgate), a new structure, the Coal 
Exchange, are rapidly passed one after the other ; and the 
Tower, square and massive, with its irregular out-buildings, and 
its famous Traitor's -gate, terminates the boundary of the City. 



iii London.] § 15. FROM " THE POOL " TO GRAVESEND. xxiii 

§ 15. "The Pool," as it is called, commences just below, 
and the river is divided into two channels by the treble range 
of colliers anchored here to discharge their cargoes — 12,074 of 
which giving a tonnage of 3,339,116 were imported into Lon- 
don in 1819. Only a certain number of these dingy -looking 
colliers are admitted into the " pool" at once, the re- 
mainder waiting in " the lower pool," until the flag which 
denotes that it is full is lowered, when those who are first in 
rank enter. The greatest order and regularity in marshalling 
these coal fleets is absolutely necessary to avoid choking 
the water-way ; and as it is, so much inconvenience is expe- 
rienced, that it is in contemplation to excavate docks for them 
in the tongue of land opposite Greenwich, called the Isle of 
Dogs. A little past the Tower are the St. Katherine's-docks, 
inclosed by tall warehouses, over which the masts of the 
larger shipping are observable. The London Docks succeed, 
and in connection with them are the famous wine vaults, in 
which as many as 65,000 pipes of wine can be stowed. Just 
past the first entrance to these docks, the steamer passes over 
the last land connection between the two shores. The famous 
Thames Tunnel lies under the voyager's feet, and it might be 
that at the very moment he passes, light and life, music and 
laughter, such as the mermaids never enjoyed even in 
old song, is going on below these waters which look so calm 
and deep ; for fairs and fetes, and even balls are matters of 
constant occurrence in the Tunnel, in the line of arches not 
used as a public thoroughfare. On the opposite shore is 
the Grand Surrey Dock, covering a large area, and devoted, 
together with the Commercial and Greenland Docks, to the 
timber and corn trade. 

Just below the Pool, where the river takes an abrupt bend 
in its course at Limehouse-reach, is one of the entrances to 
the West India Docks. These docks run right across the base 
of the tongue of land called the Isle of Dogs, and open into 
Blackwall-reach ; and the crowd of masts seen across the 
pasturage looks almost like a grove of trees. 

Deptford (on the right-hand as you pass down Limehouse- 
reach) is a government dockyard and the seat of the 
victualling department, which every stranger should see. 
There are always several ships of war, steamers and others, 



JOd? § 16. FROM " THE TOOL ' TO GRAVESEND. [TI.c Strainer 

lying off the wharf, and underneath its vast building sheds, 
the ribs of some future Leviathan of the deep are generally 
to be seen growing up under the busy hammers of the ship- 
wrights. The steamer has scarce passed Deptford when the 
"Dreadnought" hospital-ship, the hulk of a 120-gun ship, 
rears itself out of the water, affording a noble example of the 
size and power of a first-rate man-of-war. This old ship 
stands as a kind of outwork to Greenwich Hospital, whose 
noble cupolas and double range of columniated buildings rise 
just beyond, a worthy dwelling for our decayed old naval 
worthies. Nothing can be more picturesque than Greenwich as 
you pass down the river. The old irregularly built town and 
the palace-like hospital are backed by the rising ground of 
Greenwich Park with its splendid sweet chestnut trees, and 
crowned by the observatory, from which place the Saxon 
race throughout the world marks its longitude. The exact 
time is marked to the shipping below by the fall of a large 
black ball, which slides down a mast surmounting the top 
of the building, every day at noon ; by this means the 
thousand commanders in the river below have a daily op- 
portunity of testing the accuracy of their chronometers. 

Below Greenwich the river for some distance is dull enough, 
low flat shores extending on either side, until Blackwall is 
reached, with its Italian looking railway station, and its 
quay, always in fine weather crowded with people. The 
East India Docks, full of the largest class merchant ships, are 
situated here. Still further down the river is the arsenal of 
Woolwich, which every visitor should see if time will allow 
him. The river below, and nearly all the way to its mouth, 
lies between flat marshes, over which the ships at anchor and 
in full sail appear sailing across the grass, as in some Dutch 
picture. Gravesend, the last town on its banks, is at least 
30 miles from London ; a description of it therefore will 
not fall within our limits : nevertheless we would recommend 
a nine-penny sail from London-bridge to Gravesend, afford- 
ing as it does at a rapid glance a notion of the vast extent 
of the commerce of London. 

The sailing vessels belonging to the port of London 
in 1850 numbered 2735, and the steamers 31S, giving 
employment to crews of 35,000 men and boys, whilst in 



in London.] § 16. HAMPTON COURT TO WESTMINSTER Bft. XXV 

the year 1848, 32,145 ships of all descriptions, entered, 
bearing a tonnage of 5,060,956. The customs from this 
enormous mass of merchandise was 11,193,7072., or half 
the receipts from this department for the whole country. 
At the same time the declared value of the exports was 
upwards of 11, 000,0002. 

§ 16. To see the Thames in all its pastoral beauty the 
visitor should ascend the stream far beyond the limits of the 
metropolis.. The best possible way of seeing it is to take the 
steamer home after visiting Hampton Court (which he must 
not fail to do, reaching it by the line of the South Western 
Railway). The windings of the river make the journey a long 
one (two hours at least), but the lover of beautiful scenery and 
literary and historical associations will not regard it as time 
lost, as he will pass many places famous in song and in history. 
At Twickenham he will pass Pope's grotto (the house has been 
entirely rebuilt), and Strawberry-hill, the sham castle of 
Horace Walpole; Ham-house, an old mansion-house of the 
time of James I., notorious as the house where the famous 
" Cabal " ministers used to meet. Richmond Hill and Park, 
beautifully wooded, crowns the prospect further. The old 
palace of Sheen, famous in the early reigns, yet shows some 
fragments, incorporated in a modern house, the grounds of 
which come down to the water, at this spot crossed by 
Richmond Bridge, and ornamented by an island planted with 
weeping willows. 

Below Richmond, on the right hand side, runs Kew 
Park, once famous as the Farm where George III. used to 
play the gentleman farmer ; and on the left is Sion House, 
the fine mansion of the Duke of Northumberland. Still 
further down is the charming village of Kew, with its public 
garden and palm-house ; Fulham succeeds, with the Bishop 
of London's Palace, and on either hand, amid the most 
verdant meadows and trees of the largest foliage, the resi- 
dences of the gentry and of wealthy London merchants are 
seen all down the river as far as Battersea, where its suburban 
character commences. The Thames so far is clear and 
beautiful, running over a gravelly bottom, and banked with 
verdiire on either hand. The swans, too, sailing about in 
fleets, add to the beauty of the water. There are a vast 



XXvi § 17. GENERAL HINTS TO STRANGERS. [The Stranger 

number of these stately birds kept by the various City 
Companies at a great expense. One company (the Dyers), 
spending 3001. a-year upon their swans. 

Below Battersea Bridge, on the right hand, extends the 
New Park, now in course of formation, (a carriage drive 
and terrace running close beside the water) ; and on the 
left, Cremome Gardens, shady with lofty elms ; and Chelsea 
Hospital, with its high roof, and the Botanic Gardens, with 
their picturesque-looking Cedars of Lebanon, terminate the 
open character of the banks which are below this occupied 
with manufactories or with rows of houses. At Lambeth 
the visitor see3 with interest the antique towers of the 
Primate's Palace, and the old church ; and on the opposite 
shore, the Penitentiary, covering a vast extent of ground, 
and looking like a "cut down" bastile. In immediate 
proximity to it is the new neighbourhood of Pimlico, which 
has arisen within the last five or six years, under the hands 
of the great builders, Messrs. Cubitt. 

§ 17. General Hints to Strangers. 

London should be seen between May and July. 

There is not a more striking sight in London than the 
bustle of its great streets — the perpetually rolling tide of 
people, carts, carriages, gay equipages, omnibuses, in its great 
thoroughfares, — the variety, splendour, and wealth displayed 
in its shops. As a city, it must yield to Paris in the general 
beauty of its public buildings, and the grandeur of its tho- 
roughfares. 

Saturday is the aristocratic day for sight seeing. 

Monday is generally a workman's holiday. 

Take the right hand side of those you meet in walking 
along the streets. 

The Electric Telegraph Office is at Lothbury, near the 
Bank ; the branch offices are at Charing-cross, at Knights- 
bridge, and at the Crystal Palace. 

Never listen to those who offer "smuggled" cigars in the 
street. 

Beware of mock auctions at shops. 

Avoid gambling houses or "hells." Gambling is illegal in 



in London.] § 18. CABS. XXvii 

England, its professors are low rogues and cheating blacklegs, 
and the police are instructed to make seizures of those found 
playing. 

Beware of drinking the unwholesome water furnished to 
the tanks of houses from the Thames — good drinking water 
may be obtained from springs and pumps in any part of the 
town by sending for it. 

To find the direction of a " west-end friend," consult 
Webster's Royal Red Book, which only gives the names of 
pi'ivate persons, price 3s. Qd. 

To find the direction of any professional man or trades- 
man, consult The Post-office Directory, which is at once an 
official, street, commercial, trades, law, court, parliamentary, 
City, conveyance, and postal directory. The visitor may see 
it at any hotel or in any of the better class shops. The names 
and livings of Clergymen of the Church of England, may be 
found in the annual " Clergy List/' in London. 

The confusion in the nomenclature of London streets 
demands correction. The street branch of the "Post 
Office Directory" records the existence, in various parts of 
the town, of 37 King-streets, 27 Queen-streets, 22 Princes- 
streets, and 17 Duke-streets, 35 Charles-streets, 29 John- 
streets, 15 James-streets, 21 George-streets, besides numerous 
thoroughfares with the common prefixes Robert, Thomas, 
Frederick, Charlotte, and Mary. Anomalies also are very 
common : — There are North and South-streets which lie east 
and west, and 10 East-streets and 11 West-streets, which point 
to a sufficient variety of directions to box the compass. There 
are as many as 24 " New-streets," and only 1 Old-street, though 
some of the " New " are old enough. There are no fewer than 
18 York-places, 16 York-streets, 14 Cross-streets, 13 Crown- 
courts, 19 Park-places, 16 Union-streets, 10 Wellington-places, 
10 Gloucester-streets, and 13 Gloucestei'-places. The suburbs 
abound in provoking repetitions of streets, squares, terraces, 
and groves, bearing the names of •'Victoria" and " Albert," idle 
compliments teazing enough to her Majesty's many subjects. 

§ 18. Obtain at any bookseller's one of the books of cab 
fares, issued by the Commissioners of Police, or Captain 
Shrapnell's Sradametrical Survey of London, a still better book. 
Never dispute in the street with a cabman. If he is insolent 



xxviii § lb. CABS. The Bow • I 

and still demands an exorbitant fare, take his number and 
summons him before the magistrate of the division in which 
the offence was committed. The legal fare is 8c/. per mile — pay 
no more — except when you have luggage, or when your party 
exceeds two persons. The number of cabs in London is 
about 3,500, and each cabman must earn ten shillings a day 
before he can clear his expenses or obtain a penny for himself. 
A driver refusing to take a passenger any distance, not 
exceeding 5 miles from the place of hire, is liable to a penalty 
of 40s. 

When the distance exceeds 3 miles from the General Post 
Office, back fare can be demanded after S in the evening, and 
before 5 in the morning, in addition to the regular fare, to the 
nearest point within 3 miles of the General Post Office. If 
the hiring takes place beyond 3 miles from the General Post 
Office, the passenger may pay back fare to the place of hiring, 
at the rate of 4 c/. per mile. 

Back fare can also be demanded during the day-time, when 
the distance is beyond 4 miles from the General Post Office, 
but for the distance only exceeding 3 miles from the General 
Post Office. 

Luggage, beyond what can be carried in the passenger's 
two hands at the same time, can be charged for by the driver. 
N.B. As there is no law at present to regulate the charge 
for excess of baggage, to guide either the passenger or driver, 
it is suggested to always make a bargain at first, to avoid 
disputes ; and that 2d. a journey for each trunk or box, 
beyond a carpet-bag, portmanteau, hat-box, or bonnet-box 
(the undoubted right of one passenger in one conveyance), 
is recommended as ample remuneration. Should there be 
two or more passengers in the same conveyance, the extra 
baggage should be considered as the excess of luggage of one 
passenger. 

Agreements to receive or pay more than the legal fare are 
not binding. 

Whatever number of persons a Oftb is licensed to carry, 
the legal fare only can be demanded. If more persons than 
the licensed number are permitted to ride, any agreement 
beyond the legal fare is not binding. 

J ►rivers arc entitled to demand after the rate of 2*. an 



in Loudon" § 10. OMNIBUSES. xxix 

hour for waiting, beyond the necessary time for putting up 
or discharging, luggage, &c. 

Passengers are requested to give any driver in charge of 
the police, for abusive language, should he be hired from a 
street or stand ; and if hired from a railway station, to take 
his number, and report him to the Secretary thereof.* 

If you are in a hurry, and want to catch a railway train, call 
a Hansom-cab, and promise the man a shilling above his fare. 

§ 19. Omnibus routes in London lie principally north and 
south, east and west, through the central parts of London, to 
and from the extreme suburbs. The majority commence run- 
ning at 9 in the morning, and continue till 12 at night, suc- 
ceeding each other during the busy parts of the day every 
five minutes. Most of them have two charges — fourpence for 
part of the distance, and sixpence for the whole distance. It 
will be well, however, in all cases to inquire the fare to the 
particular spot ; wherever there is a doubt the conductors will 
demand the full fare. If you leave any article either in a "bus " 
or cab, apply for it at the Excise Office, Old Broad-street, City. 

The following are the main lines : — 

Omnibuses inscribed " Brompton," run between Gunter's 
Arms (Brompton), and the Bank. 

Omnibuses inscribed " Putney," run between Putney, 
Brompton, the Bank, and the London-bridge Railway Station. 

Omnibuses inscribed "Richmond," run between Richmond 
and the Bank, fare Is. 

Omnibuses inscribed "Conveyance Company," run between 
Paddington and Hungerford-market (Charing-cross). 

Omnibuses inscribed "Hammersmith" or "Kensington," 
run between the Bank and those places. 

Omnibuses without inscription, run in the same direction. 

Omnibuses inscribed "Bayswater," run between Bayswater 
(via Regent-street and Strand, also via Oxford-street and 
Holborn), to Whitcchapel and to the Bank. 

Omnibuses inscribed " Kensal Green," run between the 
Green Man and Still, Oxford-street, and Kensal Green Cemetery. 

Omnibuses inscribed " Favourite," run between Holloway 
and the Houses of Parliament; also to London Bridge and 
BlaekwalL 

* Shrapnel's Stradametrical Surrey of London (July, 1851). 



XXX § '20. LETTERS. [The Stranger 

Omnibuses inscribed " Kilbum-gate," run between Kilburn 
and London-bridge. 

Omnibuses inscribed "Clapnam," run between Upper 
Regent's-circus and Clapham. 

Omnibuses inscribed "Atlas," run between St. John's Wood, 
and the Elephant and Castle. 

Omnibuses run from the Assembly House, Kentish Town, 
to Whitechapel Church. 

Omnibuses inscribed '•' Hampstead," run from Hampstead 
to the Bank ; fare, 6d. 

Omnibuses inscribed " Waterloo," run between the York 
and Albany, Regent's-park, and the Elephant and Castle. 

Omnibuses inscribed "Islington and Chelsea," run between 
the Angel, at Islington, and Sloane-square. 

Omnibuses inscribed "Royal Blue," run between Pimlico 
and Blackwall. 

Omnibuses inscribed " Pimlico," run between Pimlico and 
the Bank. 

Omnibuses inscribed " Chelsea," run between King's-road, 
Chelsea, and the Eastern Counties Railway Station, at Shore- 
ditch. 

Omnibuses without inscription, run between the Upper 
Regent's-circus and the Bank. 

For fuller information respecting these popular convey- 
ances, we refer the visitor to Bolton's Omnibus Guide, pub- 
lished by Grover & Co., 238 Strand, and Field, 65 Regent's 
Quadrant, which gives every omnibus, whether London or 
suburban, with its time of starting and fare. 

§ 20. Letters (for distances beyond the London delivery) can 
be posted at the Receiving Houses throughout the Metropolis 
until 5h. 30m. p.m., or with a fee of one penny, in addition 
to the postage, which, as well as the fee, must be paid in 
Post-office stamps until 6 p.m. ; at the Branch Post-offices at 
Charing Cross, Old Cavendish-street, and Stone's-end, Borough, 
until 6 p.m., or with a fee of one penny in addition to the 
postage, which, as well as the fee, must be paid in Post-office 
stamps, until Gh. 45m. p.m. ; at the Lombard-street office 
until 6 p.m., and until 7 p.m., provided that the postage 
and penny fee are both paid in Post-office stamps; at the 
General Post Office, St. Martin's-le-Grand, until G p.m., and 



in Loudon.; § 21. WHERE TO LODGE. xxxi 

at that office only until 7 p.m., with a fee of one penny, 
which, as well as the postage, may be paid either in money 
or by Post-office stamps; and until 7h. 30m. p.m. with a fee 
of sixpence. 

There are ten deliveries of letters in London daily ; and 
without the circle of the three miles from the General Office 
and still within the environs, six daily. 

The London District Posts leave and deliver about every 
two hours. Take care to post before \ to 8, 10, 12, and 2, 4, 6, 8. 

Letters posted at the Receiving-house in London before 6 
at night are delivered the same evening at all places within 
a circle of three miles from the General Post Office ; or if 
posted before 5, they are delivered in the environs the same 
evening. 

§ 21. The first thing a stranger requires on reaching London, 
is, to be conveniently lodged, a matter in which he might 
find some difficulty, unless he has the direction of some one 
accmainted with the metropolis. Those to whom expense is no 
object, and who wish to be at the West End of London, will 
drive to the neighbourhood of St. James's, and will find in the 
chief streets there every accommodation for families or bache- 
lors. The best Hotels in this district are the Clarendon, in 
New Bond-street, Mivart's, in Brook-street, and Grillou's, 
St. George, in Albemarle-street; Fenton's, Christie's, and Ellis's, 
in St. James-street; and the numerous hotels in Jermyn- 
street, Albemarle-street, and Dover-street; Long's and the 
Blenheim, in Bond-street ; the Burlington and Queen's, in 
Cork-street, may safely be recommended as good Family 
Hotels. Here the first company always resort, and the terms 
are accordingly high. The Gloucester and Hatchett's, in 
Piccadilly; and Limmer's, in Conduit-street, is the resort 
chiefly of sporting gentlemen or families : whilst of less 
expensive hotels Ave may mention as central houses, chiefly 
for bachelors, Richardson's, the Tavistock, the New and Old 
Humniurns, Bedford, and Piazza, in Covent Garden. Those who 
wish to be midway between the City and the West End would 
do well to put up at the Union, in Cockspur-street, Morley's, 
at Charing Cross, or Fenillade's Colonade Hotel, Charles- 
street, Haymarket. 

Less expensive houses, are the Golden Cross, at Charing 



xxxii §21. WHERE TO LOl [TheBtowg* 

Cross: in the City, the London Tavern, Biskopsgate-strect, and 
the Albion Tavern, in Aldersgate-street, both very famous for 
large public or private dinners. The Bridge House Hotel, 
London Bridge ; Gerard's Hall Inn, Bread-street; the Bull and 
Mouth, and the Castle and Falcon, St. Martin-le-Grand, may 
be recommended ; besides which, in St. Paul's Church Yard 
and its district, are many good and respectable hotels. 

The foreign visitors of distinction will find French and 
German spoken at Mivarf a and the Clarendon. To those, how- 
ever, who wish to be moderate in their expenses, we would 
mention the well-known and admirably conducted house 
of M. dc Keyser (the Royal Hotel), New Bridge-street, Black- 
friars ; here every guest must be introduced personally, or by 
letter. But the quarter more especially devoted to French 
and German visitors, is Leicester-square, Castle-street, the 
Haymarket, &c. The chief hotels in this quarter are the 
Sabloniere Hotel, and the Hotel de Provence, in Leicester- 
square, both conducted by Mr. Nind, in the Continental 
style. The French cuixinc is excellent, and there is a table 
dliote daily at 6. The Hotel de Versailles, Leicester-place, 
Leicester-square, and the Panton Hotel, Panton-street, Hay- 
market, are also houses well frequented. 

The best restaurants are " Verrey's," Regent-street, at the 
corner of Hanover-street; Soyer's Universal Symposium, at 
Gore House, Kensington : and the Sabloniere Hotel ; where 
there are daily tables cV hole, and where dinners are served 
also in private apartments ; Bertolini's, St. Martin's-street, 
Leicester-square ; Mouflet's, at Knightsbridge ; or Giraud's, 
Castle-street, Leicester-square; all which establishments pro- 
vide French dinners at a moderate rate. 

Boarding-houses for Foreigners are also numerous around 
Leicester-square. 

The English visitor who wishes to make a lengthened stay 
in the Metropolis, will find it most economical to t ' 
These he may get at all prices, from the Buite 
furnished rooms in the West End, at 7. l'». or 15 guineas a 
week, to the bed-room and use of a breal | rlour, at 10 

shillings a week. In the West End the best description <>f 
lodgings are to be found in tin 1 Btreeta leading from Piccadilly 
—such as Sackvillc-street, Dover-sti 



in London.] § 22. WHERE TO DINE AND SUP. XXxiii 

Clai'ges-street, and Duke-street, and in streets leading out 
of Oxford-street and Kegent-street, St. James's-street, Jermyn- 
street, Bury-street, and King-street. The best class of 
apartments are those in private houses, let by persons of re- 
spectability, generally for the season only. In the windows 
of these houses you will probably not see " Apartments to 
Let." A list of such apartments is to be found, however, at 
the nearest house-agent, who gives cards to view, and states 
terms. An advertisement in the Times for such rooms, 
stating that "no lodging-house-keeper need apply," will often 
open to the stranger the doors of very respectable families, 
where he will get all the quiet and comfort of a home, so 
difficult to be found in the noisy, and often extortionate 
professed lodging-house. Furnished houses for families can 
always be obtained at the "West End. 

Those who wish moderate lodgings in a central situation, 
should seek for apartments in some of the secondary streets 
leading from the Strand, such as Cecil-street, Craven-street, 
Norfolk-street, Southampton-street, Bedford-street, or the 
Adelphi. Here, in the season, the prices range from 1 to 4 
guineas for a sitting and bedroom. Those again who care not 
for locality will find every quarter of the town abounding in 
boarding-houses and lodging-houses, varying in price according 
to the situation. The middle-class visitor who is bent on sight- 
seeing, should obtain a bed-room in a healthy locality and the 
use of a breakfast-room. There are thousands of such lodgings 
to be had for half-a-guinea a week. He can either provide his 
breakfast himself or get his landlady to do it for him. The 
various chop-houses and dining-rooms, of which there are 
nearly 600 in the Metropolis, will provide him with his dinner; 
whilst the 900 coffee-houses will afford him a cheap tea in 
any quarter of the town. He should not omit to pay one visit 
at least, however, to the Divan in the Strand, where for Is. he 
has the entree of a handsome room, a cup of coffee and a cigar, 
and the use of newspapers, periodicals, chess, &c. 

§ 22. Many of the dining-houses of the City are famous for 
some particular dish : Thus, the Ship and Turtle, in Leaden- 
hall-street, for its turtle ; " Joe's," in Finch-lane, Cornhill, is 
famous for steaks, served on metal plates ; the "Cock," 201- 
Fleet-street, for steaks and chops and "snipe kidneys;" M Wil- 



Ti.c Stranger 

liams's Old Bailey Beef Shop " is famous for its boiled beef; 
"Dolly's," in Queen's Head Passage, Patemoster-row, is also a 
quiet chop-house ; the One Tun Tavern, at Billingsgate Mar- 
ket, is the celebrated fish ordinary, the charge is Is. 6d., 
including butcher's meat and cheese. There is an ordinary 
at the " Salutation," in Newgate-street, every day at 5 o'clock, 
where you are provided with three courses for Is. 6d., bread, 
beer and cheese included ; you are expected, however, to take 
wine or spirits afterwards. In Bucklersbury, leading from 
Cheapside to the City, there are several clean, and excellent, 
dining-rooms, where you may dine well from Sd. upwards. 
These are termed "Dining-rooms," or "Eating-houses," and 
it may be observed as a general rule that it is customary to 
give the waiter Id. if your dinner is under Is., and so on in 
proportion, but never exceed 6(7. each person. The " Rain- 
bow," " Dick's," the " Mitre," and the " Cheshire Cheese," 
either in Fleet-street, or leading out of, are good dining-houses 
for chops, beefsteaks, or joints, and at moderate prices. The 
"Lord Mayor's Larder," just opposite Bow Church, in Cheap- 
side, is a very superior dining-house, the rooms are large 
and lofty, and fitted up in a handsome manner. The 
European Coffee-house, facing the Mansion-house, is an 
excellent house. The stranger should remember that some 
of the very best dining-houses are in the City, and that the 
joints there are in best cut between 1 and 5 o'clock. 

Westward of Temple Bar, the best dining-houses are 
Simpson's, at the Cigar Divan in the Strand ; the great 
saloon is fitted up like the first-rate French Restaurants ; 
fresh joints are cooked every quarter of an hour, between 
the hours of 5 and half-past 7, and the dish is wheeled 
round to the diner, that the carver may cut to his liking ; 
charge, exclusive of stout or ale, 2s. Simpson's, at the 
"Albion," close to Drury-lane Theatre, is also excellent; 
the arrangements are the same as at the Cigar Divan ; it is 
also a great supper-house, lying, as it does, contiguous to tho 
operas and theatres ; the stout is excellent. Still further 
west, the " Blue Posts," in Cork-street, is a noted house, both 
for its cooking and its iced punch. John O'Groat's, in 
Rupert-street, and Pye's Dining Rooms, in Church -place. 
Piocadilly, are most clean and reasonable dining-houase. 



in London.] § 22. WHERE TO DINE AND SUP. 

The " Albany," in Piccadilly, is good and cheap, and where 
ladies may also dine with comfort. The " Scotch Stores," 
corner of New Bnrlington-street, Regent-street, and the 
'•' Scotch Stores," in Oxford-street, (the " Green Man and 
Still,") are good houses, the table-cloth clean, and your dinner, 
served on plate, costs you about 2s. 6d. Verrey's, in Regent- 
street, affords the Englishman a good idea of decent French 
cooking, the claret and other wines being tolerable and not 
dear. Soyer'.s Symposium no one will fail to visit once, and 
on one will care to visit twice. 

The West End Tavern dining-hours are from 3 to 7 o'clock. 

The West End supper-houses are, as we have said, Simp- 
son's, opposite Drury-lane ; the Cyder Cellars, Maiden-lane : 
the Coal-hole, in the Strand ; and Evans's, in Covent-garden. 
The Hotel de l'Europe, Heming's, and Dubourg's, close to 
the Haymarket Theatre, and the fish-shops which almost line 
this street, are much used as late supper houses. In the 
City, the Cock, the Rainbow, Dick's, and Dr. Johnson's tavern 
(all four in or off Fleet-street), are the chief houses resorted 
to after the theatre. 

The stranger who wishes to see City feasting in all its gloiy, 
should procure an invitation to one of the banquets of some 
of the City Companies in their own halls. The Goldsmiths' 
dinners, given in their magnificent hall, behind the General 
Post Office, exhibit a grand display of gold plate. Some of 
the Companies, again, the Fishmongers, Merchant Tailors, &c, 
are famous for their cookery, and the antique character of 
their bills of fare — still maintaining the baron of beef, the 
boar's-head, the swan, the crane, the ruff, and many other 
delicacies of the days of Queen Elizabeth. After these dinners 
" the loving cup" goes round. In the Carpenters' Company, 
the new master and wardens are crowned with silver caps 
at their feast; at the Cloth workers, a grand procession 
enters after dinner. Similar customs prevail at other of 
the great Companies' banquets, and at all the dinners are 
first-rate. 

The suburban dining-houses are the Star and Garter, and 
the Castle, at Richmond, where you may dine simply but 
well, for 4s. 6d. (wine excepted) ; Lovegrove's East India 
Dock Tavern atBlackwall (where ministerial white-bait dinners 



XXXvi §U4 PANORAMAS, ETC. The Stranger 

are given) ; the Crown and Sceptre, and Trafalgar, at Green- 
wich, and the Ship at Gravesend ; these are all famous for 
their white-bait. 

§ 23. The amusements and objects of interest in London are 
so numerous, and so diverse in character, that some classifica- 
tion is absolutely necessary, to enable the visitor to make 
his choice what he would most like to witness. The theatres, 
which we presume to interest most classes, we shall place first, 
giving in the most succinct manner the character of per- 
formance to be seen at each. They are — 

Her Majesty's Tiifatrf., TIaymarket.— Italian Opera and ballet. 
Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Saturdays. Commences at 8 o'clock 
(half-past 7 Saturdays). 

Royal Italian Opera, Covent-garden. — Italian Opera. Tuesdays 
Thursdays, and Saturdays. Commences at 8 o'clock. — Admitted 
only in evening dress at either of these houses. 

Drury-lane Theatre.— Spectacle and English opera. 

Haymarkkt Theatre.— British Drama and Vaudeville and Faroe. 

Lyceum, or English Opera House, Strand. — Extravaganza, Vaude- 
ville, and Farce. 

Frincess's, Oxford-street.— British Drama and Farce. 

St. James's Theatre, St. James' s-street. — French Flays. 

Adelphi, Strand. — Melodrama and Farce. 

Finch's Play House, or Strand Theatre, Strand.— Melodrama and 
Farce. 

Olympic, Wych-strcet. — Melodrama and Farce. 

Marylebone, Church-street. — British Drama. 

Sadler's Wells, Islington. — British Drama. 

Queen's, Tottenham Court Road. — Melodrama and Faroe. 

City of London, Norton Folgate. — Melodrama and Faroe. 

Surrey. Blackfriars-road. — Melodrama, English Opera, and Farce. 

Victoria, Waterloo-road. -Melodrama and Faroe. 

Astlkv's, Westminster Bridge. — Horsemanship and Melodrama. 

1! \ i i v's HxPPOOBOMK. Kensington. — Horsemanship, Chariot-races, Tour- 
naments, &c. (Morning, at 2 ; afternoon, at 6). 

§ 24. Panorama! and MisceUaneow Exhibition*. 

Tiir. COLOSSHM, Regent's Park*— There are at the present time two 
pictures exhibiting here : the Panorama of London by day. and 
Paris by night; in addition to these arc the Conservatory and the 
Museum of Sculpture. Admission, S . 

Cosmos am a, 209, Regent-street- Panoramas of remarkable places are 

lure exhibited. Admission, Iff. 

Bubvobd's Paxorama, Leieester-sqnare. — The Arctic Regions, the 
Lakes of Klllarney, and the Ruins of Pompeii are theptetun 
being exhibited. Open from lOtilldnsk. Admission, la 

Wtld's <;rf.at (ii.imr, in i,eieester-si|uare.- Exhibiting the different 

divisions of the world on its concave or Interior surface. The 
diameter of this monster model of the terrestrial world is 60 feet 

Open from in the morning. Admission, Is.; on Saturdays, i 
The architect of the »hell was li. R. Abraham. 



iu London.] § 24. rANORAMAS, ETC. 



XX.XV11 



The Cyclorama, or Music Hall, Albany-street, Regent' s-park.— A 
representation of the Earthquake at Lisbon in 1755. Open in the 
Afternoon at 2 and half-past 3; in the evening at half-past 7 and 9 
o'clock. Admission, 2s. 

The Diorama, Regent's Park.— Pictures now exhibiting : Etna, in Sicily, 
under three effects, evening, sunrise, and an eruption ; the Castle of 
Stolzenfels on the Rhine, seen by sun-set, and during a storm. 
Open from 10 till 4. Admission, 2s. 

Diorama, St. George's Hall, Hyde Park-comer. — Jerusalem, and the 
sacred scenes mentioned in the New Testament, are here exhibited. 
Open at 12, 3, and 8 o'clock. Admission, Is. 

The Oriental Diorama, Willis's Rooms, King-street, St. James's.— 
Scenes illustrative of Life in India are here shewn. Open on 
Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays at 2 and 8 o'clock p.m. Ad- 
mission, front seats, 2s. 6d.; back seats, Is. 

Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly. — A moving panorama is here exhibited of 
Colouel Fremont's overland route to Oregon, Texas, and California, 
across the Rocky Mountains. Admission, reserved seats, 3s. ; stalls, 
2s. ; back seats, Is. Open in the mornings at quarter to 3 o'clock ; 
evenings, quarter to 8 o'clock. Also a diorama of the Holy Land, 
at 3 and 8. Admission, Is. 

G allery of Illustration, 14, Regent-street. — The Route of the Over- 
land Mail to India. Open daily, morning 12 o'clock, afternoon 
3 o'clock, evening 8 o'clock. Admission, reserved seats, 3s. ; stalls, 
2s. 6d. ; back seats, Is. 

Linwood Gallery, Leicester-square. — Mr. Brees's View of New 
Zealand. Admission, Is. At the same Gallery there is Carnborn's 
Panorama of Paris, St. Cloud, and Versailles. Admission, Is. 

Panorama, 309, Regent-street. — Moving Pictures of the Bosphorus, the 
Dardanelles, and Constantinople are here exhibited. Open at 12, 
3, and 8 o'clock. Admission, Is ; stalls, 2s. 6d. ; reserved seats, 3s. 

The Polytechnic Institution, 309, Regent-street, and 5, Cavendish- 
square, is a collection of all kinds of curious machinery in motion, 
and of models, &c. ; lectures on chemistry, and other scientific sub- 
jects are daily given. Open from 11 o'clock till 5 o'clock, and from 
7 o'clock till 10 o'clock. Admission, Is. 

Polyorama, 309, Regent-street, next door to Polytechnic. 

The Incubator, or Egg-Haiching Machine, Leicester-square. — The 
whole process of hatching by artificial heat is here exhibited. 
Admission, Is. 

The Chinese Collection, Albert Gate, Hyde Park. Admission, Is. 

Ccmming's Exhibition of Trophies of the Chase, African Curiosi- 
ties, &c, collected by this remarkable hunter during five years 
sojourn in the Interior of South Africa. Admission, Is. 

Catlin's Exhibition, Waterloo-place. A collection of Costumes, Por- 
traits, and Weapons, collected by him whilst living with the North 
American Indians. Admission, Is. 

Madame Tussaud's Wax Works, Baker-street, Portman-square. The 
evening is the best time. Admission, Is. Chamber of Horrors, 
6d. extra. 

Cremorne Gardens, Chelsea. The gardens are illuminated at night, 
and dancing commences at dusk, the whole concluding at 11, with 
Fireworks. Admission, Is. 

Vauxhall Gardens, near Vauxhall Bridge, similar amusements to the 
above, but continued to a much later hour. Admission, 2s. Ocl. 

Surrey Zoological Gardens. FOtos and Flower Shows. 



XXXviii § 26. OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO PAINTERS. [The Stranger 

§ 25. Petforma <oe. 

Tiif. Two Operas. See xxxviii. 

I'Hii.ii.uiMuM. held in the Princess's Concert Boon, Castle- 

street, < (iford-street. 
BULLAE'S WEDNESDAY NlOHT COHCBBTS, held in St. .Martin's Hall, 

Long- acre. 
Musk al Gxiob Cow BBT8,held In Willis's Rooms. 
An< if.m Cow 

Pki:i <>i;max<. i> Of ObATOBIOS BY HABDBL, ELAYDff, MeniiELSuIIN, &C, 

in Exeter Hull, from November to July. 
Pbitatb Cohobbts, giren by celebrated artists, during the season — 

May, June, July. 
Li. la's Cos. BBT8 <t I nsi ]:. mi. mm. Mrsir— most scientific and ft 
THB Anniveksaiiy ok the Sons or the CLBBOY, in ^t. Paul's Cathedral. 
The Anm\ii:s\i:y Of TBI Ciiwuty Children of Lo.viM.ix, beneath 

the Dome of St. Pauls, the First Thursday in .June. 
Madrigal, Choral, ami Glee Societies, always taking place in the fcfetro- 

polis, of which uutice is given in the public pap 

§ 26. ULjatii (,/' Inierett to the PainUr and Connoimewr. 

% The CeUectiont thus marked an private, and plated m dwtUkn§4 

and can only be seen by special permission of the owners. 

National Gallkry, including the Vernon Collection at Marlborough- 

house. /'/•■ - . 
g Qi ken's Collection at Buckingham Palace; to be seen only by an 

order from the Lord Chamberlain of Her Majesty's Household (the 

Marquis of Breadalbanc. The ottice of the Lord Chainberhiin is m 

St. James's Palace. 
Collection of Eably Gbbmab Art at Kensington Pahu 1 

of Prince Louis D'Ottingen Wallerstein. FoTpefniiseton to Inspect, 

v. rite to L. O rimer, Esq., Fitzroy-sqnnre. 
Bbidobwateb Gallbbt, st. James's. 

3 GboSYBKOB GALLBBT, off Park-lane. 

fj Dike OF Sitiierlanh's liuBlLLOfl, and 1. of Van 

Dyck. 
Dim ot Bbdfobd's in rcH Piottjbes, c>. Belgrare-square. 

>/ The Correuoio (Christ In the Garden), and other pictures, at Apsley 

House. 

I Tin: Van DrOB Portraits ash BEBTCBBB 6n grisaille), tine Cana- 

letti, \ie» of Whitehall), at Montague lb. use. 
g Loan Gabvaoh'b Raphael, tbi AldobbArdihi Kadobha, 86, 

Portman-square. 

£ Di-ki: 01 Gl LfTOf'S Drri.i. IA 1 I OB OBIOIKAL Of 1 in: la-i vr.K PlO- 

tube, by Van Dyck, of Cbarli i I. standing by his I 
Tin Holbbih, at Barber-Burgeons' Hall. tdonkwell-street, City. This 
is the 1'nn'st Holbein In England. Ring the belli a-.k hi see the 
picture, and give a shilling to the person Bhowlng it. 

Titian's COBNABO FAMILY, at Northumberland House; to be 

an order from the Dnke of Northumberland only. 

1 .! is.., iii Inigo Jones's Banqueting House (now the Chapel 

I. ' I . ft.1 Whitehall. Ma;. after 

divine service. 
Tin Old Matrons um Diploma it n lis. at the B • 

Write to the Keeper of the Royal Aeadenvy, C Landfeer, Esq., 

I:. \.. stating who you are, and yo« u ill receive an answer. 



in London.] § 26. OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO PAINTERS, &C. xxxix 

Tub Hogarths and Canaletti, at the Soane Museum in Lincoln's- 
Inn-tields. 

The Hogarths, at the Foundling Hospital, Lincoln's Inn Hall, and St. 
Bartholomew' 8 Hospital. 

The Three Sir Joshua Reynolds', at the Dilettanti Society, Thatched 
House Tavern, St. James's-street. 

g The Van Dycks, at Earl de Grey's, in St. James's-square. 

| Sir Robert Peel's Dutch Pictures, at Privy Gardens. 

g Mr. Hope's Dutch Pictures, Piccadilly (corner of Down-street). 

The Portraits in the British Museum. 

g Lord Lansdowne's Collection, Lansdowne House. 

Barry's Pictures at the Society of Arts, Adelphi. 

The Pictures in the Painted Hall, Greenwich. 

g Mr. Neeld's Collection, No. 6, Grosvenor-square. 

g Mr. Rogers's Collection, No. 22, St. James's-place. 

g Lord Ashburton's Collection, at Bath House, Piccadilly. 

Lord Ward's Collection, in (temporarily) the Egyptian Hall, Piccadilly . 

g Marquis of Hertford's Collection, Piccadilly, corner of Engine-st. 

g Lord Normanton's Collection. 

§ Baron Rothschild's Murillo (Infant Saviour), at Gunnersbury. five 
miles from Apsley House, Hyde-Park-corner. 

g R. S. Holford's CoLLECTiON,"(at present, 1851, at No. 65, Russell-sq.) 

The 39 Richard "Wilsons and Fine Spanish Pictures of Richard 
Ford, Esq., 123, Park-street, Grosvenor-square. 

g Collection of French Portraits, Raffaelle Ware, and Vene- 
tian Glass of Ralph Bernal, Esq., M.P., 93, Eaton-square. 

g Pool of Bethesda, hy Murillo, at George Tomline's, Esq., No. 1, 
Carlton-House-terrace. 

Private Collections of John Sheepshanks, Esq., of Rutland Gate, 
near the Crystal Palace; of 11. A. J. Munro, Esq., in Hamilton- 
place, Piccadilly; of Thomas Baring, Esq., M. P., 41, Upper Gros- 
venor-street ; of John Gibbons, Esq., No. 17, Hanover-terrace, 
Regent's Park; of — Bicknell, Esq., at Herne-hill, Surrey, five 
miles from Waterloo Bridge ; Mr. B. G. Windus's Turner Drawings, 
at Tottenham, five miles from St. Paul's ; shown every Tuesday 
to strangers bringing letters of introduction. 

The Dulwich Gallery. Get an order from Colnaghi's. 

Raphael's Cartoons, &c, at Hampton Court. 

The Van Dyck Pictures, &c, at Windsor. 

g The Duke of Devonshire's Gallery, Piccadilly. 

Exhibitions of Modern Pictures. 

Royal Academy of Arts, East Wing of the National Gallery, in 
Trafalgar-square. The Exhibition of the Academy, containing the 
greatest novelties of the best English Artists, is open to the public 
daily from the first Monday in May till near the end of July. Ad- 
mission, Is. ; Catalogue, Is. If you wish to see the pictures, go early, 
before 12 ; if you wish to see company, and not to see the pictures, 
go between 3 and 4. Persons desiring to become purchasers of 
pictures or other works of art, are requested to apply to the Clerk. 
The better works are generally all sold before the day of opening. 

The Society of British Artists, exhibiting between 50o and 600 
pictures annually, at Suffolk-street, Charing Cross. Admission, Is. 
open in April. 

The British Institution, Pall Mall, containing in the spring months 
annually between 300 and 400 modem pictures. During the summer 
months there is an Exhibition of ancient masters, collected from 



xl § § 27 & 28. OBJECTS OF INTEREST TO THE [lie Stranger 

the principal private coll. ctions in town and country. Admission, Is. 
Catalogue. Is. 

The Society of Painters in "Water Colours, Pull-mall West. Ad- 
mission, Is., open in April. Catalogue, 6d. 

The New Society of Painters in Water Colours, Pall-ma:' 
Admission, Is., open in April. Catalogue, 6d. 

Exhibition of PlOTOBKS and Painters of all the - 
BUBOFE, In Lichfield House, St. Janies's-square. 

National Institution of the Fine Arts, 316, Regent-street, opposite 
the Polytechnic. Admission, Is. Catalogue, 6d. 

During the London season (April, May. ami Jane) the 
Connoisseur should make a point of occasionally dropping in 
at the Auction Rooms of Christie and Manson, in King-street, 
St. James's-square. 

§ 27. Objects of Interest to the Sculptor. 

The Nineveh, F.i.oin, Piulalian, Towni.ey, and other Marbles 
in the British Museum. 

The 15as-uei.ii r, by Michael Angelo, at the Royal Academy. Write to 
the Keeper of the Royal Academy, C. Landsecr, Esq.. R.A., stating 
who you are. 

The Sculpture in St. Paul's and Westminster Abbey. 

Statue of Charles I., by Ee Saenr, at Charing-cross. 

Statue of James II., by Grinling Gibbons, behind Whitehall. 

g Statue of Napoleon, by Canova, at Apsley House. Stati es by the 
same artist at Buckingham Palace. 

g Two Fine Statues, by Canova, at Gunnersbury (five miles from Hyde- 
Park -corner), seat of Baron Lionel de Rothschild, Ml'. 

The several Statues in the Squares and public Places— Pitt, by 
Chantrey, in Hanover-square; Fox, by Westmactt. in Blooms- 
bury-square ; cannim;, by Westmacott, mar Westminster Rail; 
G-KOROB III- by YVyatt, in* Cockspnr-street j Q-BOBOI IV., by Chan- 
trey, in Trafalgar-square; the Duke 01 Wellington be. 
Royal Exchange, by Chantrey, and at Hyde-Park-eoiner. by Wyatt. 

The Two Siaii is OF Mai>ness and Melancholy, by Cibber. at 
Bethlehem Hospital. Write to Sir Peter Laurie, the President of 
the Hospital, 7, Park-square, Regent's Park. 

Flaxman's Models at liuveisity College, in Q- U W OT S tr ee t. Write to 
Henry ( 'r.ibb Robinson, Esq., Russell-square, or C. C. Atkinson. Esq., 

at University College. 
Tm Kounrnra a. mi.i.i..-. byT. Banks, R.A., In the hall of the British 

Institution. 
Fine I'.AS-uri.iEK, by T. Banks, K.A., In the liall of the National (. illery. 
£ Tin. M a i : i ■- 1 .i:s at l.ansdowne House, in l'.ei keley-si[U.ire. the residence 

of the tfarqnisof Lansdowne. 

g The Quil Si. \\ I Cirl. by II it. mi Pol ST, temporarily nt the Crystal 

Palace.) at the house of John (J rant, F.sq.. 7. II \d. -1'ai k- street. 
Tul Casi - "i i in. G a i ■ : . at the 

Rooms of the (."vennuent Behool of Design, Somerset li 

§ 28. Object* of Ink rest to the Architect and Engineer. 

Gothic. gt Mary Orery. 

The Norman Chapel, in the Tower. WestminsU r Abbey. 

Tie Norman Crypt, under the Westminster HaU. 

ehnreh of St Mary-le-Bow. Temple Chnreh. 

St. Barthoh'inew-tlie-Grcat. Dutch Church, Austiu Friars. 



in London.] SCULPTOR, ARCHITECT, AND ENGINEER 



xli 



Gothic (continued). 

Ely Chapel. 

The Crypt at Guildhall. 

The Crypt at St. John's. Clerken- 
well. 

Allhallows Barking. 

St. Olave's, Hart-street. 

Crosby Hall, Bishopsgate-street, 
built 1466-1472. 

Savoy Chapel. 

The Crypt at Gerard's Hall. 

St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell. 

Lambeth Palace — (Chapel and 
Hall.) 
Renaissance : 

Holland House, Kensington. 
"Works, by Inigo Joxes: 

Banqueting House, Whitehall. 

St. Paul's, Covent-garden. 

York "Water-gate. 

Shaftesbury House, Aldersgate- 
street. 

Lindsey House, Lincoln' s-Inn- 
fields (West side). 

Ashburnham House, off the 
Cloisters, Westminster. 

Lincoln's Inn Chapel. 

St. Catherine Cree — (part only). 

Piazza, Covent-garden. 
By Sir Christopher Wren : 

St. Paul's Cathedral. 

St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 

St. Mary-le-Bow, in Cheapsidc. 

St. Bride's, Fleet-street. 

St Magnus, London Bridge. 

St. James's, Piccadilly. 

SpireofSt.Dunstan's-in-thc-East. 

St. Mary Aldermary. 

St. Michael's, Cornhill. 

Towers of St.Vedast, St. Antholin, 
and St. Margaret Pattens. 
By G ibbs : 

St. Martin's-in-the-Fields. 

St. Mary-le-Strand. 
By N. IIawksmoor (a pupil of 
Wren's) : 

Bt Mary Woolnoth, near the 
Mansion House. 

Christ Church, Spitalfields 

St. George's, Bloomsbury. 

Limehouse Church. 
By Lord Burlington : 

Colonnade, at Burlington House. 

Duke of Devonshire's Villa at 
Chiswick. 
By Sir William Chambers : 

Somerset House. 



By Kent : 
Mr. C. Baring Wall's house, No. 
Berkeley-square. 
By Dance (Senior): 

The Mansion House. 
By Dance (Junior): 

Newgate. 
By Mylne : 

Blackfriars Bridge. 
By John Rennie (Father^ of 
Sir John Rennie and of 
George Rennie) : 
Waterloo Bridge. 
By Sir John Soane : 

Bank of England. 
By Nash : 
Regent-street. 

Buckingham Palace (cast front 
excepted, which is by Blore). 
By Decimob Burton : 
Athenaeum Club, Pall-mall. 
Colosseum, in the Regent's Park. 
Screen at Hyde-Park-corner. 
By Philip Hardwick (and 
Son) : 
Goldsmiths' Hall, behind the' 

General Post Office. 
Lincoln s Inn Hall. 
Eustou-square Railway Terminus 

By Sir Robert Smirke: 
British Museum. 
Post Office. 
By Charles Barry, R.A.: 
New Houses of Parliament. 
Reform Club, Pall-mall. 
Travellers' Club, Pall-mall. 
Treasury, Whitehall. 
Bridgewater House, in the Green 
Park. 
By Sydney Smirke, A.R.A. : 
Carlton Club-house, Pall-Mall 

(Granite column part). 
Conservative Club-house, St. 

James's-street. 
Interior of Pantheon, Oxford- 
street. 
By G.G. Scott: 

Camberwell New Church. 
By Benjamin Feruey : 
St. Stephen's Church, Rochester- 
row, Westminster. 

By Thomas Cundy: 
Holy Trinity Church, upper end 
of Westbourne Terrace, Pad- 
din gton. 



xlii § 29. OBJECTS OF [HTBRBBT TO AITTJQI stranger 



§ 29. Objects of Interest to the Antiquary. 

The British Museum. 

Tin: Tower. 

"Westminster Arbf.y. 

The Chapter House. Westminster. 

The Remains of London Wall, in St. Martin's-court, off Lud gate-hill. 

London Stone, inserted in the outer wall of the church of St. Swithin 
in Cannon-street, and the top is seen through an oval opening. 
Camden considers it to have tx en the central MiV'mrium, or mile- 
stone, similar to that in the Forum at Rome, from which the 
British high roads radiated, and from which the distances on them 
wei - e reckoned. 

The Collection at the City of London Library, at Guildhall. 

The Roman Bath under the Coal Exchange, at Billingsgate. 

The Museum or the Society of ANTIQUARIES, at Somerset House. 
Writs to J. Y. Akerman, Esq., 1 S.A., Secretary, for permission. 

g The Collections of George Gwilt, F.S.A.. Union-street Borough; 
and of Mi:.C. Roach Smith, F.S.A., 25. Liverpool-street, City. 

§ The Choice Collections of China, .Vc, belonging to Joseph 
Marryat, Esq., 6, Richmond-terrace, Whitehall, Author of " History 
of Pottery and Porcelain," and Ralph Bernal, Esq., M.P., 93, Eaton- 
square. 

The Gothic Churches named in p. xlii. 

St. John's Gate. 

Stained-glass Window, in St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

Monument of Camden, in Westminster Abbey. 

Monument of Stow, in St. Andrew's Undershaft, by the East India 
lie use, in Leadenhall-street. 

g The China (especially Faience of Henri II.) of Sir Anthony de 
Rothschild, Bart., 2, Grro$tBHOr-plaoe Houses, Hydc-Park-coraer. 

g The Spanish Hobebco and Majolica of 1!h BABO Ford, Esq. (123, 
Park-street), Author of " A Handbook for Spain." 

BWOBB and TnEQUOISH Ring of James IV. of Scotland, at Heralds' 
College. 

Daggers taken from Blood when he attempted to steal the Crown in the 
reign of Charles II., at .Literary Fund Rooms, Great Russell-street. 
comer of Bloomsbury-square. 

§ 30. Plaou and Sighti which a Stranger must see. 

I in: Tower, to be seen daily, Sundays excepted, charge 6rf. 

Westminster ABBEY, to be Been daily, Sundays excepted. 

Si r m i '- (aii;: DEAL, to be seen daily, Sundays excepted. 

British Mcsei m. free, open Mondays, Wednesdays, and Fridays. 

ll Gallery, Free, open Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and 
Tbui i 

Hoi -i- ,,; i' m:i i amin r. Ticket- are Issued from the Lorfl 

i Miheriaiu's office, Abingdon-street, for Wednesday sad Saturday, 
between the boors of n end i o'clock, for viewing (gratis] the 
Hi, H e of Lords on Wednesdays anil Saturdays, from n to 5 o'clock. 
Applicants are n ivifed to leave Unix uume aud address. 

\n i 3TNJN8TEB Hall. 

St. James's Park. 

St. James's Palace. 



in London.] § 30. PLACES AND SIGHTS TO BE SEEN. xliii 

BUCKINGHAM Palace, to be seen by order from tbe Lord Cbamberlain of 
ber Majesty's household, when Her Majesty is out of town. The 
office of the Lord Chamberlain (the Marquis of Breadalbane) is in 
St. James's Pal&ee, 

Lambeth Palace, to be seen by order from the Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. 

Ar?u-Y House, to be seen by order from the Duke of Wellington. 

Hvde Park, between £ past 5 and i past 6 p.m. in May and June. 

Kensington Gardens, between h past 5 and \ past 6 in May and June. 
The band plays Tuesdays and Fridays. 

Whitehai l Banoceting House. The spot where Charles I. was be- 
headed. 

Thames between Chelsea and Greenwich. 

Charing Cbosb and Charles I.'s Statue. 

Waterloo Bridge. 

Thames Tunnel, open daily, admission \d. 

London Docks. Get a tasting order for the wine-vaults. 

Smithfield; to see the market go, on a Monday early. 

Covent-garden Market ; go on a Saturda j morning early. 

London Stone. 

St. John's Gate. 

Temple Bar. 

The Monument, to commemorate the Fire of London in 1666, open 
daily, Sundays excepted, admission 3d. 

Old Priory Chubch of St. Bartholomew in Smithfield. 

Temple Church, during Sunday morning service. A Bencher's order, 
or personal introduction, will admit you to the best seats. From 
Monday to Friday inclusive, the church is to be seen without a 
bencher's order. 

Bow Church. 

St. Stephen's, Walbrook. 

Zoological Gardens, logout's Park. 

Surrey Zoological Gardens. 

Goldsmiths' Hall. 

Soane Museum, open on Thursdays and Fridays during the months of 
April, May, and June, and on Tuesdays from the 1st Tuesday in 
February to the last iu August. 

ItuYAL Exchange. 

Bank <>i England. 

The Mint. 

Christ's Hospital, the children supping in public every Sunday evening 
from Quinquagesima Sunday to Easter Sunday inclusive. 

liuBEUM of the Royal College of Surgeons. 

Ton:- Newspaper Office, Printing-house-square, Blackfriars, to be 
seen by order signed by the Editor. The office of this world-famous 
Paper is placed iu one of the most labyrinthine recesses to be seen in 
London. 

Barclay's Brewhouse, in Southwark, near London Bridge, is to be seen 
by order from the Messrs. Barclay. 

Clowes' s Printing Office, Stamford-street, Blackfriars, to be seen by 
order from Messrs. Clowes & Son. 

Lord's Cricket-Ground, near the Eyre Arms, St. John's Wood, when 
a match is being played. 

Museum of Practical Geology, in Piccadilly. 

United Service Museum, at Whitehall. 

East India House, Museum, Leadenhall-street, open every Friday 
afternoon. 

The Haymarket, between \ past 11 and 12 of an Opera and Haymarket 
Theatre night in the thickest of the London season, when the crush 



xliv PLACES NEAR LOHDOK TO BE .SEEN. [Tbt 

of carriages and cabs — the crowd of orderly and disorderly people — 
the brilliant appearance of the taverns and" sholl-tish shops form an 
extraordinary picture. 

London Bridge, about 12 in mid-day, or at i past 4 and 5, p.m. 

The Opening ok Parliament, generally in February, and its proroga- 
tion, generally In July. 

The Tiirf.i: Hoancrji/ruRlX Fetes atChiswick, in May, June, audJuly 
[see Calendar of Occurrences]. 

Tin: Fetes at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park [/tee 
Calendar of Occurrences]. 

Tin. Thames, by moonlight, from Westminster Bridge. 

Tin; Has li.i.r.MiNATioN down the "dip of Piccadilly," looking from 
Devonshire House. 

The Great Hall of the Nortb-Wettern Terminus, Euston-square. 

Tin: Post Office Arcade, St. Martins-le-Hrand, at G o'clock, Saturdays 
when the grand rush to post newspapers takes place. To see the 
sorting process immediately after, get an order from Colonel 
Maberly. 

TnE Innf.u Temple Gardens. 

Tin: Bank ok England Cellars, and Coining M.viiiim: for weighing 
coin and making bank-notes. 

The Coal Exchange, Lower Thames-street. 

The Long Boom in the Custom House. 

Break-neck Stairs off the Old Bailey, affording a capital notion 
of the strength of London when euwalled. 

§ 31. Remarkable Places near London which a Stranger 

should sec. 

Windsor Castle, by Great Western Railway from Paddington, or by 
South Western Railway from Waterloo Station. Ask lor return 
ticket, if returning the same day; or if from Saturday, you are 
privileged till Monday: always show your return ticket 
passing through the office. The state apartments in Windsor 
Castle are open gratuitously to the public on Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, by the Lord Chamberlains tickets, 
to be obtained in London (gratis) of Messrs. Paul and Dominic 
Colnaghi, Printsellcrs, No. 11, Pall-mall East; of .Mr. lioon, 
Printsi lbr, No. 20, Threadnecdlo-street ; of .Mr. Mitchell, Honk- 
seller, No. 33, Old Bond-Street; of Messrs. Aekerman and Co.. 
Printselbrs, NO. 96, Strand: and of Mr Wright, Bookseller, No. Co, 
Pall-iuall ; of whom also Guide-books may be obtained, for one penny 
each. The tiekets are available for one week from the day they arc 
issued. They are not transferable, and it is contrary to Her Mui'sty's 

command that payment for, or in reference to, them be made to any 

person whatever. The hours of admission to the state apartment! 
arc — from 1st April to Mist October, between 11 and I ; and from 
1st November to :il>t March, between 11 and 8. The Inns at 
Windsor are the Whit.' Hart and the Crown (neither very good). 

i . ro» Coi i. kgb. 

Hampton COUBT, by South Western Railway from Waterloo Station. 
The state apartments are open gratuitously U the public en 
dav of thfl week, 6X0001 Friday, w Inn they are cl O OO Q for the purpose 
Of being (leaned. The hours are from 10 o'clock in the morning 

until S o'clock In the evening, from the 1st of April to tbi 

October, and thfl n m. under oi the year from lo until I. The Vine, 
in the Private Harden, and the Maze, in the Wilderness, are open 
every day until sunset: fur these a :,mall fee is rc'iuired by the 



in London.] PLACES NEAH London to BE BEEN. xlv 

gardeners who show them. Inns — The King's Arms, the New Toy, 
and the Mitre. Mr. Grundy's Guide, sold in the rooms (price 3d.), 
contains a complete catalogue of the pictures. 
Greenwich Hospital, by Greenwich Railway from London Bridge 
Station, or it is accessible by steamboat from Hungerford Market 
Stairs, or London Bridge. (See Tainted Hall.) 
"Woolwich Arsenal, by North Kent Railway from London Bridge, 
or by Railway to Blackwall Pier, and thence by Steamer. Here are 
placed the stores belonging to the Government Board of Ordnance. 
Open every day. except Sundays. The Dock-yard, 10 till 4. 
Arsenal and Royal Military Repository, 9 till half-past 11 ; 1 till 
4. Admission. — To the Dock-yard, free. Arsenal and Royal Military 
Repository, by tickets given by the Master-General of the Ordnance, 
certain Officers of the Artillery, or the personal escort of any of 
the officers. Strangers are admitted to walk about the grounds of 
the Arsenal, but not to enter the buildings. Principal Objects. — 
In the Dock-yard: the Blacksmiths' Shop, various Docks, and 
all the activity of machinery incidental to ship-building. In the 
Arsenal : the Foundry for casting, boring cannon ; Laboratory, in 
which the several sorts of ammunition are prepared ; also models 
connected with the subject ; machinery of all kinds for preparing 
articles for the use of the Artillery service. In the Royal Military 
Repository: Modelsof Batteries, Artillery, Vessels, Barracks, various 
Forts, Towns. Rock of Gibraltar. The very best way of seeing 
Woolwich and its curiosities is to obtain the escort of an Artillery 
Officer. The Government Ordnance Stores in all parte of the world 
are valued at six millions, and of this sum, goods to the value of 
more than a million and a half are deposited at Woolwich. Foreigners 
wishing to see Woolwich or other Royal Dockyards and Arsenals 
must apply to the ambassador or minister from their country residing 
in England. 

DiLwirn Gallery, open every day of the week except Fridays and 
Sundays. Without a ticket no person can be admitted, and no 
tickets are given in Dulwich. Tickets are to be obtained gratis of 
Henry Graves and Co., 6, Pall-mall; Alderman Moon, Threadneedle- 
streot'; Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., Pali-mall East ; Mr. Lloyd, 23, 
Harley-street; II. Leggatt and Co., Comhill; and Mr. Markby, 
Croydon, Surrey. Schools, and children under the age of fourteen, 
are not admitted. Hours of admission, from April to November, 10 
to 5 ; from November to April, 11 to 3. 

2 Holland House, Kensington, can only be seen by order from Lord 
Holland. The exterior, however, will repay a visit, and may be 
seen from the Kensington-road. Take a Kensington omnibus from 
the Industrial Exhibition (distance one mile and a halfl, and ask to 
be set down at Holland House; walk up pathway to the house — a 
pleasant walk. 

Hampstead and Hic.iicate— pleasant places in themselves, and affording 
excellent views of London. 

The Royal Botanic Gardens of Kew are open gratuitously to the 
public every day (Sundays excepted) from 1 to 6 o'clock. The 
Bopal Pleasure* Grounds, (sometimes by strangers confounded with 
the Botanic Gardens.) constitute a separate though adjoining portion 
of ornamental ground, open gratuitously to the public from Mid- 
summer-day to Michaelmas, every Thursday and Sunday, by three 
gates : two in the road leading from Kew to Richmond, calied the 
Lion Gate and the Pagoda Gate, and one by the river side, nearly 
opposite Brentford Ferry, and called the Brentford Gate. 

Tiiii View from the Terrace and THE Park at Richmond. 

Th :: View FBOM GeeehwICH Observatory. 



xlvi AMBASSADORS AND CONSULS. [The Stranger 

The Vif.v.- i-kom Harrow Churchyard. 

St. Alban's Abbey, 31 mile* north of London (by the Great Northern 
Railway, 5 miles from the Hatfield Station , 

§ 32. Residences of Foreign Ambassadors and Consul*, 

WHERE PASSPORTS MAY BE OBTAINED. 

America (United States).— Ambassador's residence, 138, Piccadilly ; 

Consul's office, 1, Bishopsgate Churchyard. 
Austria. — Ambassador's residence, 7, Chandos-street, Cavendish-square. 
Baden. — Consul's office, 6, Great Winchester-street ; 1, Riches-court, 

Lime-street. 
Bavaria. — Ambassador's residence, 3, Hill-street, Berkeley-square; 

Consul's office, 11, Bury's-court, St. Mary-axe ; 884, Great St. Helen's. 
Belgium — Ambassador's residence, 50, Portland-place; Passport office, 

9a, Weymouth-stree't, Portland-place, 11 till 3. 
Brazil. — Ambassador's residence, 41, York-street, Portman-sq.; 62, 

Baker-street; Consul's office, 3, Ilowford-buildings, Fenchurch-st. 
Denmark. — Ambassador's residence, 2, Wilton-terrace; Consul's office, 

6, Warnford-court, Throgmorton-street. 
Frankfort.— Consul's office, 12, Broad-street-buildings. 
FRANCE. — Ambassador's residence, 10, Belgrave-square, Pimlico ; Pass- 
port-office, 47, King William-street (corner of Arthur-street, East . 

London Bridge, 1 till 3; Consul's office, 3, CopthaU-buildings, 

Copthall-court, 12 to 4. 
Hanover.— Ambassador's residence, 44, G rosvenor-place ; Consul's 

office, 6, Circus, Minories. 
Netherlands. — Office, 47, Bryanstone-sqnare ; Consul's office, 123, 

Fenchurch-street. 
Peru. — Ambassador's residence, 15, Portland-place, 11 till 3; Consul's 

office, 10, Old Jewry Chambers. 
Prussia. — Ambassador's residence, 9, Carlton-terrace; Consul's office, 

106, Fenchurch-street. 
Russia.— Ambassador's residence, 30, Dover-street, Piccadilly ; Consul's 

office, 2, Winchester-buildings, City. 
Sardinia. — C li a rge d' Affaires, 11, Grosvenor-street : 5, Berkeley-square. 
Portugal. — Ambassador's residence, 57, Upper Seymour-street ; Consul's 

office, 15, St. Mary Axe ; 5, Jeffrey's-square, St. Mary Axe. 
Saxony. — Ambassador's residence, 2, Wilton-street; Consul. 12, St. 

James's-place; office, 76, Cornhill. 
Sicily. — Ambassador's residence, 15, Princes-street, Cavendish-square : 

Consul's office, 15, Cambridge-street, Hyde Park-square. 
Spain. — Ambassador's residence, 38, Harley-street; Consul's office, 37, 

Broad-street-chambers, Old Broad-street. 
Swehkx and Norway. — Ambassador's, residence, 66, Mount-street, 

Berkeley-square; 14, llnlkin-street-West ; Consul's office, '-'7. Great 

St. Helen's, Bishopsgato-stroet ; 2, Crosby-square, Bishopsgate-flt. 
Turkey. — Ambassador's residence, I. Bryanstone-square. 
Tuscany. — Consul's office, i">. Angel-court, Throgmorton-street, 
Wurtemburo. — Office, 40, Portman-square; lOGj Fenchurch-street, 



in London.] xlvii 



THE CRYSTAL PALACE, OR GREAT EXHIBITION. 

We owe to France the idea of a national exhibition of Art- 
manufactures. In the year 1798, the first Industrial Congress 
of this nature was held in Paris, and repeated from time to 
time ; the Exhibition, however, of the year 1 844, from its 
eminent success, and from its occurring at a time when the 
industrial tendency of nations was becoming a noticeable fact, 
may safely be considered as the chief stimulus to the Council 
of the Society of Arts in determining to try the effect of 
a similar exhibition upon our own manufactures. The 
Society of Arts, in the year 1846, consisted of a small body of 
scientific gentlemen and noblemen, whose rooms in the 
Adelphi were filled with a collection of very old and very 
dusty models, certainly not calculated to inspire the visitor 
with any great idea of vigour and vitality. Impelled, 
however, by continental example, the Council, in the year 
1847, determined upon establishing a limited exhibition in 
their own rooms, — the old models vanished, fresh samples of 
manufactures were introduced, and the novel experiment 
was at once successful. An increasing success attended the 
exhibitions of the two succeeding years, and under the 
guidance and presidency of Prince Albert it was determined 
to hold an Exhibition of all Nations in the year 1851. The 
Royal Commission, which was now formed to carry out the 
proposed object, determined that the scheme should be 
perfectly independent of all government support ; subscrip- 
tions were opened accordingly throughout the country, 
the design for the great building thrown open to the com- 
petition of all nations, and by the summer of 1850 no less 
than 245 plans were sent in. Of these, however, only 3 native 
and 15 foreign were thought worthy of consideration, aud 
even these the Commissioners set aside for a plan of their 
own, which was to have been built of brick, and to have 
comprehended a gigantic dome. Such an eruption of bricks 
and mortar in Hyde Park, and for a temporary purpose, was 
not at all popular, however; and at this critical juncture 
Mr. Paxton came forward with his happy idea of a House of 
Glass. A building so eminently simple in outline, and s<> 



xlviii tiii: CRYSTAL PALACB. [TW»! 

novel in construct Urn, was immediately received with accla- 
mation by the public, and the committee, with very good 
taste, adopted it in place of their own design. A space of 
ground was fixed upon between the Kensington road and 
llotten-row, in Hyde Park, as the site of the future building 
and its erection was contracted for by Messrs. Fox and Hen- 
derson, the eminent iron-founders and engineers of Birming- 
ham, for a sum of 79,000/. if the materials were returned, or 
of 150,000/. if the building were retained. Just at tin- 
juncture a double instance occurred of the reliance of those 
principally interested in the scheme, in its ultimate success. 
The liabilities already incurred by the Royal Commissioners 
were upwards of a hundred thousand pounds more than 
had been subscribed ; to ensure the payment of this 
sum, Prince Albert, and a few noblemen and capitalists, 
without any hesitation supplied their guarantee, trusting 
implicitly in the public approval of the scheme. In 
the same noble spirit of reliance was the conduct of the 
contractors, Messrs. Fox and Henderson. At the time their 
estimate was approved of by the Royal Commissioners, 
that body, according to the opinion of the Solicitor to the 
Treasury, had no power to enter into any contract ; never- 
theless, the firm put the necessary works in hand, and 
incurred an expense of no less a sum than 50,0002. before 
the Commissioners, on the acquisition of a Royal Charter, 
were empowered to give their order. A work begun with so 
much mutual trust on the part of its projectors and con- 
tractors could not fail of being carried to a happy oonclusion. 
The ground for the New Palace was broken on the 80th of 
July, 1850, and from that time to the opening on the 1st of 
May, 1851, the works were carried on with incredible 
rapidity. The rough sketch of the Palace upon a ah< 
blotting-paper (now in the Fine Arts Callery of the 
Exhibition), exhibit! Mr. Paxton'a Brat conception of the 
future building, and Mr. Fox himself baa grren ■ vivid 

description of his walking at night down Portland place and 
padng off the length of the intended palace along the pave- 
ment, covering in his mind's eye the whole length of that 
splendid etreet, and i apace thrioa its width, with ■ roofc 

and feeling amid the crowd that paiMOCl him nnheedinu'ly. t hat 



hi LoaJci .. THE CRYSTAL PALACE. xlix 

this was no common undertaking, but one, however, tlr.it 
must and should he done. 

The first column was raised on the 26th of September, 
The castings were made at the Smethwick Iron-works, 
near Birmingham, and were often on the ground and 
in progress of being placed, in eighteen hours after they 
were out of the hands of the foundrymen, and as much 
framing as would have made a shed the length of the 
Birmingham railway station was on many occasions fixed 
in a single day. A simple pair of shears and the Derick 
crane was all the machinery used in hoisting the materials, 
and the building arose from story to story without a single 
scaffold pole. The principle which obtained throughout 
the structure, of making every measurement a multiple 
of 8, greatly facilitated the progress. Thus the columns are 
all 24 feet high, and 24 feet apart, and the centre aisle is 72 
feet, or 9 times 8. The infinite repetition of a simple form 
is also a peculiar feature in the palace ; one single area bounded 
by four columns, and their crowning girders might be taken 
as the type of the whole building ; thus the busy hive of 
men, like so many bees adding hexagon after hexagon, 
constructed the building by the simple aggregation of so 
many cubes ; the courts and passages being obtained by the 
omission where required, of the cell walls. The building, 
it should be added, consists of a framework of wrought and 
cast iron, firmly braced together, and based upon a foundation 
of concrete. 

The exact length of the building seems to have been de- 
termined by the date of the year in which it was completed, 
as it is 1851 feet in length, having a width of 408 feet. 

The semi-circular roof of the transept is the design of Mr. 
0. Barry. In Mr. Paxton's plan the roof was flat. The change 
was occasioned by the preservation of the fine old elms so 
strongly called for by the public, and in themselves most 
graceful additions to the building ; so beautiful indeed is this 
crystal vaulting, that we only regret the nave has not a 
similar translucent arch. The lifting of the semicircular ribs 
of the ti-ansept was the most hazardous portion of the whole 
building ; measuring 70 feet in span, and having to be lifted 
|q u height of 108 feet. Some dire mishapa were on all 



1 THE CRYSTAL PALACK. [The Stranger 

hands prognosticated; nevertheless, the whole 16 ribs were 
hoisted without accident of any kind, and in 8 working days. 

While the skeleton of the building was yet in progr 
framing and glazing were commenced and carried forward. 
To make the wooden sash-bars and gutters, of which 
there are no less than 200 miles length, and to cover 
18 acres of ground with a film of glass extending to nearly 
a million superficial feet, was a task so gigantic as to 
demand the aid of machinery to multiply the productive 
power of even the industrial army employed. Accordingly, 
the visitors who watched the progress of the building were 
astonished to see machinery take the place of the carpenter, 
to see the planing, grooving, drilling, sawing, and cutting 
into length of the woodwork performed by machines impro- 
vised for this special occasion. The glazing, in like manner, was 
conducted on an entirely original plan. Platforms of 8 feet 
square, (each capable of containing two men, with a canvas 
tilt over head to keep them dry,) were mounted on wheels 
which travelled in the Paxton gutters of the roof. A square 
hole was left in the centre of each, through which the glass 
was hoisted from below. The materials thus received were 
spun out from behind, and as the cloud of machines 
advanced slowly along the roof, their trail was marked by 
films of gleaming glass. Eighty men in one week glazed 
62,600 superficial feet, and one man in one day put in no 
less than 108 panes, measuring 367 feet 6 inches in length. 
The glass is sheet glass, and the size of each pane is 4 feet 
1 inch by 10 inches, the largest, we believe, ever blown. 

The glazing completed, the work of internal decoration 
commenced under the superintendence of Mr. Owen Jones, 
by applying the primitive colours, red, blue, and yellow, upon 
narrow surfaces. The eminently artistic method adopted by 
Mr. Jones met with much opposition. Hia triumph, however, 
was, in the end, complete, and nothing in the whole building 
charms more than the converging opal of the interminable 
nave. The process of ornamental painting was oanied an 
with perhaps a greater speed than any other portion ef ihe 
building. An army of 500 painters, suspended In the air 
from the iron tan imultaneoualy from end to 

end with incredible swiftness. 



n London.] THE CRYSTAL PALACE. li 

The rain-fall on the roof is conducted into sewers 
through the cast-iron columns, which are hollow ; thus, in 
raiuy weather, an enormous body of water falls harmlessly 
from roof to floor, through every portion of a building stored 
with the most costly pro ducts of the earth. 

To prevent the glare of light from becoming oppressive, 
and to cool the atmosphere at the same time, the whole roof 
is covei'ed with calico. The ventilation is provided for by 
means of Louvre boards running round the whole base of the 
ground-floor and galleries and repeated under each ceiling. 
The simple form of the palace, consisting of three 
stories, imposed one upon the other, and narrowing from 
the base so as to form steps, is familiar to every one. 
The treble range formed by the nave and side-aisles is 
crossed in the centre by the transept, which, gleaming 
in the sun, forms through the surrounding trees the 
most prominent object from distant points of view. 

To complete this extraordinary building by the day ap- 
pointed for its opening, the most gigantic efforts were made, 
and during the months of December and January upwards of 
2000 workmen were daily employed. By this press of labour 
the national faith was kept, and on the 1st of May, 1851, 
Her Majesty, accompanied by Prince Albert and two of her 
children, ascended the platform erected in the middle of the 
transept, and proclaimed the opening of the Great Exhibi- 
tion. The scene — and it was a striking one — will be long 
remembered. 

Contents of the Crystal Palace. 

In proceeding with our visitor through the courts and 
avenues of the Crystal Palace, it is not our intention to 
weary him with minute descriptions, or to supply the place 
of the Exhibition Catalogue. It is our wish to point out 
articles which, for their rareness, beauty, or originality, 
he must not overlook, and to indicate, as far as possible, the 
most systematic way of seeing most with the least expenditure 
of time. 

For this purpose it is best to enter by the Eastern 
Entrance, and to proceed along the nave westward the 

d 2 



Hi THE CRYSTAL PALACE. IThe Stranger 

whole length of the building. By this means a general idea 
of its immense extent will be obtained ; and the most 
valuable works of art arranged in a line along the centre of 
the promenade, and the richest manufactures, placed at the 
entrances to the side-courts devoted to the different nations, 
will be seen at one view. 

The whole of the ground floor and the major portion of 
the galleries from the east end of the building to the transepts 
are devoted, it should be borne in mind, to foreign works 
of art and manufactures ; whilst from the transepts west- 
ward, Britain and her Colonies occupy the entire space. 
Entering, then, at the Eastern end of the building, we find 
ourselves in the American portion of the nave, the only 
objects worthy of notice in which are the statues of the 
Dying Indian Warrior, the Greek Slave, and the Boy with a 
Shell, the last two by Hiram Powers. An enormous block of 
zinc opposite the Russian department next attracts notice, the 
weight of which is 10,400 lbs. In the Zollverein portion 
the gigantic Bavarian Lion, one of four to be placed on the 
top of an arch leading into Munich, is interesting both from 
the nobleness of its model and the clearness and beauty of its 
casting, no file or tool having touched it since it came from 
the mould. The Amazon and Tiger, by Kiss, of Berlin, the 
finest modern group of statuary which Europe lias produced, 
should be examined thoroughly. Not far from this is a 
very characteristic statue of Marshal Radetsky. The beau- 
tiful stained glass Dante window, executed at Milan, must 
not be forgotten ; nor the noble, though somewhat heavy, 
heroic equestrian statue of Godfrey of Bouillon, by Simonis, 
a Belgian artist. Two little statues, the Happy and Unhappy 
Child, close at hand, also attract much attention. Opposite 
the Roman department are two very elegant statues by the 
late Richard Wyatt, of Rome. A long howitzer and a 
gigantic earthen wine-jar mark Spain's contributions to the 
nave. The next article of striking interest is the exquisitely 
wrought shield presented to the Prince of Wales by the 
King of Prussia. The great Koh-i-Noor, or "Mountain 
of Light" diamond, captured at Lahore, and valued at 
2,000.000?., is conspicuous in its gi hied cage. Several attempts 
r brilliancy to the jewel have been made, by 



in London.] THE CRYSTAL PALACE. liii 

lighting it with gas, but they have all failed. The manner 
in which it is cut, is said to be the cause of its dulness — a 
defect which Runjeet Singh made the lapidary pay for with 
his head. On a spring being touched, the platform on which 
it is mounted sinks down into an iron safe imbedded in 
masonry. The key of this safe is every night given into the 
custody of a Crown officer. 

The double Transept, with its arched roof, 108 feet high, 
here cuts the nave. The Crystal Fountain, by Osier, of 
Birmingham, 28 feet in height, and composed of the finest 
cut flint-glass, stands in the centre, and divides it into two 
equal parts. The vast Elm trees, tropical plants, and bloom- 
ing flowers, arranged at the north and south ends of the 
transept, and interspersed Avith various statues in plaster 
and marble, give this portion of the biiikling an aspect of 
enchanting beauty. 

The British portion of the nave is not nearly so varied 
in its contents as the Foreign portion, art giving place to 
manufactures, and works of a scientific nature. The Trophy 
of Spitalfields Silks rears its mass of somewhat gaudy 
colours at the entrance. A huge pile of Canadian and 
Van Diemen's Land timber succeeds : and then " the largest 
Looking-Glass in the World," cannot fail to strike the eye. 
Then follow church ornaments, and a very beautiful 
design for Hereford Cathedral. Models of all kinds are 
very rife at this point, and, towering over everything else, are 
the gigantic, seated, portrait statues of the Lords Eldon and 
Stowell, executed by the late M. L. Watson, at a cost of 
10,000£. The ornamental Rustic Dome is a fine specimen of 
casting, exhibited by the Colebrook-Dale Company. Here an 
improved Light-bouse; Ross's gigantic Telescope ; and a model 
of the Britannia Tubular Bridge, showing the method of raising 
the tubes, are conspicuoxis objects. The most beautiful 
models, however, are those of the Docks and Town of 
Liverpool, and of the Suspension-Bridge, erected by the 
English engineer, Vignoles, at Kieff, in Russia; the former is 
really a gigantic work. Close at hand is a beautiful Jewel 
Case, designed by Griiner, manufactured by Elkington, of 
Birmingham, and exhibited by Her Majesty. Portraits of the 
Queen, Prince Albert, and the Royal Children, executed 



liv THE CRYSTAL PAIiA.CS. [The Stranger 

in enamel, are placed around it. At the extreme western end 
of the nave is a specimen of Plate Glass, the largest ever 
manufactured. Fountains in the nave and transept are 
constantly playing and cooling the atmosphere. 

Having viewed the nave throughout, it has been found 
best, to visit the various foreign courts and galleries, 
going along the north side from east to west as far as 
the transept, and returning by the south side of the 
building from west to east. The American department, 
with the exception of a singular reaping machine, shows 
nothing of particular interest on this side of the building. 
The Russian court, which succeeds it, contains some rare 
works in Malachite, especially two folding-doors composed of 
many thousand pieces, and valued at 9000/. The ebony casket, 
with groups of fruit composed of precious stones is well 
worthy of attention. The diamonds and other jewels under 
a glass case are the finest specimens of jeweller's work in 
the Exhibition. In the court of North Germany notice 
the porcelain manufactures from the Royal manufactory 
of Berlin, and the curious assortment of articles manufactured 
in buckhorn. The room filled up by the Zollverein is 
full of works of art of the highest character, especially 
those from Munich, in which artistic design is pre-eminent ; 
the chess-board and men are exquisite. The collection of 
stuffed animals, illustrative of the story uf Reynard the 
Fox, &c, &c, are exceedingly clever and humorous. Notice 
the model of the castle in which Prince Albert was 
born ; it is on this side of the Austrian department. The 
four rooms fitted up with carved furniture from Vienna, 
arc great centres of attraction. The carved bookcase and 
bedstead arc presents to her Majesty. Holland has two 
fine glass candelabra and a japanned screen ; and Mr. A. J. B. 
Hope exhibits his valuable collection of jewels at the entrance 
of this court. Belgium shows some machinery and CSJpetl ; 
also a finely executed field-piece, mounted. There are a few 
machines in the French department on this side well 
worthy of notice, among others, a shirt-making machine, and 
an engine called a "turbine/ 1 employed t«> drive QOtton-epuv 
ning machinery. Tho great attractions, however, are the 
specimens of Sevres china, ami Gtobelias tapestry, grouped in 



in London.] THE CRYSTAL PALACE. lv 

a court by themselves. Some of these pieces of tapestry 
are valued at thousands of pounds of English money. 
Observe. — The admirable carved sideboard (with dead game) 
and the Bronze Gate of the Baptistery at Florence, near 
the entrance to the Gobelins court. The Italian court, 
which succeeds, contains some carved furniture of the most 
exquisite description — the most beautiful, by far, in the 
Exhibition. The silks and velvets of Genoa are also well 
worthy of attention. Mark the cameos, mosaics, portraits, 
and landscapes, and inlaid marble tables also — these are 
principally from Rome. Spain has a most extraordinary 
table, composed of 3,000,000 pieces of inlaid wood. The 
pattern and colour of this exquisite piece of cabinet-work 
arc most beautiful. The model of the bull-fight is worth 
looking at. Notice also the Toledo swords, so finely tem- 
pered that they sheathe into cases twisted in circles like 
French horns. The Damascened blades are also very fine. 
A slab from the Alhambra is shown here. Portugal, on this 
side, exhibits some fine ivory carving. The collections from 
Turkey and Greece complete the foreign courts on the N. side; 
they are rich in embroideries and inlaid vestments. 

Crossing the nave, cut just hei'e by the transept, we come 
into the Celestial Land. The Chinese court is the first on 
the southern side, moving from "W. to E. Here are to be 
seen the various materials used in the Imperial Porcelain 
works ; edible birds' nests ; every description of tea in its 
unadulterated state, and a fine collection of silks and satins, 
both plain and embroidered. Some racing-cups made at 
Hong Kong by native silversmiths are also curious. The 
carved ivory tree, with ball containing 24 others within it, 
all cut from one piece is a great curiosity. The Tunis 
court, close at hand, affords a striking assortment of Arab, 
manufactures. The rude tin wares, and the collection of 
morocco slippers are worthy of attention. Notice also the 
exquisite embroidered fabrics, the rich and tasteful combina- 
tions of colour in the stuffs, the carpets, and the gorgeous 
saddles and saddle-cloths. The stirrups used by the Bedouin 
Arabs, from their curious size and form, are real curiosities. 
Switzerland, which has a large space devoted to it on the 
S. side, has some elaborate pieces of embroidery, and here 



lvi THE CRYSTAL PALAOB. TheStnasa 

will be found some of its characteristic carving. The cscrutoir, 
in while wood, standing beside the imvc, ii an exquisite 
piece of furniture. France, the richest foreign contributor 
to the Exhibition — has her grand show on this the S. Bide of 
the nave. Her court devoted to gold and silversmiths' work is 
one of the great attractions of the Exhibition. The toilet table 
presented by the Legitimists to the Duchess of Parma must 
not be overlooked, nor the chalice made for the Pope, 
which Cellini could scarcely have surpassed. The specimens 
of oxidised silver work show the refined taste of Fiance ; 
bracelets, sword-handles, &c., of the most exquisite design 
crowd the centre tables. Notice a tazza of oxidised silver, 
the support formed by grass stalks surrounded by birds and 
small insects ; also a salver with fine reliefs. Among the 
silver work is an imitation of a napkin, so like figured 
damask that you can scarce believe it is not one. The 
Mechanical Humming Birds that move and Bing are -real 
curiosities. The Queen of Spain's jewels, in a glass case abut- 
ting upon the nave, must be seen; and the stall of artificial 
gems is worth studying. The case of artificial flowers, made 
of cambric, cannot fail to arrest your attention as you pass 
from the nave into the French court. Belgium comes next, 
with some beautiful carpets from the Royal factory. Exquisite 
embroidered work is hereto be found, as well as specimens of 
metal work. Observe examples of recently invented guns, 
discharged by a needle pushing a hole in the cartridge. The 
Austrian court on this side is principally devoted to raw 
materials, toys, &c., but the statuary room, exhibiting works 
in marble, by Viennese and Milan artists, must be visited. 
Monti's Eve is a fine work of Art, and his two veiled si 
in which the features seem visible through the marble, 
attract groat notice. Do not pass by the fine though pain- 
ful recumbent statue of [shmae] in the Wilderness. The 
remaining courts of Germany, Denmark, Sweden, and Etuaaiaj 
are principally devoted to raw materials, the products of those 
countries. The United States, which forms the last foreign 
ground-floor department we have to traverse, contains some 

ingenious < 'hairs, which adapt themaelvi \ to any position of the 
body. The phi itographic portrait -. for which America is justly 

celebrated, are also worthy of notice. Among these will be 



inLon.lm THE CRYSTAL PALACE. lvii 

found likenesses of most of the leading men of the United 
States. A piano, which also plays a violin, is a very singular 
contrivance in this department. Among the articles of food 
is to he found some "Meat Biscuits;" and the inventor of 
a patent safe offers two hundred pounds to the person who 
can pick the lock, which is pronounced to he a very ingenious 
one. The enormous length of Ivory Veneer is very remarkable. 
We have now to traverse the galleries, the space of which 
is, for the most part, apportioned to the different countries 
immediately below. Beginning as we did before from the 
E. and working westward, we first enter the United States 
portion, which is, however, nearly unfurnished. A window, 
composed of slabs of coloured soap, is curious. Over the 
Eussian department, will be found, a case of most valuable 
furs containing, among other articles, a fur cloak 
belonging to the Emperor, valued at SQOOl. sterling. 
Notice here the silk shawl, worked on both sides, valued at 
two thousand guineas ; and the white Cashmere Goat's 
"Wool Scarfs. An exquisitely carved side-board, of Saxon 
manufacture, should be noticed, also, a grotesque chandeliei', 
representing an orchestra, led by Jullien ; and a curious 
machine to enable the Blind to write. The perfection to 
which Austria has attained in the manufacture of all classes 
of wind instruments is shown in this gallery. A case con- 
taining the wax effigies of cardinals and bishops in full 
canonicals attracts much attention, especially as one of them 
is supposed, by the masses, to represent Cardinal Wiseman. 
The ladies linger much about the Belgian portion of the 
gallery, as here, inclosed in glass cases, will be found the 
most exquisite specimens of Brussels' lace. The thread of 
which these pieces of work are composed is so fine, that, 
it cannot be untied, it is said, in any current of air, as its 
continuity would be destroyed. The chief attraction is a 
lace dress, said to be of immense value. The exquisite 
silver filagree work from Genoa succeeds ; here, also, in 
glass cases, will be found the velvets of this ancient city. 
The dies of the gold ornaments worn by the peasant women 
of Piedmont are very curious. A splendid polished steel 
bedstead, ornamented with ormolu, is the most notable 
feature at the W. end of this gallery ; the more so, as it was 



lviii TI1K CRYSTAL PALAl I. The Stronger 

manufactured at Madrid. The windows which form the 
walls of the N. gallery are filled with specimens of stained 
glass, both British and foreign. 

If we cross over to the south gallery, Switzerland, among 
various specimens of its great staple manufacture, shows a 
Watch, the size of a groat, and a Pistol so small that a 
microscope is required to show its delicate workmanship. 
The ladies will be deligbted with the specimens of flowers, 
and ornaments of all kinds, manufactured from wheat straw. 
Among the watches here exhibited, one goes a twelvemonth 
without being wound up. There are some chronometers not 
more than an inch in diameter. Fine textile fabrics of France 
are to be found in the immediate vicinity, especially example! 
of flowers wrought in cambric and needlework, as ornaments 
for dresses, surpassing in beauty of design and execution 
anything of the kind in the exhibition. The printed cottons 
and muslins at this point show how much our neighbours 
surpass us in variety of design and brilliancy of colour. 
The finest shawls are exhibited here. In glass cases ranged 
along the innermost, or most central of the galleries, i 
be found the beautiful silks and satins of Lyons, in the 
arrangement of which (and indeed of every thing which is 
French), infinite taste is displayed. Austrian textile fabrics fol- 
low. Towards the east end of the gallery, the French surgical 
instrument-makers exhibit some extraordinary specimens of 
their craft. The east end of the gallery is but ill furnished, 
but the artist will see hei'e specimens of the great work on 
painting, which the French government has been conducting 
for the last quarter of a century, and which is nol 
completed. 

Before we pass to the British portion of the Exhibition, 
a stroll through the transept, which forms a beautiful 
promenade 408 feet in Length, will afford infinite pleasure to 
the visitors. On the one hand glitter the rich products of China, 
i lid Tunis ; on the other, the still more gor- 

geous colours and embroideries of our own [ndian ■ 
Thus, on either ride, Ik- the richness and profusion of the 
east, and the tropica] aspect of the scene is further an) 
by the glitt. untain, which stands out against 

the rich verdure of the great palm trees, showering its di-ops 



in Loudon] THE CRYSTAL l'ALACK. lix 

and realising a picture in the Arabian Nights. In the 
south gallery of the transept, the gigantic Electric Clock, 
which points the time with a minute and hour hand in one 
line upon the semi-circular eave of the building, is notable. 
Below, as you enter the doors, the Ornamental Iron Gates, 
exhibited by Messrs. Cottam and Hallen, are placed. The 
plaster statues on either hand are from the ateliers of native 
artists, and add to the general beauty of the scene. At the 
northern side of the transept we find the Stuffed Birds, by 
Hancock of Newcastle, which illustrate the sport of Hawking, 
and are wonderfully faithful to nature ; Ornamental Cast- 
iron Gates, elaborately gilded, are exhibited by the Colebrook 
Dale Company. Here, also, is the first-class refreshment 
room, and the elegant apartment used by Her Majesty as a 
robing-room at the Exhibition on the 1st of May. 

The first court on the north side going west, of the British 
and Colonial department of the Exhibition, is devoted to the 
various articles gathered from the territories of the East 
India Company. The most striking portion of the gorgeous 
show, is the tent fitted up in the eastern style, with carpets 
and shawls of the most superb character, and rare articles 
of Indian furniture, &c. Three crowns, belonging to tri- 
butary princes, occupy a cushion in this regal apai'tment. 
Two entire courts entered from the transept are surrounded 
by shawls of most costly and rare fabrics, many of them of 
gold and silver tissues. In the large court are richly wrought 
bedsteads, thrones of state, palanquins, and chairs, used by the 
native princes. Some Burmese Carved Work-boxes are also 
exhibited, of astounding elaborateness, and inlaid ivory- work, 
models of natives at their different occupations, carved 
chess-men, and carpets of beautiful fabric and colour. Near 
the main avenue, is a gilded cage, filled with gold and 
silver work, also with jewels of great value. The collection 
of Pirate Craft sailing out from one corner, gives us a lively 
idea of the marauding tendency of the natives of Borneo 
and the Malayan Archipelago. Malta succeeds to the East 
Indies, and shows some fine silver filagree work, some inlaid 
tables, and specimens of the well-known stone-carving from 
Valetta, Passing over the courts devoted to Ceylon, Jersey, and 
Guernsey, we come to the Fine Arts court. The Royal Cradle. 



lx IIIK CRYSTAL PALACB. [TkeBli— fff 

carved, by Rogers, in Turkey box-wood, is remarkable. 
Notice the very beautiful Mexican Figures, modelled in wax. 
The Kenihvorth Buffet, made of an old oak, formerly growing 
near Kenihvorth Castle, and carved with scenes, illustra- 
tive of Elizabeth's celebrated visit — must not be over- 
looked — neither must the very beautiful carvings in wood, 
by YVallis of Louth. Sanitarians should see the model 
rooms for the working-classes, built with hollow bricks and 
other articles, exhibited by the Society for the Improve- 
ment of Dwellings of the Working Classes ; the Model 
Cottages, oxitside the Exhibition, erected by Prince Albert* 
which is open to the public, should be seen afterwards. There 
are some classical figures, carved in ivory, well worthy of 
attention, in this room. The space allotted to Paper 
Manufactures exhibits two objects of great attraction. A 
specimen of paper, more than 2500 yards long made by the 
endless machine, and De la Rue's extraordinary Envelope Fold- 
ing Machine, which turns out, with the precision of the human 
hand, 2S00 envelopes an hour, gummed and folded. Another 
highly interesting object in this class is the case of the British 
and Foreign Bible Society, containing specimens of 165 
books, in different languages, from 170 versions of the Holy 
Scriptures. 

The coui-t devoted to "Machinery at Rest," ifl now entered. 
In this will be found the Great Hydraulic Press \ised for 
lifting the Tubes of the Britannia bridge; Nasmyth's great 
Steam Hammer : Armstrong's Hydraulic Crane: the Patent 
Derick Crane, and a number of Steam-Engines used in Marine 
Navigation; one, by Bolton and Watt, is of 700 horse 
power, intended to work a screw. The court containing 
"Machinery in Motion," is by far the largest in the 
Exhibition* and is, perhaps, the most interesting. All the 

machines and models in it arc set in motion by steam, con- 
ducted by clothed pipes undergr ou nd, from the boiler-house 
outside the build '■'•: the interesting mai nines to be 

seen at WOTS from 10 in the morning Until 6 in the after- 
noon, is a Jacquard Power Loom, employed in working 
: a Silk Loom and a machine for making 
card | for carding cotton arc also seen at work : and two eery 
curious models of machines, invented by Jonas Watt him- 



iu London.] THE CRYSTAL PALACE. lxi 

self, one of them a locomotive. The process of Flax- 
spiuniug and weaving is illustrated throughout by a number 
of machines which are patented ; a Rope-spinning Machine 
also attracts attention — here the largest kind of cable 
is twisted from the flax in a space a few feet square, 
thus obviating the necessity of long rope-walks. The Silk 
Machinery from Derby, the Lace Machines from Notting- 
ham, and a Bobbin Net Machine, should be studied. 
Applegath's four-feeding Vertical Printing Machine, such as 
is used for printing the " Times," is here seen at work. 
The Centrifugal Pump, discharging from the height of 
twenty feet twenty tons of water per minute with all the 
force and noise of a cataract, attracts much attention. The 
Patent Sugar Refining Machine, exhibited by the Messrs. 
Finzel, of Bristol, is also curious; by this machine the 
crystals are separated from the molasses instantaneously. 
Close to the Machinery court, is the department devoted 
to Cotton Spinning, in which the whole process is gone 
through by a series of most complicated machines. The 
Locomotive department runs parallel to these rooms, and 
is occupied by several new kinds of Railway Carriages, 
and by monster Engines, including one built by the Great 
Western Railway Company — The Lord of the Isles — the 
largest ever constructed. The Carnage department, close 
at hand, is full of choice specimens of coach-building, 
including a new Omnibus, and a Brougham on two wheels, 
with the driver sitting overhead ; some large wheels made 
by machinery, &c. Having now exhausted the courts lead- 
ing off from those in direct apposition to the nave, we 
shall return to those containing manufactured articles. 
These are devoted to Furniture, Hair, Furs, and Leather. 
At the entrance to the former, is a very beautiful Cabinet, 
by a Taunton manufacturer. The articles in the latter are 
all of the first class, but not very novel. In the leather 
department, notice a Glass Case containing Shoes from the 
Saxon to the present time. The extreme western end 
of the north side, is devoted to specimens of Calico 
printing. 

Crossing over to the south-side of the nave, aud working 
our way eastward towards the transept, the Exhibitions of 



brii THE CRYSTAL PALACE. The Stranger 

Cotton, Woollen and Linen Fabrics, succeed one another. 
Among these articles will be found Cloths printed with diffe- 
rent patterns on each side, and Table Cloths on linen of 
beautiful ornamental designs. Notice the Chess Board, 
carved out of innumerable layers of cotton, ami the seamless 
garment. The method of Weaving Irish Poplins is shown 
by a loom at work. The Art of Calico Printing is also 
illustrated here. The Furniture court affords some fine 
Carving and some exquisite Mirrors of town manufacture. 
In the Hardware court notice particularly the Grates 
from Sheffield, which are very beautiful, and the first 
fruits of the Government Schools of Design. The Mediaeval 
court, which follows, is devoted to Church Ornaments ; this 
court was arranged by Mr. Pugin, and should be studied as 
it contains some beautiful revivals of ancient forms ; an 
Altar Tomb, in white marble, is exquisitely carved. The 
English Statuary court is close at hand, in which some of 
the most beautiful works of art are to be found ; notice 
Greek Hunter and Dog, by Gibson ; the Startled Nymph, by 
Behnes ; a Bather, by Lawlor ; Nymph Surprised, by Bell ; 
the exquisite Portrait Statue of Flaxman, by Watson | the 
Head of Christ ; the two beautiful heads of L'Allegro and 
II Penseroso; and the Art-Union statues in tho centre. 
The courts devoted to the British Colonies follow. These 
principally exhibit raw materials. From Bermuda we have 
flowers made of small shells and fruits modelled in wax. 
The Canada court illustrates the healthy progress of our 
X. American colonies. Here notice the splendid Sleighs, 
the powerful Fire Engine, and the Canoe which carried 
a large party some hundreds of miles down a Canadian 
river. Products from India take up the spare next to 
the transept, which concludes our journey on the ground- 
floor. A golden (age, similar t<> the one OH the opposite 
side contains some magnitieent Jewels, including "the Sea 
of Light" diamond, and an emerald of immense value; 
some Costly Robes in gl;. ust also be noticed; 

and the collection of Indian Arms is well worthy of 
attention; Oanopiej of embroidered silk for occasions of 
state, and elephant trappings give a thoroughly oriental cha- 
racter to the department. The space devoi- dtural 



■ a Lon.lon.; IBB CRYSTAL I'.vi.ack. lxiii 

Implements, runs along the back of the courts devoted to 
the Colonies, and. English Textile Fabrics;— notice here the 
several Steam Ploughs. 

The galleries of the British portion of the building, will 
conclude the walk through the Exhibition. Upstairs will 
be found articles remarkable for the excellence of their 
manufacture, rather than for novelty of idea or design, we 
shall not, consequently, have much to say respecting them. 
Beginning from the north transept and going west, the 
visitor must notice the Carpet, executed by one hundred 
and fifty ladies of Great Britain, and presented to Her 
Majesty, by whom it is exhibited ; and another Carpet 
also designed for the Queen by Mr. Griiner. Among the 
pottery notice the exquisite painted China and Porcelain, 
manufactured by Minton, which will bear a favourable com- 
parison with that of the Royal Berlin Porcelain Wox-ks, or of 
the more celebrated Sevres. The glass which follows shows 
the immense progress made within the last few years by the 
British manufacturer ; observe the Glass Candelabra and the 
beautiful Iced glass, the manufacture of Messrs. Apsley 
Pellat, and a neighbouring stall devoted to pure white 
crystal glass in excellent taste. Philosophical, Surgical, 
and Musical Instruments cover both the central and north 
gallery. At the more western end, Engineering Models 
are to be found ; notice here the beautiful Model of a pro- 
posed Gothic Bridge for Westminster; and the singular 
Model of a Man made of many thousand Steel Plates 
and Springs, so constructed as to enable the inventor to 
expand or curtail its proportions. Here also will be found 
several Flying Machines and Balloons with Machinery to work 
against the wind. At the west-end of the building a vast 
number of Models of Ships are congregated ; among these 
notice the curious collection of Life Boats, and the Model 
of the Battle of Trafalgar at the moment Nelson is breaking 
the enemy's line. The deadly Harpoon Gun will here be 
found. The great Organ with eighty stops stands at the 
extreme end of the building overlooking the nave, and com- 
manding a view of the centre of the building from end to 
end. Passing down the south galleries towards the east, 
wc come upon the various specimens of Arms, Watches, 



brfv TIIK CRYSTAL I'ALACE. [TLc Stranger. 

Clocks, and works in the Precious Metals ; among 
these notice the stands of Hunt and Roskell, and 
Morel's of New Burlington Street. In the former will be 
found the exquisite Bouquet of Moss Roses, formed by 
diamonds, belonging to the Duchess of Orleans, and specimens 
of the various precious Stones in the rough and wrought 
state ; in the latter the oriental Agate Cups, the collection of 
Rubies, and the beautiful designs in silversmiths' work. 
Messrs. Garrard exhibit some exquisite bracelets and neck- 
laces. Lace, Tapestry, and Silks follow, the richest and rarest 
designs of which, and the marvellous Paisley Shawls equal to 
any Eastern, productions, are to be found in this space along 
the south transept, where we conclude our tour of the build- 
ing. The space railed off outside at the western extremity 
of the building, is devoted to enormous masses of Coal, Stone, 
and the beautiful Marble, called Serpentine: and far out 
on the sod is the statue of Richard Cceur dc Lion, by Baron 
Marochetti. 

Unless government interferes, the Palace must bo taken 
down in November, and the ground restored to a grass-plot 
as it was before. Mr. Paxton suggests that it should be con- 
verted into a winter-garden ; and if the building mist 
remain it could not be turned to a better account. It should, 
however, at least be self-supporting. 



MODERN LONDON. 



PALACES OF THE SOVEREIGN. 

The Town Palaces are four in number, viz., Buckingham Palace, 
in which her Majesty resides ; St. James's Palace, in which she 
holds her Drawing-rooms; the beautiful fragment of the 
Palace of Whitehall, used as a Chapel Royal, but better 
known as Inigo Jones's Banqueting-house ; and the Palace at 
Kensington, in which her Majesty was born. 

1. BUCKINGHAM PALACE, in St. James's Park, was com- 
menced in the reign of George IV., on the site of Buckingham 
House, by John Nash, and completed in the reign of 
William IV., but never inhabited by that sovereign, who is 
said to have expressed his great dislike to the general appear- 
ance and discomfort of the whole structure. When the first 
grant to George IV. was given by Parliament it was intended 
only to repair and enlarge old Buckingham House ; and 
therefore, the old site, height, and dimensions were retained. 
This led to the erection of a clumsy building, and was a mere 
juggle on the part of the king and his architect — knowing as 
they did that Parliament would never have granted the funds 
for an entirely new Palace. On her Majesty's accession 
several alterations were effected by Mr. Blore — a dome in 
the centre, like a common slop-basin turned upside down, 
was removed, and new buildings added to the S. : her Majesty 
entering into her new Palace on the 13th of Juh T , 1S37. 
Other and more extensive alterations have since taken place 
by the removal of a Marble arch, and the erection, at a cost 
of 150,000L of an E. front, under the superintendence of 
Mr. Blore. The chapel on the S. side, originally a conser- 
vatory, was consecrated in 18i3. The Grand Staircase is of 
white marble, with decorations by L. Gruner. The Library 



•2 BUCKINGHAM PALAI 

is generally used Bf B Waiting-room for deputations, which, 
as soon as the Queen is re idy to receive them, pan act 
Sculpture-gallery into the Hall, and thence ascend by the 
Grand Staircase through in anteroom and the Green Draw- 
ing-room, to the Throne-room. The Green 1 1 raw in g- room 
opening upon the upper story of the portico of the old build- 
ing is 50 feet in length, and 32 in height. At state halls, to 
which the invitations generally exceed 2000, those haying the 
entree alight by the temporary garden entrance, and the 
general circle enter by the grand hall. All visitors, however, 
are conducted through the Green Drawing-room to the 
Picture Gallery and the Grand Saloon. On these occasions 

refreshments are served in the Carter-room and Green 
Drawing-room, and supper laid in the principal Dining-room. 
The concerts, invitations to which seldom exceed 300, are 
given in the Grand Saloon. The Xfaone-room la 64 Feet in 
length, and hung with crimson satin, striped. The ceiling 
of the room [a coved, and richly emblazoned with arms; 
here is a white marble frieze (the Wars of I 
designed by Btothard and executed by Baily, ll.A. The 
Mews, concealed from the Palace by a lofty mound, con- 
tains a spaeious riding-school; a room expressly for k 
state harness; stables for the state horses; and hou 
40 carriages. Here, too, is kept the magnificent state coach, 
designed by Sir W. Chambers in 1762; and painted by 
Cipriani with a series of emblematieal Bubjects; the entire 
cost being T661& 16s. 5d. The stud of horses and the 
carriage may be inspected by an order from the M 
the Horse. The entrance La in Queen's-row, Pimlico. In the 
Gardena is the Queen'a Bummer-house, containing f 

(B in number) from Milton's Coinus. exeeuted in 1844-5, by 
Eastlake. Bfaclise, Landseer, Dyce, Stanfield, Uwins, I 
and Etoes. 'I'ii' 1 ornamental and borders are by Gruner. The 
Queen has 325,0002. a y< ir iettled upon her, of which 60,0001 
a year only is in her own hands; the remainder is spent 
by the Lord Chamberlain of the Household, the Lord 
Steward of the Household, and other great officers at1 ! 
to the Court The pictures were principally collected by 
I V., and include the 9 Thomas 

The Dutch and Flemish pictures, <>t" which the 
collection chiefly consists, are hung to ether. They are 
almost without exception first-rate a The portraits 

are in the S 01 adjoinin . • 

tfatthew 

called from tii'' iv.vi|it of Custom. Bucbbaxdt ; I 
Adoration of the Magi; The Balp-boUdar and nil vlfig 



OPINING 01 PARLIAMENT. 3 

George IV. when Prince of Wales, 5000 guineas) ; Burgomaster Pancra 
mid his Wife. — Bubhto: Pythagoras; the fruit and animals by Svtoers; 
a Landscape; The Assumption of the Virgin; St. George and the 
Dragon; Tan and Syrinx; The Falconer; Family of Olden Barneyeldt. 
Ores: Marriage of Bt Catherines Christ healing the Lame 
.Man: Study of Three Horses j Portrait of a Man in black ; Queen Henri- 
etta .Maria presenting Charles I. with a crown of laurel. — Mytkns: 
Charl.s [.and his Queen, full-length figures in a small picture. — Jansen; 
Charles I. walking in Greenwich Park with his Queen and two children. 
— N. Maes : A xoung Woman, with her ringer on her lip and in a 
listening attitude, stealing duwn a dark winding Staircase (very fine). — 
Beveral tine specimens of Cuyp, Hobbema, Ruysdael, A. Vandervelde, 
YotrvGBB Vanmi:i:\ ki.im:. P.\fi. Potter, Backihyskx, Ukrguem, Both, 
C. Douw, Karel Du Jardix, De Hooohe, Metzi', (his own portrait), 
F. Mieris, A. Ostade, I. Ostade, Schalken', Jan Steen, Texiers, 
Terburo, &c. — Sir JogHl a Ukyxolds: Death of Dido; Cymonand Iphi- 
genia ; His own portrait, in spectacles. — Zoffany : Interior of the 
Florentine Gallery ; Royal Academy in 1773. — Sir P. Lelt : Anne Hyde, 
Duchess of York. — Sir D. Wilkie : The Penny Wedding ; Blind Man's 
Burl'; Duke of Sussexjn Highland dress. — Sir W. Allan : The Orphan ; 
Aune Scott near the vacant chair of her father, Sir Walter Scott. — Mode 
of Admission to view the Pictures: — order from the Lord Chamberlain, 
granted only when the Court is absent. 

When Parliament is opened, or prorogued, or dissolved, by 
yesty in person, the following is the order observed : — 
The ijuecn leaves Buckingham Palace at a quarter before 2, 
being conducted to her carriage by the Lord Chamberlain 
and the Vice-Chamberlain, and her Crown carried to the 
House of Lords by one of the Lord Chamberlain's chief 
officers. The State procession includes a carriage drawn by a 
set of bays, conveying 3 gentlemen ushers and the Exon in 
waiting; a carriage drawn by a set of bays, conveying the 
Groom in waiting, the Groom in waiting to Prince Albert, and 
the 2 Pages of Honour in waiting ; a carriage drawn by a set 
of bays, conveying the Equerry in waiting, the Equerry in 
waiting to Prince Albert, and the Groom of the Robes ; a 
carriage drawn by a set of bays, conveying the Clerk Marshal, 
the Silver Stick in waiting, the Field Officer in waiting, and 
the Comptroller of the Household ; a carriage drawn by a set 
of bays, conveying the Captain of the Yeomen of the Guard, 
the Lord in waiting, the Lord in waiting to Prince Albert, 
and the Treasurer of the Household ; a carriage drawn by a 
set of black horses, conveying the Lady in waiting, the Lord 
Steward, the < told Stick in waiting, and the Groom of the 
Stole to the Prince. Here the carriage procession is 1' 
by the Queen's Maivhahnen, the Queen's Footmen in State, 
and a party of the Yeoman Guard.' Then follows the State 
Coach drawn by 8 cream-coloured horses, convoying the 
Queen, Prince Albert, the Mistress of the Kobes. and the 
Master of the U> 



4 ST. JAMES S PALACE. 

2. ST. JAMES'S PALACE. Au irregular brick building, 
the only London Palace of our Sovereigns from the burning 
of Whitehall, in the reign of William III., to the occupation 
of Buckingham Palace by her present Majesty. It was first 
made a manor by Henry VIII., and was previously an hos- 
pital dedicated to St. James, and founded for fourteen sisters, 
" maidens that were leprous." When Henry altered or re- 
built it, (it is uncertain which), he annexed the present Park, 
closed it about with a wall of brick, and thus connected the 
manor of St. James's with the manor or Palace of Whitehall. 
Little remains of the old Palace ; nothing, it is thought, but 
the old, dingy, patched-up brick gateway towards St. James's- 
street, contiguous to which is the Chapel Royal, bearing, in 
the chimney-piece of the old Presence-chamber, the initials 
H. A. (Henry and Anne Boleyn). The Queen still holds her 
Drawing-rooms in this Palace, for the purposes of which, 
though not for a royal residence, it is particularly adapted. 
In the " Colour-court," (to the E., and so called because 
the standard of the household regiment on duty is planted 
within it), the Guards muster every day at 11, and the band 
of the regiment plays for about a quarter of an hour. The 
visitor should see this once. In the Great Council-chamber, 
before the King and Queen, the odes of the Poets Laureate 
were performed and sung. Mary I. died here. Henry, 
Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I., died here. Charles II. 
was born here. Here Charles I. took leave of his children 
the day before his execution ; and here he passed his last 
night, walking the next morning " from St. James's through 
the Park, guarded with a regiment of foot and partisans," to 
the scaffold before Whitehall. Monk took up his quarters in 
" St. James's House," while his plans for the Restoration 
were as yet undecided. James II.'s son, by Mary of Modena, 
the old Pretender, was bom here. A contemporary plan of 
the Palace is dotted with lines, to show the way in which 
the child was said to have been conveyed in the warming-pan 
to her Majesty's bed in the Great Bed-chamber. Queen Anne 
(then the Princess Anne) describes St. James's Palace " as 
much the propercst place to act such a cheat in.'' Here 
died Caroline, Queen of George II. ; and here George IV. 
was born. In the dingy brick house on the west side of the 
Ambassadors' Court, or west quadrangle, Marshal Bluoherwaa 
lodged' in 1814. He would frequently Bit at the drawing- 
room windows, and smoke and bow to the people, pleased with 
the notice that was taken of him. 

Every information respecting the mode of jvrwntation at 
Court may be obtained at the offices of the Lord Steward at 



PRESENTATION AT COURT. — WHITEHALL. .') 

Buckingham Palace, and of the Lord Chamberlain, in St. James's 
Palace. Levees are restricted to gentlemen ; Drawing-rooms 
to ladies (principally) and gentlemen. The days on which they 
take place are advertised in the morning and evening papers, 
with the necessary directions about carriages, &c, some days 
before. The greatest occasion in every year is, of course, on 
Her Majesty's birthday (which is made a kind of moveable 
feast), but presentations do not take place on that day. Any 
subject of Great Britain, who has been presented at 
St. James's, can claim to be presented, through the English 
ambassador, at any foreign court. On the presentation of 
Addresses to Her Majesty, no comments are suffered to be 
made. A deputation to present an Address must not exceed 
four persons. Tickets to the corridor, affording the best 
sight to the mere spectator, are issued by the Lord Cham- 
berlain to persons properly introduced. For gentlemen to 
be presented, it is absolutely necessary that their names, 
with the name of the nobleman or gentleman who is to 
present them, should be sent to the Lord Chamberlain's 
office several days previous to presentation, in order that 
they may be submitted for the Queen's approbation, it being 
Her Majesty's command that no presentation shall be made 
at any Levees but in conformity with the above regulations. 
Noblemen and gentlemen are also requested to bring with 
them two large cards, with their names clearly written 
thereon, one to be left with the Queen's Page in attendance 
in the Presence-chamber, and the other to be delivered to 
the Lord Chamberlain, who will announce the name to Her 
Majesty. In the Chapel Eoyal, attached to the Palace, are 
seats appropriated to the nobility. Service is performed at 
8 a.m. and 12 noon. Admittance, 25. ! The service is 
chaunted by the boys of the Chapel Royal. 

3. WHITEHALL. The Palace of the Kings of England 
from Henry VIII. to William III., of which nothing remains 
but Inigo Jones's Banqueting-house, James II.'s statue, and 
the memory of what was once the Privy Garden, in a row of 
houses, so styled, looking upon the Thames. It was originally 
called York House; was delivered and demised to Henry VIIL, 
on the disgrace of Cardinal Wolsey, Archbishop of York, and 
then first called Whitehall. Henry VIII.'s Whitehall was a 
building in the Tudor or Hampton Court style of architec- 
ture, with a succession of galleries and courts, a large Hall, a 
Chapel, Tennis-court, Cockpit, Orchard, and Banqueting- 
house. James I. intended to have rebuilt the whole Palace, 
and Inigo Jones designed a new Whitehall for that King, 



B WHITEHALL, 

worthy of our nation and his own great name. But nothing 
was built beyond the present Panqueting-house, deservedly 
looked upon as a model of Palladian architecture, and one 
of the finest buildings in the whole of London. Charles I. 
contemplated a similar reconstruction, but poverty at first 
prevented him. and the Civil War soon after was a more 
effectual prohibition. Charles II. preserved what money he 
could spare from his pleasures to build a palace at Win- 
chester. James II. was too busy about religion to attend to 
architecture, and in "William III.'s reign the whole of White- 
hall, except the Banqueting-house, was destroyed by fire. 
William talked of rebuilding it after Inigo's designs, but 
nothing was done. Anne, his successor, took up her abode 
in St. James's Palace, and Yanbrugh built a house at White- 
hall out of the ruins — the bouse ridiculed by Swift with 
such inimitable drollery. The present Banqueting-house 
was designed by Inigo Jones, between 1619 and 1622. The 
master-mason was Nicholas Stone, the sculptor of the fine 
monument to Sir Francis Vere in Westminster Abbey. The 
Hall is exactly a double cube, being 111 feet long, 55 feet 
6 inches high, and 55 feet inches wide. 

King Charles I. was executed on a scaffold erected in front 
of the Banqueting-house, towards tin- Park. The warrant 
directs that he should be executed "in the open street before 
"Whitehall." Lord Leicester tells us in his Journal, that he 
was "beheaded at Whitehall-gate." Dugdale, in his Diary, 
that he was "beheaded at the gate of Whitehall; and a 
■ingle Bheet of tho time, preserved in the British Museum, 
that ''the King was beneaded at Whitehall-gate." There 
cannot, therefore, be a doubt that tie' Boaffold was erected in 
front of the building being the present Horse Guards. We 
now come to the n< \t poini which has excited some discus- 
sion. P. appears from Herbert's minute account of the 

King's last moments, that "the King was Led all along the 

galleries and Banqueting-house, and there was a pa 
broken tit rnwjh tin- will, by which the Kin,' passed unto the 
•oaffold." This seems particular enough, and leads, it is 
said, bo a conclusion that the Boaffold was erected on the 
north side. Wherever the • s broken through, one 

thing is certain, the scaffold was erected on the wesi side, or, 

in Other words. •■ in I be Open street." now called Whitehall ; 
and that the Kin-, a- laid! D hi- Me' 

conducted to the scaffold out of the window- of the Baa* 
queting-honse." Ludlow, who tells us this, was one of the 
regicides, and what he only and straightforwardly! 

is continued by an engraving of the execution, published at 



WHITEHALL. — KENSINGTON PALACE. 7 

Amsterdam in the same year, and by the following memo- 
randum made by Vertue, on the copy of Terasson's large 
engraving of the Banqueting-house, preserved in the library 
of the Society of Antiquaries : — " It is, according to the 
truest reports, said that out of this window K. Charles went 
upon the scaffold to be beheaded, the window-frame being 
taken out purposely to make the passage on to the scaffold, 
which is equal to the landing-place of the Hall within side." 
The window marked by Vertue belonged to a small building 
abutting from the north side of the present Banqueting- 
house. From this window, then, the King stept upon the 
scaffold. 

The ceiling of the Banqucting-house is lined with pictures 
on canvas, representing the apotheosis of James L, painted 
abroad by Rubens, in 1635. Kneller had heard that Rubens 
was assisted by Jordaens in the execution. The sum he 
received was 3000?. "What." says Walpole, " had the Ban- 
queting-house been if completed ! Van Dyck was to have 
painted the sides with the history and procession of the 
Order of the Garter." To be seen at all, they must be 
viewed from the south end of the apartment. Within, and 
over the principal entrance, ii a bust, in bronze, of James I., 
by, it is said, Le Scour. The Banqueting-house was con- 
verted into a chapel in the reign of George I., and re- 
altered as we now see it, between 1829 and 1837, by Sir 
Robert Smirke. It has never been consecrated. Here, on 
every Maunday Thursday, (the day before Good Friday,) the 
Queen's eleemosynary bounty (a very old custom) is distri- 
buted to poor and aged men and women. 

The statue of James II., behind the Banqueting-house, 
was the work of Grading Gibbons, and was set up while the 
King was reigning, at the charge of an old servant of the 
crown called Tobias Rustat. The King, it is said, is pointing 
to the spot where his father was executed ; and this vulgar 
error, though exposed long ago, is still repeated. Nothing 
can illustrate better the mild character of the Revolution of 
1688, than the fact that the statue of the abdicated and 
exiled King was allowed to stand, and still stands, in the 
innermost court-yard of what was once his own Palace. 

4. KENSINGTON PALACE is a large and irregular edifice, 
originally the seat of Heneage Finch, Earl of Nottingham 
and Lord Chancellor of England; whose son, the second 
earl, sold it to King William III., soon after his accession to 
the throne. The lower portion of the building was part of 
Lord Nottingham's house ; the higher story was added by 



8 LAMBETH PALACE. 

William III., from the designs of "Wren, and the N.W. 
angle by George II., as a Nursery for liis children. William 
III. and Queen Mary, Queen Anne, her husband Prince 
George of Denmark, and King George II., all died in this 
Palace. Her present Majesty was born in it, (1819,) and 
here (1837) she held her first Council. The Duke of Sussex, 
son of George III., lived, died, and had his fine library in 
this Palace. The Orangery, a very fine detached room, was 
built by Wren. The royal collection of pictures (long 
famous in catalogues, and still known as the Kensington 
Collection to the readers of Walpole,) has, for the most part, 
been removed to other palaces ; and the kitchen-garden has 
recently been built over with two rows of detached mansions, 
called "Palace-gardens." The chief attraction inside is a 
collection of early German art. formed, with taste and 
knowledge, by his Royal Highness Prince Albert, to which 
admission may be obtained by writing to L. Griiner, Esq., 
13, Fitzroy -square. 



HOUSES OF THE PRINCIPAL NOBILITY AND 
GENTRY. 

LAMBETH PALACE, or LAMBETH HOUSE, on the S. 
side of the Thames over-against the Palace at Westminster, 
has been the palace of the Archbishops of Canterbury from a 
very early peinod, and contains many parts in its architecture 
worthy of attention, and various gradations from Early 
English to late Perpendicular. The Ch<<]»l. the oldest part 
of the Talace, was built by Boniface, Archbishop ot' Canter- 
bury, (1244-70). It is Early Kurdish, with lancet windows 
and a crypt. The roof is new. There is an oak ler oon with 
the arms of Archbishop Laud, by whom it was erected. 
Before the altar is the grave of Archbishop Parker, (d. 1575). 
In this chapel all the archbishops have been consecrated since 
the time of Bonifaco. The tained glass windows were 
destroyed in the Civil Wars, and are feelingly lamented by 
Laud in the History of his Troubles. The glass now in the 

windows was placed at the expense of the Last Archbishop 

(Howlcy). Tho Lollards' Tower at the W. end of the chapel 
wasbuilt by Archbishop Chicheley, in the years 1484-46, and 

so called from the Lollards, who are Said (ineorreetly.it is now 
ascertained) to have been Imprisoned in it. On the front 
being the river is a niche, in which was placed the image of 
St. ThomaSj and at thfl to,, i~ a small room (13 feet by 12, 
and about 8 feet high) called the prison, wainscotted with 



LONDON HOUSE. — AFSLEY BOUSE, 9 

Oak above an inch thick, on which several names and broken 
sentences in old characters are cut, as " Chessam Doctor," 
"Petit Iouganham," "Ihs eyppe me out of all el compane, 
amen," "John Worth," "Nosce Teipsum," &c. The large 
iron rings in the wall (eight in number) seem to sanction the 
supposed appropriation of the room. The Post-room in this 
tower contains an ornamented flat ceiling, of uncommon occur- 
rence. The Gate-house, of red brick, with stone dressings, is 
said to have been built bv Archbishop Morton, Cardinal and 
Lord Chancellor, (d. 1500). The Hall, 93 feet by 38, was 
built by Archbishop Juxon, the bishop who attended Charles I. 
to the scaffold. Over the door (inside) are the arms of Juxon, 
and the date 1663. The roof is of oak, with a louvre or 
lantern in the centre for the escape of smoke. The whole 
design is Gothic in spirit, but poor and debased in its details. 
The bay window in the Hall contains the arms of Philip II. 
of Spain (the husband of Queen Mary) ; of Archbishops Ban- 
croft, Laud, and Juxon ; and a portrait of Archbishop 
Chicheley. The Library, of about 25,000 volumes, and 
kept in the Hall, was founded by Archbishop Bancroft (d. 
1610); enriched by Archbishop Abbot (d. 1633); and 
enlarged by Archbishops Tenison and Seeker. One of its 
greatest curiosities is a MS. of Lord Rivers's translation of 
The Dictes and Sayings of the Philosophers, containing an 
illumination of the earl introducing Caxton, the printer (it is 
said), to Edward IV., his Queen and Prince. The portrait of 
the Prince (afterwards Edward V.) is the only one known of 
him, and has been engraved by Vertue among the Heads of 
the Bangs. Of the English books in the library printed 
before 1600, there is a brief but valuable catalogue by Dr. 
Maitland, many years librarian. The whole habitable Palace 
was erected by the last Archbishop (Howley) from the de- 
signs of Edward Blore, and contains a few good portraits, 
such as the head of Archbishop Warham, by Holbein, (the 
picture really from his hand,) and the portrait of Archbishop 
Tillotson, by Mrs. Beale. The income of the Archbishop of 
Canterbury is 15,000?. a year. 

LONDON HOUSE, No. 22, St. James's Square, the resi- 
dence of the Bishop of London. It has no architectural 
pretensions. The income of the Bishop is above 15,000?. 
a year, but the bishop's successor will be fixed at 10,000?. 
The house belongs to the See. 

APSLEY HOUSE, Hyde Park Corner. The London 
residence, since 1820, of Field Marshal the Duke of Wellington , 



10 \ I SLEY HOUSE. 

built by Henry Bathurst, Baron Apsley, Earl Bathurst, and 
Lord High Chancellor, (d. 1794,) the son of Pope's friend, to 
whom the site was granted by George III., under letters 
patent of May the 3rd, 1784. The house, originally of red 
brick, was faced with Bath stone in 1828, when the front 
portico and the "W". wing, containing on the upper stories a 
gallery 90 feet long, (to the W.,) were added for the Duke 
by Messrs. S. & B. Wyatt ; but the old house is intact. The 
iron blinds — bullet-proof it is said — were put up by the Duke 
during the ferment of the Reform Bill, when his windows 
were broken by a London mob. They were the first of the 
kind, and have since been generally copied. 

Observe. — George IV., full-length, in a Highland costume, by WUUe. 
—William IV., full-length, hy WUkie.— Sarah, the first Lady Lynd- 
hurst,hy Wilkie. This picture was penetrated hy a stone in the Reform 
Riot, but the injury has been skilfully repaired. — Emperor Alexander. 
— Kings of Prussia, France, and the Netherlands, full-lengths.— Battle 
of Waterloo, Napoleon in the foreground (Sir William Allan). The 
Duke bought this picture at the Exhibition; he is said to have called 
it " good, very good, not too much smoke." — Many portraits of Napoleon, 
one by David, extremely good. — Wilkies Chelsea Pensioners reading 
the Gazette of the Battle of Waterloo, painted for the Duke. — Burnet's 
Greenwich Pensioners celebrating the Anniversary of the Battle of Tra- 
falgar, bought of Burnet by the Duke. Portraits of veterans in both 
pictures. — Colossal marble statue, of Napoleon, by Canova, with a figure 
of Victory on a globe in his hand, presented in 1817 to the Duke by the 
Prince Regent.— Christ on the Mount of Olives, (Correggio,) the most 
celebrated picture of Correggio in this country; on panel, and captured 
in Spain, in the carriage of Joseph Buonaparte; restored by the captor 
to Ferdinand VII., but with others, under the like circumstances, again 
presented to the Duke by that sovereign. Here, as in the tfotte, the 
light proceeds from the Saviour; there is a copy or duplicate in the 
National Gallery.— An Annunciation, after M. Angela, of which the 
original drawing is in the I'lhz.j at Florence.— The Adoration of the 
Shepherds, by Sogliani. — The Water-seller, by Vekuqv .. " We see," says 
Waagen, "from this picture how much Velasquez served Murillo as 
a model in such subjects." — Two fine portraits by Velasquez, (his own 
portrait, and the portrait of Pope Innocent X.)— A fine Spagnoletti — 
A small sea-piece, by Claude. u lias all the charm of this master," says 
Waagen, "and of his best period." — A large and good Jan Si > 

Wedding Feast, dated 1667).— A Peasant's Wedding (Ttnieta).— fioorfl 
Drinking (A. Ostade).—T\\o celebrated Terburg, (the Signing toe Peace 
of Westphalia,) from the Talleyrand Collection, singularly enough, this 
picture hung in the room In which the allied sovereigns signed the treaty 
of Paris, in 1814. — A fine Philip ]l'»uvermans (the Return from the Chase) . 
— View of Veght, by Vanderhepdm. 

The Crown's interest in the house was sold to the Duke for 
the sum of 9530/. ; the Crown reserving a right to forbid the 
erection of any other house or houses on the site. 

NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSE, Ciiahing Cross, the 
town-house of the Duke of Northumberland, [with rich cen- 
tral gateway, surmounted by the Lion crest of the Percies,) 



NORTHUMBERLAND HOUSE. 11 

and so called after Algernon Percy, Earl of Northumberland, 
(d. 1668,) the subject of more than one of Van Dyck's finest 
portraits. It was built by Henry Howard, Earl of North- 
ampton, (son of Henry Howard, Earl of Surrey, the poet,) 
Bernard Jansen and Gerard Christmas being, it is said, his 
architects. The Earl of Northampton left it, in 1614, to his 
nephew, Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, (father of the 
memorable Frances, Countess of Essex and Somerset,) when 
it received the name of Suffolk House, by which name it was 
known until the marriage, in 1642, of Elizabeth, daughter of 
Theophilus, second Earl of Suffolk, with Algernon Percy, tenth 
Earl of Northumberland, who bought the house of James, Earl 
of Suffolk, for 15,000Z., and called it Northumberland House. 
Josceline Percy, eleventh Earl of Northumberland, (son of the 
before-mentioned Algernon Percy,) dying in 1670, without 
issue male, Northumberland House became the property of 
his only daughter, Elizabeth Percy, heiress of the Percy 
estates, afterwards married to Charles Seymour, commonly 
called the proud Duke of Somerset. The Duke and Duchess 
of Somerset lived in great state and magnificence in Northum- 
berland House, for by this title it still continued to be 
called, as the name of Somerset was already attached to an 
older inn or London town-house in the Strand. The duchess 
died in 1722, and the duke, dying in 1748, was succeeded by 
his eldest son, Algernon, Earl of Hertford and seventh Duke 
of Somerset, created Earl of Northumberland in 1749, with 
remainder, failing issue male, to Sir Hugh Smithson, Bart., 
husband of his only daughter, which Sir Hugh Smithson was 
raised to the Dukedom of Northumberland in 1766. The 
present duke (1851) is the grandson of this Sir Hugh Smith- 
son, Duke of Northumberland. The house originally formed 
three sides of a quadrangle, (a kind of main body with wings,) 
the fourth side remaining open to the gardens and river. 
The principal apartments were on the Strand side; but after 
the estate became the property of the Earl of Suffolk, the 
quadrangle was completed by a side towards the Thames. 
The date, 1749, onthefagade, refers to the work of repara- 
tion, which commenced in that year ; and the letters A. S., 
P. N., stand for Algernon Somerset, Princeps Northumbrise. 

Observe. — The celebrated Cornaro Family, by Titian. Evelyn saw it here 
in 1658. It has been much touched upon. St. Sebastian bound, on 
the ground ; in the air two angels : a clear, well-executed picture, by 
Guercino, with figures as large as life. A small Adoration of the 
Shepherds, by Giacomo Bassano. Three half figures in one picture, 
by Dobson, representing Sir Charles Cotterell, embraced by Dobson 
and Sir Balthazar Gerbier in a white waistcoat. A Fox and a 
Deer Hunt; two admirable pictures by Franz Snyders. A genuine 



I J DEVONSHIRE BO 

hut ordinary Holy Family, by /. Jortbma. A Netty fori, w itli a 
candle, before which she holds her hands, by <!. Schauta* ; of remarkahh' 
clearness and good impasto. The School of Athens, after Raphael, copied 
In 17.v>. and the best copy ever made of this celebrated 
picture. View of Alnwick, by Canatetti, valuable as snowing the state 
of the bnilding, arc 1760; fnll-lengtb portrait of Edward VI. when a boy 
of six or seven, assigned to Mabusr, and curious — he is in a red dress. A 
large and fine Bm§f9dael. Joaceline, 11th Earl of Northumberland, by 
Wissing (oval). Portrait of Napoleon when First Consul, by '/'. / 
I;. A., taken from repeated observation of Napoleon's face. 

All that is old of the present building is the portal towards 
the Strand ; but even of this there is a good deal that is 
new. The house is massively furnished and in good taste. 
The staircase is stately; the Pompeian room most elegant, 
and the state Drawing-room, with its ten lights to the E., 
and its noble copies after Raphael, very magnificent, a room 
indeed not to be matched in London. Many of the fire-places, 
fenders, and fire-irons are of silver. The large Sevrc s 
in the centre of the great room was presented by Charles X. 
to the Duke of Nothumbcrland, the representative of Great 
Britain at Charles's coronation in 1825. 

DEVONSHIRE HOUSE, Piccadilly. A good, plain, 
well-proportioned brick building, built by William Kent, for 
"William Cavendish, third duke of Devonshire, (d. 1755b It 
stands on the site of Berkeley House, destroyed by lire in 
1733, and is said to have cost the sum of 20,000?., exclusive 
of 1000/. presented to the architect by the duke. Obs> t 
Very fine full-length portraits, on one canvas, of the Prince 
and Princess of Orange, by Jordaens. Fine three-quarter 
portrait of Lord Richard Cavendish, by Sir Joehua R< jinolds ; 
fine three-quarter portrait, in black drees, by 7%tUorettO : 
Sir Thomas Browne, author of Religio "Medici, and family, by 
Dobson ; fine male portrait, hjLdy. Portrait of the Earl of 
Burlington, the architect, by Kndler. The Devonshire (Jems, 
in a glass case, over fire-place — a noble collection. The 
" Kemblc Plays" — a matchless series of old Engjlish plays, 
with a rich collection of the first editions of Shaks]>eare. 
formed by John Philip Kemble, and bought, for 2000L, at 
his death, by the present duke, who has added largely to 

the collection, and annotated the whole with his own hand. 

The portico is modern, and altogether out of keeping with 
the net of the building. The old entrance, taken down in 
1840, was by a flight of steps on each side. The magnifi- 
cent marble BtairCBSe at the hack of the house, with i: 

balustrade, was erected by the present duke. The pari 
Devonshire House are among the leading attractions <<\' the 

London season. The grand saloon (pari of Kent's design) is 



STAFFORD HOUSE. 13 

decorated in the style of Lo Brun, and is now used as a room. 
The grounds extend to Lansdowne House and the view from 
the Drawing-room commands the trees in Berkeley-square. 

STAFFORD HOUSE, in St. James's Park, between St. 
James's Palace and the Green Park, was built, all but the 
upper story, for the Duke of York, (second son of George III.,) 
with money advanced for that purpose by the Marquis of 
Stafford, afterwards first Duke of Sutherland (d. 1833). The 
Duke of York did not live to inhabit it, and the Crown lease 
was sold in 1841 to the Duke of Sutherland, for the sum of 
72,000?., and the purchase-money spent in the formation of 
Victoria Park. The upper story was added by the present 
duke. This is said to be the finest private mansion in the 
metropolis. Nothing can compete with it in size, taste, or de- 
coration. The great dining-room is worthy of Versailles. The 
internal arrangements were planned by Charles Barry, R.A. 
The pictures, too, are very fine ; but the collection distributed 
throughout the house is private, to which admission is 
obtained only by the express invitation or permission of the 
duke. The Sutherland Gallery, as it is called, is a noble 
room, 126 feet long by 32 feet wide. 

PRINCIPAL PICTURES. 

Raphael: Christ bearing his Cross; a small full-length figure, seen 
against a sky back-ground between two pilasters adorned with arabesqnes. 
Said to have been brought from a private chapel of the Pope in the 
Ricciardi Palace at Florence— Guido : Head of the Magdalen ; Study for 
the large picture of Atalanta in the Royal Palace at Naples; the 
Circumcision. — Guerctxo : St. Gregory; St. Grisogono ; a Landscape. — 
Paemegiano: Head of a Young Man (very fine).— Tintoretto: A Lady 
at her Toilet.— Titian : Mercury teaching Cupid to read in the presence 
of Venus (an Orleans picture, figures life-size); St. Jerome in the 
Desert; three Portraits.— Murillo (5): Two from Marshal Soult's 
Collection : the Return of the Prodigal Son (a composition of nine figures) ; 
Abraham and the Angels, cost 30OW.— F. Zurbaran (4): Three from 
Soult's Collection (very tine).— Velasquez (2) : Duke of Gandia at the 
Door of a Convent; eight figures, life-size, from the Soult Collection; 
Landscape.— Albert Durer : the Death of the Virgin.— IIonthorst : 
Christ before Pilate (Honthorst's chef d'eeuvre), from the Lucca Collection. 
— N.Poussix (3).— G. Poussin (1). — Rubens (4) : Holy Family; Marriage 
of St. Catharine; Sketch, en f/risnille, for the great picture in the Louvre, 
of the Marriage of Henry IV. and Marie de Medicis.— Van Dyck (4) ■ 
Three-quarter portrait of Thomas Howard, Earl of Arundel, seated in 
an arm-chair (very fine, and finely engraved by Sharp) ; two Portraits ; 
St. Martin dividing his Cloak (in a circle). — Watteau (5): all line. 
— D. Teniers (2): a Witch performing her Incantations; Ducks Id a 
I J ool.— Terburg : Gentleman bowing to a Lady (very fine).— Sir 
JOSHUA REYNOLDS! Dr. Johnson without his Wig, and with his hands 
up.— Sir D. Wilkie: the Breakfast Table (painted for the first Duke 
of Sutherland).— Sib T. Lawbexob: Lady Gower and Child (the 
present Duchess of Sutherland, and her daughter, the present Duchess 
of Argyll).— E. BlBD, R.A.: Day after the Battle of CI 



14 NORFOLK IImI.sk. — MONTAGUE B01 

Sir E. Landseer, R.A.: Lord Stafford and Lady Evelyn Gow. r 
Lady Blantyiv ■.— W. Lmy. l.'.A.: I. -liv.il betDTC the Flood.— JOBS 
Mabtiv: tbe Assuaging of the Waters.— Paui : : Lord StraF- 

ford "ii bis way t" the Bcaffold receives the bl hbishop Laud 

— Winterhaltei: : Scene from the Decameron. — A collection of 150 
portraits, illustrative of French history and French memoirs. 

The land on which Stafford House stands belongs to the 
Cr< >wn, and the duke pays an annual ground-rent for the same 
of 758/. It stands partly on the site of Godolphin House, and 
partly on the site of the Library built by the Queen of George II. 
At least 250,000/. have been spent on Stafford Hoi 

NORFOLK HOUSE, in the S.-E. corner of St. Jami>'s 
Squake, was so called from the seventh Duke of Norfolk, 
who died at hid house in St. JameVs-equare, April 2nd, 1701. 
It was built by Payne. The interior is handsome, the first 
floor consisting of a tine set of drawing-rooms toward the 
square, terminated by a magnificent dining-hall, lined with 
mirrors, the roof of which is very rich and beautiful. The 
arrangements of the house are not such as will allow of its 
being shown. In the rear is part of an older bouse in which 
Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban, of the time of Charles II., 
livi'.l, and in which George III. was 1 mm. In it are preserved 
the very valuable records of the great historical family of the 
Howards, and of those of Fitzalan and Mowbray, which have 
merged into it. Observe. — Portrait of the First Duke of 
Norfolk (Howard), three-quarter Length, in robes, with ■ mar- 
shall's staff in his lniiid. Holbein ; — • portraits of Bishop Trieste, 

and of Henrietta Maria, in a green dress. 1'"// Dych :- portrait 

of his wife, by Rubens; two very tine landscapes, by 8ah, 
Rosa; tlie Crucifixion, a curious picture, by that rare u 
Lucas Family of the Earl of Arundel, the collector j 

■mall figures, by Mytena; Shield given by the Grand Duke of 

Tuscany to the ill fated Henry Howard, Earl Of Surrey, at a 

tournament in Florence, in 1537, painted in the style of 
Perino del Vaffa. 

MONTAGU! BOUSE, Whothal^ a well placed, though 

low and unimportant building, the town house of wis 
Duke ofBuccleuch, who inherits it from the noble Ian 
Montague. The its beloo - bo the < irown. 

Some dark but good pictures by Van Dyck : viz. full- 
length of Duke of Hamilton in armour (hand leaning 

on a helmet), front Eaoe, huif boots, hair over forehead, 
[very fine); rail-length of Lord Holland, Bias] 
hair short on forehead j rail-length of Duke of Rich* 
mond, in complete black- yellow hair over ihouldevaj 



GROSVENOR HOUSE, 1 .'; 

brownish back-ground. Thirty-five sketches (en grisaille), by 
Van Dyck, inaJc for the celebrated series of portraits etched 
in part by Van Dyck, and published by Martin Vanden 
Endcn ; they belonged to Sir Peter Lely, and were bought at 
Lely's sale by Ralph, Duke of Montague. One of Canaletti's 
finest pictures, a view of "Whitehall, showing Holbein's gate- 
way, Inigo's Banquetiug-house, and the steeple of St. Martin's 
with the scaffolding about it. A noble collection of English 
miniatures, from Isaac Oliver's time to the time of Zincke. 

GROSVENOR HOUSE, Upper Grosvenor Street. The 
town-house of the Marquis of "Westminster. The handsome 
screen of classic pillars, connecting a double archway which 
divides the court-yard from the street, was added in 1842. 
Here is the Grosvenor Gallery of Pictures, founded by 
Richard, first Earl Grosvenor, and augmented by his son, and 
grandson, the present noble owner. Rubens and Claude are 
seen to great advantage. 

ANALYSIS OF THE COLLECTION. 

Raphael (5): but, according to Passavant, not one by Raphael's own 
hand. — Mrunxo (3) : one a large Landscape with Figures. — Velasquez 
(2) : his own Head in a Cap and Feathers ; Prince of Spain on Horseback, 
small full-length. — Titian (3): the Woman taken in Adultery; a 
Grand Landscape; the Tribute Money. — Paul Veronese (3): Virgin 
and Child ; the Annunciation; Marriage at Cana ; small finished Study 
fur the Picture at Venice. — Guido (5; : Infant Christ Sleeping (fine, 
engraved by Strange); La Fortuna ; St. John Preaching; Holy Family; 
Adoration of the Shepherds. — Salvator Rosa (4) : one, his own Portrait. 
— Claude ("10) : all important, and not one sea-piece among them. — 
N. Poussix (4) : Infants at Play (fine).— G. Poussix (3).— Le Brux (1): 
Alexander in the Tent of Darius (finished Study for the large picture in 
the Louvre). — Rembrandt (7) : his own Portrait; Portrait of Berghem : 
Ditto of Berghem's Wife ; the Salutation of Elizabeth (small and very 
fine : a Landscape with figures— Rubens (11) : Sarah dismissing Hagar; 
Ixion ; Rubins and his first wife, Elizabeth Brandt; Two Boy Angels; 
Landscape (small and fine); the Wise Men's Offering; Conversion of 
St. Paul (sketch for Mr. Miles's picture at Leigh Court) ; Four Colossal 
Pictures, painted when Bubeni was in Spain, in 1629, and bought by Earl 

tor. in 1810, for 10,0007.— Van DtCK (2): Virgin and Child; 
Portrait of Nicholas Laniere (this picture induced Charles I. to invite 
Van Dyck to England,). — Paul Potter 1} : View over the Meadows of 
a Dairy Farm near the Hague, Sunset (fine).— Hobbema ('2).— Gerard 
DOUW 1 .- <r\r 1 .— Snyders (2).— Teniers(3).— Van IhvsAM (1).— 
Vanm rvi:li»e fl). — WOUVBBHAXS (1) '. B Horse Fair. — Hogarth (2): 
the Distressed Poet; a Boy and s Raven.— Sib Joshua Reynolds (1) : 

ddons, u the Tragic Muse, the original picture, cost 1760J 
(a masterpiece). — Gainsborough (3), all very line: the Blue Boy: the 
i <•.— K. WlLSOfl 1 I : View on the River Dee. 
B. Wbsi 6 : Battle of La Hogue; Death of General Wolfe; Wil- 
liam III. pa win » the Bojne : Cromwell dissolving the Long Parliament ; 
Landing of ( barles II. Admission — On Thursdays between 8 and 5 in 
the months of .May and June, by order granted by the Marquis of 
Westminster. 



16 LAXSDOWNE HOUSE. 

LANSDOWNE HOUSE, on the S. side of Berkeley 
Square, was built by Robert Adam for the Marquis of Bute, 
when minister to George III., and sold by the marquis, before 
completion, to Lord Shelburne, afterwards Marquis of Lans- 
downe, for 22,000£., which was supposed to be 3000Z. less 
than it cost. Priestley was living in Lansdowne House as 
librarian and philosophic companion to Lord Shelburne, 
when he made the discovery of oxygen. The Sculpture 
Gallery, commenced 1778, contains the Collection formed by 
Gavin Hamilton, long a resident in Rome. At the E. end is 
a large semicircular recess, containing the most important 
statues. Down the sides of the room are ranged the busts 
and other objects of ancient art. Observe. — Statue of the 
Youthful Hercules, heroic size, found in 1790, with the 
Townley Discobulus, near Hadrian's Villa ; Mercury, heroic 
size, found at Tor Columbaro, on the Appian Way. Here is 
a statue of a Sleeping Female, the last work of Canova ; also, 
a copy of his Venus, the original of which is in the Pitti 
Palace at Florence. A marble statue of a Child holding an 
alms-dish, by Rauch of Berlin, will repay attention. The 
Collection of Pictures was entirely formed by the present 
Marquis, since he came to the title in 1809. Observe. — St. 
John Preaching in the Wilderness, a small early picture 
by Raphael; half-length of Count Federigo da Bozzola, by 
Seb. del Piombo; full-length of Don Justino Francisco Neve, by 
Murillo ; head of himself, head of the Count Duke d'Olivarez 
( Velasquez) ; two good specimens of Schidone ; Peg Woffing- 
ton, by Horjarth; 12 pictures by Sir Joshua Reynolds — 
including The Sleeping Girl, The Strawberry Girl, Hope 
Nursing Love, and the noble portrait of Laurence Sterne ; 
Sir Robert Walpole, and his first wife, Catherine Shorter, by 
Echhart (in a frame by Gibbons — from Strawberry Hill); 
full-length of Pope, by Jervas; Portrait of Flaxman, by 
Jackson, R.A. ; Deer Stalkers returning from the hills 
(E. Landseer) ; Italian Peasants approaching Rome (Eastlake) ; 
Sir Roger de Coverley and the Spectator going to Church 
(C. R. Leslie) ; Sir Roger de Coverley and the^Gypsies (ditto) ; 
Olivia's return to her Parents, from the Vicar of Wakefield 
(O.S.Newton, R.A.); Machcath in Prison (ditto). Some of 
these have recently been removed to Bowood in Wiltshire, 
the country scat of the noble Marquis. The iron bars at the 
two ends of Lansdowne-passage (a near cut from Curzon- 
street to Hay-hill) were put up, late in the last century, in 
consequence of a mounted highwayman, who had committed 
a robbery in Piccadilly, having escaped from his pursuers 
through this narrow passage, by riding !ii ; horse up the step>. 



BRIDGEWATER HOUSE. 17 

w 

BRIDGEWATER HOUSE, St. James's, fronts the Green 
Park, and was built 1846 — 51, from the designs of Charles 
Barry, R.A., for Francis, Earl of Ellesmere, great nephew, 
and principal heir of Francis Egerton, Duke of Bridgewater. 
The duke, dying in 1803, left his pictures, valued at 150,000£, 
to his nephew, the first Duke of Sutherland (then Marquis of 
Stafford), with remainder to the marquis's second son, 
Francis, now Earl of Ellesmere. The collection contains 47 
of the finest of the Orleans pictures; and consists of 127 
Italian, Spanish, and French pictures; 158 Flemish, Dutch, 
and German pictures ; and 33 English and German pictures 
— some 322 in all. 

" There is a deficiency of examples of the older Italian and German 
schools in this collection ; hut from the time of Raphael the series is more 
complete than in any private gallery I know, not excepting the Lichten- 
stein Gallery at Vienna. The Caracci school can nowhere be studied to 
more advantage." — Mrs. Jameson. 

Observe. — (O. C. signifying Orleans Collection.) 

Raphael (4) : la Vierge an Palmier (in a circle) ; one of two Madonnas 
painted at Florence in 1506 for his friend Taddeo Taddei, O.C ; la plus 
Belle des Vierges, O.C. ; la Madonna del Passeggio, O.C; la Vierge au 
Diademe (from Sir J.Reynolds's collection? if genuine). — S.del Piombo 
(1); the Entombment.— Luini(I): Female Head, O.C. — Titian (4): Diana 
and Actaeon, O.C, (very fine) ; Diana and Calisto, O.C, (very fine); the 
Four ages of Life, O.C; Venus Rising from the Sea, O.C— Paul Ve- 
ronese (2) : the Judgment of Solomon ; Venus bewailing the death of 
Adonis, O.C. — Tintoretto (3): Portrait of a Venetian Gentleman, O.C; 
the Presentation in the Temple (small sketch) ; the Entombment, O.C. 
— Velasquez (3) : Head of Himself; Philip IV. of Spain (small full- 
length) ; full-length of the natural son of the Duke d'Olivarez (life-size, 
and fine). — Salvator Rosa (2): les Augures (very fine). — Gaspar 
Poussin (4) : Landscapes.— N. Poussin (8) : Seven called the Seven 
Sacraments, O.C; Moses striking the Rock (very fine), O.C. — An. 
Caracci (7) : St. Gregory at Prayer; Vision of St. Francis, O.C ; Danae, 
O.C; St. John the Baptist, O.C; same subject, O.C; Christ on the 
Cross, O.C; Diana and Calisto, O.C. — L. Caracci (6) : Descent from the 
Cross, O.C; Dream of St. Catherine ; St. Francis; a Pieta; 2 Copies 
after Correggio— Domenichino (5).— Guido (2) : Infant Christ sleeping 
on the Cross, O.C; Assumption of the Virgin (altar-piece).— Guer- 
cino (2) : David and Abigail, O.C; Saints adoring the Trinity (study). 
— Bekghem (5).— Ruysdael (6).— Claude (4): Morning (a little picture); 
Morning, with the story of Apuleius ; Evening, Moses before the Burning 
Bush; Morning (composition picture). — Rembrandt (5): Samuel and 
Eli; Portrait of Himself; Portrait of a Burgomaster ; Portraitof a Lady; 
Head of a Man.— Rubens (3) : St. Theresa (sketch of the large picture in 
the Museum at Antwerp) ; Mercury bearing Hebe to Olympus ; Lady 
with a fan in her hand (half-length). — Van Dyck (1) : the Virgin and 
Child.— Backhuysen (2).— Cuvp (6) : Landing of Prince Maurice at 
Dort (the masterpiece of this artist). — Vandervelde (7) : Rising of the 
Gale (very fine); Entrance to the Brill; a Calm; Two Naval Battles; 
a Fresh Breeze; View of the Texel.— Teniers (8) : Dutch Kermis or 
Village Fair (76 figures) ; Village Wedding; "Winter Scene in Flanders, 
the Traveller ; Ninepins; Alchymist in his Study ; Two Interiors. — Jan 
Steen (2) : the Schoolmaster (very fine); the Fishmonger.— A. Ostadb (6) ; 

C 



18 GHE0TBKFIELD H" : 

■ 
Interior of a Cottage; Lawyer in hisStndy; Village Alehouse; Dutch 
Peasant drinking a Health'; Tric-Trac ; Dutch Courtship.— G. Dorw 
(3): Interior, -with his own Portrait (very fine); Portrait of Himself; 
a Woman selling Herrings. — Twtttraa (l): xoung Girl in white 
satin drapery. I : a Girl at Work, (very fine). — Hobbema 

(3).— Mf.tzi- (3).— Tiiii. ii' WOUVKR1ULX8 I . PZTXB ^^ • -i • BBMAV8 (1). 
— Unknown (1) : the Chandos Portrait of Shakspeare. bought at the sale 
at Stnwe, in 1848, for 355 guineas; it belonged to Sir AN" illi:\Tri Davi nant 
the poet, Petterton the actor, and Mrs. Barry the actress. — DOSS 
Head of Cleveland, the poet. — Lki.y : Countess of Middlesex (elegant). 
— BlCHABD "Wn.stiN, J;.A. (2). — G. B. NXWTOK, K.A. (1): Young 
hiding her face in grief. — J. M. W. Tcrnf.r, K.A. (1): Gale hi 
(nearly as fine as the fine Vandervrlde in this collection, Rising of the 
Gale). — F. Stone (I): Scene from Philip Van Artevelde. — Paul Dela- 
roche (1) : Charles I. in the Guard-room, insulted hy the^soldicrs of the 
Parliament. 

The house stands on the site of what was once Berkshire House, 
then Cleveland House, and afterwards Bridgewater House. 

Cards to view the Bridgewater Gallerv can be obtained from 
Messrs. Smith, 137, New Bond-street; Mr. Mitchell, 88, Old Bond-street: 

Mr. Sams, 1, St.danies's-street ; 11. Craves & Co., 6, Pall Mall; Colnaghi 
& Co., 13, Pall Mall East; Ackermann & Co., 06, Strand; Mr. Moon, 
20, Threadncedle-strect. Days of admission, Mondays, Tuesdays, 
Thursdays, and Fridays, from 10 till 5. — Catalogues may be had at 
Messrs. Smith's, and at the Gallery. 

CHESTERFIELD HOUSE, South Audley-street, facing 
Hyde-park. The town-house of the Earl of Chesterfield, but 
lot (1851) to the Marquis of Abcrcorn. It was built by 
Isaac Ware, the editor of Palladio, for Philip, fourth Earl of 
Chosterfield, author of the celebrated Letters to his Son, and 
stands on ground belonging to Curzon, Earl Howe. The 
boudoir was called by Lord Chesterfield the gayest and most 
cheerful room in England, and the library the best. 

"In the magnificent mansion which the Karl erected in Andley-street, 
yon may still see his favourite apartments furnished and decorated as 
he left them -among the rest, what be boasted of as •• the finest room in 
London," and perhaps BVen now it remains unsurpassed, his spacious 
and beautiful library, looking on the finest private garden in London. 
The w:ills lire covered half way up with rich and classical stores of 

literature; above the cases are in close series the portraits of eminent 
authors, Preneh ami English, with most of whom he had conversed: 
over these, and Immediately under the massive cornice, extend all round 

in foot-long capitals the Horatian lines: — 

'.1.1 IKt'M . UBnn NO. K.T . IXEKTIBUS . II« >UI^. 

DOGBBI . SOUOXT M . JUCOTTDJ . 08UVM . \ ■ 

Ob the manteLpleoea and oahrneti stand lm-is of old orators, Inter- 
spersed with voluptuous rases and bronaes, antique or Italian, and airy 

statuettes in marble OX alabaster, of nude or seminiide Opera iivmphs. 
II never recall that princeh r u without fancying Chesterfield 

ng In it a visit of his only child's mother while probably some 

new favourite was shcllereil m the dim mysterious little boudoir 

within which still remalni also In it i original blue damask and fretted 
gold-work, as described to Madame de I -Quarterly fievuw. 

No. 152, p. 484. 



HOLLAND HOUSE. 19 

Lord Chesterfield, in his Letters to his Son, speaks of the 
Canonical pillars of his house, meaning the columns brought 
from Cannons, the seat of the Duke of Chandos. The grand 
staircase came from the same magnificent house. Observe. — 
Portrait of the poet Spenser ; Sir Thomas Lawrence's un- 
finished portrait of himself ; and a lantern of copper-gilt for 
18 candles, bought by the Earl of Chesterfield at the sale at 
Houghton, the seat of Sir Robert Walpole. Stanhope-street, 
adjoining the house (also built by Lord Chesterfield), stands 
on ground belonging to the Dean and Chapter of Westminster. 
Lord Chesterfield died (1773) in this house, desiring by will 
that his remains might be buried in the next burying-place 
to the place where he should die, and that the expense of 
his funeral might not exceed 100Z. He was accordingly in- 
terred in Grosvenor Chapel, in South Audley-street, but his 
remains were afterwards removed to Shelford in Notting- 
hamshire. 

HOLLAND HOUSE, Kensington, two miles from Hyde- 
Park-corner (during the life of the late Lord Holland, the 
meeting-place for Whig politicians, for poets, painters, critics, 
and scholars), was built in 1607 (John Thorpe, architect) for 
Sir Walter Cope, whose daughter and co-heir married Henry 
Rich (second son of Robert, Earl of Warwick), created by 
King James I., Baron Kensington and Earl of Holland, and. 
beheaded (1619) for services rendered to King Charles I. 
The widow of Robert Rich, Earl of Holland and Earl of 
Warwick, was married, in 1716, to Addison, the poet, and 
here, at Holland House, occurred that " awful scene," as 
Johnson has called it, with the Earl of Warwick, a young 
man of very irregular life and loose opinions. " I have sent 
for you," said Addison, " that you may see how a Christian 
can die ! " after which he spoke with difficulty, and soon 
expired. On the death, in 1759, of Edward Rich, the last 
Earl of Holland and Warwick, the house descended by 
females to William Edwardes, created Baron Kensington, 
and by him was sold to Henry Fox, first Baron Holland of 
that name, and father of Charles James Fox. Lord Holland 
died here, July 1st, 1774. During his last illness, George 
Selwyn called and left his card ; Selwyn had a fondness for 
seeing dead bodies, and the dying lord, fully comprehending 
his feeling, is said to have remarked, " If Mr. Selwyn calls 
again, show him up ; if I am alive I shall be delighted to sec 
him, and if I am dead he would like to see me." The late 
Lord Holland called on Lord Lansdowne a little before his 
death, and showed him an epitaph, composed by himself 

c2 



20 BATH HOUSE. 

for himself. u Here lies Henry Vassal] Fox, Lord Holland, 
&c., who was drowned while sitting in Lis elbow-chair ; " 
he died in this house in his elbow-chair of water in the 
chest. 

" It will be a great pity when this ancient house must come down, ami 
give way to rows and crescents. It is not that Holland House is fine as 
a building — on the contrary, it has a tumble-down look; and although 
decorated with the bastard-gothic of James I.'s time, the front is heavy. 
But it resembles many respectable matrons, who, having been abso- 
lutely ugly during youth, acquire by age an air of dignity. But one is 
chiefly affected by the air of deep seclusion which is spread around the 
domain." — Sir Walter Scott. 

The stone gateway close to the house (on the east) was de- 
signed by Inigo Jones, and carved by Nicholas Stone, master- 
mason to James I. The raised terrace in front was made 
in 1847-48. William III. and his queen resided in Holland 
House while negotiating for the purchase of what is now Ken- 
sington Palace. 

UXBFJDGE HOUSE, Burlington Gardens. The town- 
house of the Marquis of Anglesea (who led the English 
horse at the Battle of "Waterloo), built in 1792 by Vardy, 
(architect of Spencer House and of the Horse Guards), on the 
site of Queensbury House (built by Leoni, 1726), the London 
residence of the Duke and Duchess of Queensbury, who 
befriended Gay. 

BATH HOUSE, Piccadilly, No. 82, corner of Bolton- 
street. The residence of Lord Ashburton, built by Alexander 
Baring, first Lord Ashburton (d. 1848), on the site of the 
old Bath House, the residence of the Pulteneys. Here is a 
noble collection of Works of Art, selected with great good 
taste, and at a great expense. Pictures of the Dutch and 
Flemish Schools form the main part of the collection. 

Observe.— Tiiouwai.dsf.n's celebrated Mercury as the Slayer of Argus. 
"The transition from one action to another, as he ceases to play the 
Bute and takes the sword, is expressed with Incomparable animation. - ' — 
FPoapea.— LXOKABDO DA Vinci (¥)'. the Infant Christ asleep in the 
arms of the Virgin; an Angel lilting the quill ttma the bed.- l.i an: 
Virgin and Child.- Cobksooio ff): st. Peter, Bt Margaret, Bt Hary 

Magdalene, and Anthony of l'adua. GtlOBOIOHB ! a (iirl. with a very 
beautiful profile, lays one hand on the Bhonlder of her lover. — Titian: 
tho Daughter of Berodiaa with the head of Bt. John.— Paul Vuhi 

Christ on tlio .Mount of olives a Cabinet picture). A \ sir. a i I < ai: <o <m : 

the infant Christ asleep, and three Angels. — Doiubichhto : Moses 
before the Burning Bush<— Gussonro : Bt Bebastian moaned by two 
Angels (a cabinet picture).- Mubillo: Bt Thomas of Villa Nuera,ai 
a child, distributes alms among (bur Beggar-boys; the Madonna sur- 
rounded by Angels: the Virgin and child on clouds surrounded by 
three Angels; Chrisi looking np t<> Bearon.- Vblasqubz: ■ Btag 
Hunt — Rubknb: the Wolf Hunt -a celebrated picture painted in 1612. 
" Tlie fire of a fine dappled grey horse, which carries Rubens himself, Is 



BURLINGTON HOUSE. 21 

expressed with incomparable animation. Next him, on a brown horse, 
is his first wife, Caroline Brant, with a falcon on her hand." — Waagen. 
Rape of the Sabines ; reconciliation of tbe Romans and Sabines. 
" Both these sketches are admirably composed, and in every respect 
excellent ; few pictures of Rubens, even of his most finished works, give 
a higher idea of his genius." — air Joshua Reynolds. — Vandyck : the 
Virgin Mary, with the Child upon her lap, and Joseph seated in a land- 
scape looking at the dance of eight Angels ; Count Nassau in armour 
(three-quarter size) ; one of the Children of Charles I. with flowers 
(bust) ; Charles I. (full-length) ; Henrietta Maria (full-length).— Rem- 
brandt : Portrait of Himself at an advanced age ; Portrait of a middle- 
aged Man ; Lieven Von Coppenol (the celebrated writing-master) with 
a sheet of paper in his hand (very fine); two Portraits (Man and Wife). 
— G. Dow : a Hermit praying before a crucifix. " Of all Dow's pictures 
of this kind, this is carried the furthest in laborious execution." — 
Waagen. — Terburg : a Girl in a yellow jacket, with a lute. — G. Metzu: 
a Girl in a scarlet jacket. " In the soft bright manner of Metzu ; 
sweetly time to nature, and in the most perfect harmony."— Waagen. — 
Netscher : Boy leaning on the sill of a window, blowing bubbles. u Of 
the best time of the master." — Waagen. — A. Vaxderwerff : St. Mar- 
garet treading on the vanquished Dragon. — J ax Steen : an Alehouse, 
a composition of thirteen figures. "A real jewel." — Waagen. Playing 
at Skittles. — De Hooghe : a Street in Utrecht, a Woman and Child 
walking in the sunshine (very fine). — Texiers : the Seven Works of 
Mercy: the picture so celebrated by the name of La Manchot; Portrait 
of Himself (whole-length, in a black Spanish costume) ; Court Yard 
of a Village Alehouse ; a Landscape, with Cows and Sheep. — A. Ostade : 
(Several fine). — I. Ostade : Village Alehouse. — Paul Potter : Cows, 
&c, marked with his name and the date 1652 ; Oxen butting each 
other in play; the Church Steeple of Haarlem" at a distance.— A. Van- 
dervelde : the Hay Harvest ; Three Cows, &c. — Berghem : " Here we 
see what the master could do." — Waagen .— Karel du Jardix : a Water- 
mill. "One of the most charming pictures of the master." — Waagen. — 
Philip Wouvermaxs. — Cuyp. — Wynaxts. — Ruysdael.— Hobbema.— 
W. Vaxdervelde : "la petite Flotte." — Backhuysex. — Vaxder Hey- 
dex : Market-place of Henskirk, near Haarlem. — Van Huy-sam : Flower 
Pieces. — Holbeix : a Head. " The drawing very good ; admirably 
executed in the yellowish-brown tone of his earlier period." — Waagen — 
Sir Joshua Reyxolds : Head of Ariadne. 

BURLINGTON HOUSE, Piccadilly, the residence of 
the Hon. Charles Cavendish, stands between Bond-street and 
Sackville-street, and is the second house that has stood in the 
same site. The first house so called was built by Boyle, 
Lord Burlington ; and the second and present house by his 
son, Richard Boyle, Lord Burlington, the architect. The 
walls and ceilings were painted for the Earl by Marco 
Ricci. 

" Few in this vast city suspect, I believe, that behind an old brick 
wall in Piccadilly there is one of the finest pieces of architecture in 
Europe."— Sir William Chambers. 

" As we have few samples of architecture more antique and imposing 
than that colonnade, I cannot help mentioning the effect it had on 
myself. I had not only never seen it, but had never heard of it, at least 
with any attention, when, soon after my return from Italy, I was 
invited to a ball at Burlington-house. As I passed under the gate by 



22 HERTFORD HOUSE. 

night, it could not strike me. At daybreak, looking ont of the windows 
to see the sun-rise, I was surprised with the vision of the colonnade that 
fronted me. It seemed one of those edifices in fairy-tales that are raised 
by genii in a night-time." — Horace Walpole. 

Lord Burlington was born in 1695, and died in 1735, when 
the title became extinct, and Burlington House the property 
of the Dukes of Devonshire. The lease expired in 1809, and 
there was some talk of taking it down, when a renewal was 
obtained by Lord George Cavendish (afterwards Earl of 
Burlington), son of William, fourth Duke of Devonshire, and 
grandson of the architect. A print by Hogarth, called " The 
Man of Taste, containing a view of Burlington Gate," repre- 
sents Kent on the summit in his threefold capacity of 
painter, sculptor, and architect, flourishing his palette and 
pencils over the heads of Ins astonished supporters, Michael 
Angelo and Raphael. On a scaffold, a little lower down, 
Pope stands, whitewashing the front, and while he makes 
the pilasters of the gateway clean, his wet brush bespatters 
the Duke of Chandos, who is passing by ; Lord Burlington 
serves the poet in the capacity of a labourer, and the date of 
the print is 1731. Kent was patronised by Lord Burlington. 
Handel lived for three years in this house. 

" — Burlington's fair palace still remains, 
Beauty within — without, proportion reigns ; 
Beneath his eye declining art revives, 
The wall with animated pictures lives. 
There Handel strikes the strings, the melting strain 
Transports the soul, and thrills through every vein ; 
There oft I enter— but with cleaner shoes. 
For Burlington's beloved by every Muse."— Gay, Trivia. 

The Duke of Portland, when Minister in tho reign of George 
III., resided in Burlington House. 

HARCOURT HOUSE, Cavendish Square, west side, 
concealed by a high and dilapidated brick wall, the 
residence of Bentinck, Duke of Portland, father of the late 
Lord George Bentinck, one of tho richest of the English 
aristocracy. It was built by Lord Bingley, and originally 
called Bingley House. 

HERTFORD HOUSE, Piccadilly, corner of Engiuc-st reet, 
built (1850-f>b by Richard Seymour Conway, Marquis of 
Hertford — the principal Btone-work in the facade having 

funned part of tho old Pulteney Hotel, where the Emperor 
of Russia put up during the ineinorahlo visit of the allied 
sovereigns in 1814, and where tho Duchess of Oldcnburgh 



SIR ROBERT PEEL'S. MR. HOPE'S. 23 

(the Emperor Alexander's sister) introduced Prince Leopold 
to the Princess Charlotte. The gallery, 50 feet long, 25 feet 
wide, and 34 feet high, is immediately above the dining-room, 
and contains many purchases made by the Marquis from 
the finest portion of the gallery of the King of Holland. 
Observe. — The Water-Mill, the chef-d'oeuvre of Hobbema ; la 
Vierge de Pade, the masterpiece of Andrea del Sarto ; Por- 
trait of Philippe and Portrait of Madame le Roy, two noble 
specimens of Vandyck ; Holy Family, by Rubens, bought at 
Mr. Higginson's sale in 1846, for 2478J. ; the Unme»cjful 
Servant, by Rembrandt, from Stowe, cost 2300J. 

HOUSE OF SIR ROBERT PEEL, in Privy Gardens, 
contains a very fine collection of Dutch, Flemish, and 
English pictures, formed by the late Sir Robert Peel, at 
great cost, and with extreme good taste. The collection 
ornaments the walls of rooms in the daily occupation of the 
family, and consequently cannot be very often shown to 
strangers. The Dutch and Flemish Pictures, some 72 in 
number, consist of 3 by Rembrandt ; 2 by Rubens (the 
well-known Chapeau de Paille, bought by Sir Robert Peel 
for 3500 guineas, and the Triumph of Silenus, bought for 
1100Z.) ; 2 by Van Dyck, a Genoese Senator and his wife, 
bought at Genoa by Sir David Wilkie ; 7 by D. Teniers ; 

2 by Isaac Ostade, one a Village Scene, very fine; 1 by 
Adrian Ostade; 1 by Jan Steen; 1 by Terburg ; 2 by 
G. Metzu ; 1 by F. Mieris ; 1 by W. Mieris ; 1 by G. Douw, 
the Poulterer's Shop, fine ; 3 by Cuyp, one an Old Castle, 
very fine ; 4 by Hobbema, one very fine, the ducks and 
geese by Wyntrank, and the figures by Lingelback ; 2 by 
De Hooghe ; one by Paul Potter; 3 by Ruysdael ; 2 by 
Backhuysen ; 1 by Berghem ; 1 by Gonzales Coques ; 3 by 
Karel du Jardin ; 6 by Wowermans ; 2 by Vander Heyden ; 

3 by A. Yandervelde, one a Calm, very fine; 8 by W. Yander- 
velde ; 1 by F. Snyders ; 2 by Wynants ; 1 by Slingelandt ; 
1 by Jan. Lingelback ; 1 by Moucheron and A. Yandervelde ; 
3 by Gaspar Netscher. The late Sir Robert Peel died (1850) 
in the dining-room of this house — the room towards the river. 

HOUSE OF HENRY THOMAS HOPE, Esq., M.P. In 
Piccadilly, at the corner of Down-street, built 184S-49, from 
the designs of M. Dusillon and Mr. Donaldson. The handsome 
iron railing in front was cast at Pai'is, by Mons. J. P. V. Andre. 
The cost of the whole building is said to have been 30,000£. 
Mr. Hope is the possessor of the celebrated collection of 
pictures (Dutch especially) formed at the Hague by the 



24 MB. HOPE'fl. 

family of the Hopes — and described by Sir Joshua Reynolds 
in his journey to Flauders and Holland in 1771. Observe : — 

Va\ Pyck: The Assumption of the Virgin. i- A faint picture. She 
is surrounded by little angels ; one of them is peeping archly at you 
under a bundle of drapery, with which he has covered himself: this 
comiealness is a little out of its place." — Sir J. II. Charity. Virgin 
and Child. "A good but not important picture." — Waagen. — Rcbens : 
The Shipwreck of ^Eneas ; the clouds in Mr. Turner's manner. " Highly 
poetical in the design, and executed in a most masterly manner in a deep 
full tone." — Waagen. — Claude: Landscape. "An old very pretty copy 
of the fine picture in the Dresden Gallery." — Waagen.— S. Rosa : Land- 
scape.— I v.MF.Ni. hixo : St. Sebastian. — Giorgione: Judith with the 
Head of Holofernes. — Rembrandt: Young Woman in an Arm-chair by 
which a Man is standing. " One of the rare family portraits of this 
master in whole-length figures. — Waagen. — Backiuysen: Sea Piece 
with Ships. " A large and capital picture." — Sir J. It. — Nktscher : Lady 
at a Window with Parrot and Ape, marked 1664. — J ax Steen : An 
Oyster Feast, " in which is introduced an excellent figure of Old Mieris, 
standing with his hands behind him. "— Sir J. B. — Lairesse : Death of 
Cleopatra. " Her figure is well drawn, and in an attitude of great 
grace ; but the style is degraded by the naturalness of the white satin, 
which is thrown over her. A woman lies dead at the feet of the bed. 
This picture is as highly finished as a Vanderwerf, but in a much better 
style excepting the drapery, which is not equal to Vanderwerf. Van- 
derwerf painted what may be truly called drapery; this of Lairesse is 
not drapery, it is white satin." — Sir J. R. — Van der Helst: Halt 
of Travellers. "In Van der Heist's middle and best period."— Waagen. 
Rembrandt : Our Saviour in the Tempest. " In this picture there is 
a great effect of light, but it is carried to a degree of affectation." — 
Sir J. E. — Terrurg : The Music Lesson (fine) ; the Trumpeter (fine). — 
P. Mieris: A Gentleman with a Violin; a young Woman with her 
back turned is making out the reckoning, marked 1660. " This picture, 
painted when he was only twenty-six years of age, is one of his great 
master-pieces." — Waagen. — Metzu : Woman reading a Letter. "The 
milkwoman who brought it, is in the meantime drawing a curtain 
a little on one side, in order to see the picture under it, which appears to 
be a sea view." — Sir J. Ii. Woman writing a Letter.— Sciiai.kkx : Man 
reading by Candlelight. " A carefully executed picture ; the impasto 
particularly good." — Waagen. — Ruysdael : Landscape, Cattle and 
Figures. — VbbkOUE: David and Uathsheba. — A. Vandkrvei.de: 
Cattle at a Watering-place; an evening scene; a wonderful picture; 
perhaps the finest Adrian Vandervelde in the world. — P. de Hooge : 
An Interior, with Figures. " Spoiled by cleaning."— Waagen. — Wi urrx: 
A Dead Swan and Dead Hair. " Perfect every way; beyond Honde- 
koeter." — Sir J. B. — Vandbbwbbf: The incredulity of St Thomas. 
"The drapery of st. Thomas is excellent; the folds long-continued 
unite witli each other, and arc varied with great art." — SirJ.R. (On 
the Screen). — D. Tbhibbs : Soldiers playing a1 Backgammon.— Q. i>"\\ : 
" a Woman at a Window with a Hare in her Hand. Bright colouring 
ami well drawn: a dead cock, cabbage, and carrots lying before her. 

The name of Gerard DOW is written on the lanthern which hangs on one 

side."- — s'/Y J. B.—D. Tbnibbb: Soidi.rs Smoking.— P. Pottbb; Exte- 
rior of Stable— Cattle and Figures. — P. W < >i \> i;m\\>: Halt of Hawking 
Party (fine). — A. Ostait. : Exterior of Cottage witli figures. — HoB- 
i-.i m \ : Wood Scenery. Tbbbubo: Trumpeter waiting itinei.— Wor> 
rBBKAVs: Cavaliers and Ladies. Bagpiper, dec. "The best lever saw." 
— -Sir J. B. — Mbtcu : Lady in blue velvet tunic and white satin petti- 
coat.— Crvr: Cattle and a Shepherd. " The beat 1 ever saw of him ; 



mr. rogers's. 25 

and the figure likewise is better than usual ; tmt the employment which 
he has given the shepherd in his solitude is not very poetical." — 
Sir J. R. — P. Gyzexs : Dead Swan and small Birds. " Highly finished 
and well coloured." — Sir J. R. 

Antiquities, Vases, &c. The antiques are, for the most part, unfor- 
tunately much disfigured by indifferent restorations, and there is much 
that was originally of little value. The vases consist of the second 
collection made by Sir William Hamilton at Naples ; and among them 
are several choice specimens. 

Some of the pictures enumerated above have been removed, 
it is understood, to Deepdene, Mr. Hope's beautiful seat near 
Dorking, in Surrey. I have, however, in a work of this 
nature, preferred describing the best of every collection, 
recently in London. Mode of admission : by cards obtained 
on personal introduction from the owner, on Mondays 
throughout the London season — April to July. 

HOUSE OF SAMUEL ROGERS, Esq., author of The 
Pleasures of Memory, is at No. 22, St. James's Place, looking 
on the Green Park. 

"If you enter his [Rogers's] house— his drawing-room, his library, — 
you of yourself say, this is not the dwelling of a common mind. There 
is not a gem, a coin, a book thrown aside on his chimney-piece, his sofa, 
his table, that does not bespeak an almost fastidious elegance in the 
possessor." — Lord Byron s Journal. 

Observe among Mr. Rogers's Pictures, &c, 

The Coronation of the Virgin, from the Aldobrandini Palace (Ann. 
Caracci). — The Virgin and Child, with Six Saints (L. Caracci). — The 
Mill, a small octagon landscape, from B. West's collection (Claude). — 
Large Landscape, from the Orleans collection (Claude). — A Young 
Knight, a study of Armour (Giorgione). — A Head of Christ, from West's 
collection (Guido). — Sketch for the large piece of Mary Magdalen 
anointing the feet of the Saviour, in the Durazzo Palace at Genoa 
(Paul Veronese). — Two large Compositions (X. Poussin). — The Virgin and 
Child, from the Orleans, Hibbert and Hope collections (Raphael).— Christ 
on the Mount of Olives, from the Orleans collection (Raphael). — A little 
picture in the early manner of Raphael, one compartment of the predella 
to the Altar Piece, executed in 1505 for the Nuns of St. Anthony at 
Perugia. — The Miracle of St. Mark, sketch for the large picture in the 
Museum at Venice (Tintoretto). — Study for the large picture of the 
Apotheosis of Charles V., in the Museum at Madrid (Titian). — Infant 
Don Balthazar on Horseback (Velasquez). — Study in black chalk for one 
of the seated figures in the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (Michael Angelo). 
—Three Original Drawings (Raphael).— Portrait of Hemmelinck by 
himself. — Virgin and Child; a small miniature painting (Hemmelinck). 
— Portrait of himself (Rembrandt). — Allegorical Sketch (Ditto).— Land- 
scape (Ditto).— Triumphal Procession after Andrea Mantegna (Rubens). 
— The Terrors of War, a study for the large picture in the Pitti Palace 
(Ditto).— Two Landscapes (Ditto).— A Landscape (Gainsborough). — A 
Landscape (R. Wilson) — Puck (Sir J. Reynolds).— The Strawberry Girl 
(Ditto). — The Sleeping Girl (Ditto).— A Girl with a Bird concealed in 
her hand (Ditto).— Cupid and Psyche (Ditto).— A Landscape ; View from 
his own house on Richmond Hill (Ditto). — A Frame, containing twelve 
Ancient Miniatures : Henry Lord Darnley, Queen Elizabeth, &c. — The 



26 MR. SHEEPSHANKS's. — MR. MUXRO's. 

basso relievos on each side of the drawing-room chimney-piece (Flaxman). 
—Cupid pouting, a small statue {Flaxman).— Psyche in a couching atti- 
tude (Flaxman). — Bust of Pope (Boubilinc). — Mahogany Table, earraa 1 
by Sir Francis Chantrey when Barring with a carver and gilder. — M. 
Angelo and Raphael, statuettes, executed for Sir Thomas Lawrence 
(Flaxman). — Cabinet, with the designs of Stothard : Canterbury Pilgri- 
mage, Garden of Boccacio, &c. — Milton's assignment of the copyright of 
Paradise Lost to Simmouds, the bookseller, for 15L — Dryden's agreement 
with Tonson for his translation of Virgil, witnessed by Congreve (the 
original). 
Mode of Admission.— A letter of introduction (the only mode). 

HOUSE OF JOHN SHEEPSHANKS, Esq. The large 
detached house (the last on the S.W. side of Rutland 
Gate, Hyde Park) was built by John Sheepshanks, Esq., 
a distinguished patron of British art, who has here 
assembled a choice and valuable collection of pictures by 
modern British artists. The works of Leslie, R.A., and 
Mulready, R.A., can nowhere be studied to greater advan- 
tage. Observe. — Highland Drovers, The Shepherd's Chief 
Mourner, Jack in Office, The Breakfast — all by Sir E. Land- 
seer ; Duncan Gray, and The Broken Jar, by Sir D. Wilkie ; 
Choosing the Wedding Gown, The Butt, Giving a Bite, First 
Love — all by Mr. Mulready, R A. ; Scene from the Merry 
Wives of Windsor, Uncle Toby and Widow Wadman, both 
by C. R. Leslie, R.A. Mode of Admission. — A letter of intro- 
duction (the only mode). 

HOUSE OF BARON LIONEL ROTHSCHILD, Picca- 
dilly, contains a few fine pictures : good specimen of Cuyp, 
"Skating;" a choice De Hooge, a good (Inuze. Head of a 
Girl, and The Pinch of Snuff, an early work of Wtikie; with 
a noble collection of hanaps, cups, &c, of fourteenth and fif- 
teenth century work ; rare old china, fine carvings in ivory, &c. 

HOUSE OF R. S. HOLFORD, Park Lane, Hyde Park. 
Mr. Holford'a house is not yet completed, but his pictures 
are to be seen at No. G5, Rusaellrsquare. Observe. — Very 
fine specimen of 1/obbema ; View of Dort from the River, by 
Cuyp, very fine; good examples of Claude, Both. Isaac 
(madt, fee. Mr. Holford ii a retired Russian merchant* and 
his country houso is at Wcstoiibirt. Tetbury, Gloucestershire. 

HOUSE OF H. A. J. MUNRO, ESQ., Hamii ton I'i u- 
< u'iii.y. last house on right-hand side Oteree. The Lucca 
afadonna and Child, by Raphael; BL Efttnoii Praying a 
small picture by Fifyppo Li)>i>i ; Landscape by <<'«*}>«>- routtin, 

fine; Les Deux Petitea SUUrquiseB, half-lengths, size of lite, 



HYDE PARK. 27 

by Watteau, very fine ; characteristic specimens of Jan Stem, 
one " After a Repast," very clever ; also, good, if not choice, 
specimens of Cuyp, Vandervelde, Backhuysen, &c. Mrs. Stan- 
hope, half-length, in white, by Sir Joshua Reynolds, very fine; 
5 fine Landscapes, by Richard Wilson; large View in Venice, 
the masterpiece of Bonington ; The Fishmarket, by Bonington ; 
The Good Samaritan, by Etty, a choice specimen; 2 fine 
Italian Landscapes, by Turner, in the best time of his second 
period. (See Hints and Suggestions, p. xxxix.) 



PARKS AND PUBLIC GARDENS. 

HYDE PARK. A park of 387 acres, containing the 
Great Exhibition or Crystal Palace, and deservedly looked 
upon as one of the lungs of London, connecting the Green 
Park with Kensington Gardens, and thus carrying a con- 
tinuous tract of open ground, or park, from Whitehall, to 
Kensington. The whole Park is intersected with well-kept 
footpaths, and the carriage drives are spacious and well at- 
tended. The Park is accessible for private carriages, but 
hackney-coaches and cabs are excluded. The triple archway 
at Hyde-Park-corner, combined with an iron screen, was 
erected in 1828 from the designs of Decimus Burton. It cost 
17,069?. Is. 9\d., including 1,000Z. to Mr. Henning for the 
bas-reliefs from the Elgin marbles which surround it. The 
Park derives its name from the Hyde, an ancient manor of 
that name adjoining Knightsbridge, and, until the dissolution 
of religious houses in the reign of Henry VIII., the property 
of the abbots and monks of Westminster. 

In this Park, in the London season, from April to July 
(between half past 5 and half past 6 p.m.), may be seen ah", 
the wealth and fashion and splendid equipages of the nobility 
and gentry of Great Britain. The bridle-road, running east 
and west of the Industrial Exhibition, is called Rotten Row, 
a corruption it is supposed of Route du Roi — King's Drive, 
and the sheet of water called the Serpentine was formed by 
Caroline, Queen of George II. The boats may be hired by 
the hour. Certain traces of the Ring, formed in the reign of 
Charles I. and long celebrated, may be recognised by the 
large trees somewhat circularly arranged in the centre of the 
Park. Near the Humane Society's Receiving-house (on the 
north bank of the Serpentine) is the great government store 
of gunpowder. In this house alone upwards of one million 



28 st. james's tark. 

rounds of ball and blank ammunition arc kept ready for 
immediate use. A review of troops in Hyde Park is a sight 
worth seeing, but reviews of late years have been of very 
rare occurrence. They usually take place in June or July. 
Observe. — Statue of Achilla, "inscribed by the women of 
England, to Arthur, Duke of Wellington, and his brave com- 
panions in arms," erected in Hyde Park, as the inscription 
sets forth, "on the 18th of June, 1822, by command of his 
Majesty George IV." The statue was cast by Sir K. \\Y i 
macott, R. A., from cannon taken in the victories of Salamanca, 
Vittoria, Toulouse, and Waterloo, and the cost was defrayed 
by a subscription of 10,000?., raised among the ladies. The 
figure is copied from one of the famous antiques on the 
Monte Oavallo, at Rome, but most antiquaries agree that 
Achilles is a gross misnomer. The Marble Arch, facing 
Great Cumberland-street (near where Tyburn formerly 
stood), was moved from Buckingham Palace in 1850 and 
erected here in 1851. The original cost was 80,000/., and the 
cost of removal 11,0007. The equestrian statue of George IV., 
now in Trafalgar-square, was intended for the top of this 
arch. S. front of arch by Baily ; N. by Sir R. Westmacott. 

ST. JAMES'S PARK. A park of 83 acres (shaped not 
unlike a boy's kite), originally appertaining to the Palace of 
St. James's; first formed and walled in by Henry VIII. ; re- 
planted and beautified by Charles II.; and finally arranged bj 
George IV., much as we now see it, in 1827-28-29. What 
I shall call the head of the kite is bordered by three of the 
principal public offices: the Horse Guards in the centre, the 
Admiralty on its right, and the Treasury 0O Ltfl hit. The 
tail of the kite is occupied by Buckingham Palace : its north 
side by the Green Park. Ktaif'ord House, St. James's Palace. 
Marlborough House, Carlton-House-terrace, and Carlton 
Ride; and its right or south side by Queen-square, and 
the Wellington Barracks for part of the Household Troops, 
erected in 1834. The gravelled space in front of the Horse 
Guards is called the Parade, and formed a pari of the Tilt 
Yard <>f Whitehall : the north side is railed the Mall, and the 

south the Birdcage-walk. Milton lived in a house in Petty 
Prance, with a garden roacihuig into the Birdcage-walk, Nell 

( Jwyn in Pall Mall, with a garden with a mOUnd and terrace at 
the end, overlooking the Mall : and Lord Chancellor J cileries, 
in the large brick house north of Storey's Qate, with ■ flight 
of stone steps into the Park. This celebrated Park, with 

its broad gravel walks and winding sheet Of Water, was, 
till the time of Charles II., little more than a gram park, 



■ * Is a * ^ • 




HYDE PA UK. 



30 GREEN rARK. 

with a few trees irregularly planted, and a number of little 
ponds. Charles II. threw the several ponds (Rosamond's 
Pond excepted) into one artificial canal, built a decoy for 
ducks, a small ringfence for deer, planted trees in even 
ranks, and introduced broad gravel walks in place of narrow 
and winding footpaths. Charles I., attended by Bishop 
Juxon and a regiment of foot (part before and part behind 
him), walked, Jan. 30th, 1648-49, through this Park from St. 
James's Palace to the scaffold at "Whitehall. He is said on 
his way to have pointed out a tree near Spring Gardens, as 
planted by his brother Prince Henry. Here Cromwell took 
Whitelocke aside and sounded the Memorialist on the subject 
of a King Oliver. Some of the trees in this Park, planted 
and watered by King Charles II. himself, were acorns from 
the royal oak at Boscobel; none, however, are now to be 
seen. St. Evremont, a French Epicurean wit, was keeper of 
the ducks in St. James's Park in the reign of Charles II. 

Observe. — Fronting the Horse Guards, the mortar cast at 
Seville, by order of Napoleon, employed by Soult at Cadiz, 
and left behind in the retreat of the French army after the 
battle of Salamanca. It was presented to the Prince Regent 
by the Spanish government. I have been informed by an 
officer of the Royal Engineers (often fired upon by this very 
mortar) that the heaviest shell it carried weighed about 
108 lbs., and that its extreme range was 6220 yards. The 
same officer added, that he had seen a shell from this piece 
of ordnance range into Cadiz, when the whole of that 
splendid square, the Plaza de San Antonio, was crowded 
with the rank and fashion of the place, and fall most accu- 
rately in the centre of the square without injuring a single 
individual. The ducks in the park belong to the Ornitho- 
logical Society. In January, 1846, the collection contained 
upwards of 300 birds, including 21 species and 51 distinct 
varieties. The Park was lighted with gas in 1822. The 
road connecting St. James's Park with Hyde Park, and 
skirting the garden wall of Buckingham Palace, now called 
Constitution Bill, was long known as u The King's Coach- way 
to Kensington." It was in the upper end of this road that 
Sir Robert Peel was thrown (1850) from his horse and 
killed In this road Queen Victoria has been fired at by 
three idiots on thrco several occasions. 

QREBN PARK. An open ana of 71 acres between 

Piccadilly and St. James's Park, Constitution-hill, and the 

houses of Arlington-street and St. James's -place. It was occa- 
sionally called Upper St. James's Park, and was once much 



River Thames. 




Ap6ley House- ^ Hyde Pork Corner. 
ST. JAMES'S PARK AND ITS VICINITY. 



32 regent's park. 

larger, George III. reducing it in 1767, to enlarge the gardens 
of old Buckingham House. The Green Park owes much of its 
present beauty to the taste and activity of Lord Duncannon 
(the late Earl of Bessborough), when chief Commissioner of 
the Woods and Forests, during the Grey and Melbourne 
administrations. Observe. — On the E. side of the Park, 
Stafford House, the residence of the Duke of Sutherland ; 
Bridgeicater House, the residence of the Earl of Ellesmere ; 
Spencer House, the residence of Earl Spencer ; the brick house 
with five windows, built in 1747, by Flitcroft, for the cele- 
brated Lady Hervey; 22, St. James's-place (next a narrow 
opening), distinguished by bow windows and a pink blind, 
the residence of the Poet Rogers ; Earl of YarborougKs, in 
Arlington-street, built by Kent, for Henry Pelhain. The 
small gardens attached to the houses belong to the Crown, 
but are let on lease to the owners of the houses. In tins 
park, fronting the house in Arlington-street, was fought the 
duel with swords, between Mr. Pulteney, afterwards Earl of 
Bath, and John, Lord Hervey, the Fanny of the poet Pope. 

REGENT'S PARK, a park of 403 acres, part of old Mary- 
lebone Park, for a long time disparked, and familiarly known 
as Marylebone Farm and Fields. The present Park was laid 
out in 1812, from the plans of Mr. John Nash, Architect, who 
designed all the terraces except Cornwall-terrace, which was 
designed by Mr. Decimus Burton. The Park derives its name 
from the Prince Regent, afterwards George IV., who intended 
building a residence here on the N.E. side of the Park. Part 
of Regent-street was actually designed as a communication 
from the Prince's residence to Carlton House, St. James's 
Palace, &c. The Crown property comprises, besides the Park, 
the upper part of Portland-place, from No. 8, — the Park- 
crescent and square, Albany, Osnaburgh, and the adjoining 
cross streets, York and Cumberland-squares, Regent's- Park- 
basin and Augustus-street, Park- villages E. and W., and the 
outer road. The Zoological Gardens occupy a large portion 
of the upper end of the Park. The Holme, a villa in the 
centre of the Park, so called, was erected by Mr. William 
Burton, architect, who covered with houses the Foundling 
H os pital and Skinner estates ; and erected York and Corn- 
wa jpterraces, in this Park. Through the midst of the Park, 
on a bine with Portland-place and along the EL sido 
of the Zoological Gardens, runs a fine broad avenue lined 
with trees, and from which footpaths ramify across the 
sward m a ^ directions, interspersed with ornamental planta- 
tions • l^d out m 1833, and opened to the public in 



St. Katherine'a 
Hospital. 




p To Great 
festern Railway, 



to City. 



REGENT'S PARK. 



34 GREENWICH PARK. 

1838. Around the Park runs an agreeable drive nearly two 
miles long. Au inner drive, in the form of a circle, encloses 
the Botanic Gardens. Contiguous to the inner circle is 
St. John's Lodge, seat of Baron Sir Isaac Lyon Goldsmid, 
overlooking a beautiful sheet of water, close to which is the 
garden of the Toxopholite Society. On the outer road is the 
villa of James Holford, Esq. St. Dunstan's Villa, somewhat 
S. of Mr. Holford's, was erected by Decimus Burton for the 
late Marquis of Hertford. In its gardens are placed the 
identical clock and automaton strikers which once adorned 
St. Dunstan's Church in Fleet-street. When old St. Dunstan's 
was pulled down the giants were put up to auction, and 
the marquis became their purchaser. They still do duty in 
striking the hours and quarters. In the chapel of St. Kathe- 
rine's Hospital, on the E. side of the Park, is the tomb of 
John Holland, Duke of Exeter (d. 1447), and his two wives; 
and a pulpit of wood, the gift of Sir Julius Caesar ; both re- 
moved, in 1827, from St. Katherine's at the Tower. 

VICTOEIA PARK, Bethnal Green, a park of 160 acres, 
planted and laid out in the reign of the Sovereign whose 
name it bears. The first cost of formation was covered by 
the purchase-money received from the Duke of Sutherland, to 
whom the remainder of the Crown lease of York House, St. 
James's, was sold in 1841 for 72,000Z. It is bounded on the 
S. by Sir George Duckett's canal (sometimes called the Lea 
Union Canal) ; on the W. by the Regent's Canal ; on the E. 
by Old Ford-lane, leading from Old Ford to Hackney Wick ; 
and on the N. by an irregular line of fields. It serves as a 
lung for the N.E. part of London, and has already added to 
the health of the inhabitants of Spitalfields and Bethnal-green. 
The leases of building ground surrounding the Park have 
been delayed till the roads and walks become more perfect, 
and the plantations in a more advanced state. 

BATTERSEA PARK, a government Park on the banks of 
the Thames, over against Chelsea Hospital ; formed at a cost 
of 200,000Z., pursuant to 9 and 10 Vic, c. 38. 

GREENWICH PARK, a park of 174 acres, extending from 
the high ground of Blackheath down to the Thames at 
Greenwich Hospital, agreeably diversified with hill and dale, 
and from " One Tree Hill " and another eminence on which 
the Royal Observatory is erected, commanding a noble view 
of London and the river Thames. The Observatory was 
established in the reign of Charles II., and Flamstead, Halley, 
and Brat; ^y, wore the first three Astronomers Royal. The 



KENSINGTON GARDENS. 35 

older portion of the building was erected from the designs of 
Sir Christopher Wren. The lower portion of the tower is 
the residence of Mr. Airy, the present Astronomer Royal. 
"Greenwich Time," celebrated over the whole world, is marked 
every day at 1 o'clock, by the dropping of the Time Ball — a 
black ball about six feet in diameter surmounting the eastmost 
turret of the old building. There is no admission to the 
Observatory for strangers, visitors, &c, — the Astronomical, 
Magnetical, and Meteorological observations conducted in the 
several rooms requiring silence and retirement. The salary 
of the Astronomer Royal is 8001. a year, and the whole 
Observatory is maintained at the expense of about 4000Z. a year. 
A trip down the river to Greenwich, a visit to Greenwich 
Hospital, a stroll in Greenwich Park, and a dinner after at the 
Trafalgar Hotel or the Crown and Sceptre, will be found a 
delightful way of passing an afternoon, from 1, of a fine 
summer's day, till it is time to return home for bed in the 
cool of the evening. This beautiful Park — the Park of the 
Royal manor of Greenwich — was planted, much as we now see 
it, in the reign of Charles II. Le Notre, it is said, was the 
artist employed ; but his name does not occur in the accounts 
for the plantations made by Charles II. 

RICHMOND PARK, 9 miles from London, and 1 from 
the Station of the Richmond Railway: — the Park of the Royal 
manor of Richmond, owing much of its present beauty to 
King Charles I. and King George II. The principal entrance 
is close to the Star and Garter Inn. Be sure and enter by 
this gate, keeping to the right (as you enter) for about half 
a mile past Pembroke Lodge, the residence of Lord John 
Russell. The view begins a few yards within the gate, is 
stopped by the inclosure of Pembroke Lodge ; but soon Re- 
appears. The view overlooking the Thames is not to be 
surpassed. An afternoon at Richmond and Twickenham, 
and a dinner afterwards in the Coffee Room of the Star and 
Garter, will make a capital pendant to an afternoon at 
Greenwich. 

KENSINGTON GARDENS. Pleasure-grounds attached 
to Kensington Palace, and open to the public, but not 
to be traversed by carriages. They are much resorted to by 
equestrians ; and, till 1851, by children and nursemaids, 
seeking air and exercise. The stranger in London should, 
during the London season, make a point of visiting these 
Gardens, between 5 and 6 p.m. on certain week days, when 
the band plays. The Gardens are then filled with gaily 
dressed promenaders, and the German will be reminded of 

D 2 



36 HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 

the scene in the Prater. The days are not fixed, but every 
information about them may be obtained of any of the lodge- 
keepers at Hyde Park or Kensington Gardens. The band 
belongs to the regiment stationed at the Knightsbridge bar- 
racks, and is either the Horse Guards' or the Life Guards' 
band. Kensington Gardens were laid out in the reign of 
William III., by London and Wise, and originally consisted 
of only 26 acres; Queen Anne added 30 acres, under Bridge- 
man's superintendence, and Caroline (Queen of George II.) 
300 under the care of Kent. The Serpentine was formed 
1730-33; and the bridge over it, separating the Gardens 
from Hyde Park, was designed by Rennie, and erected 1826. 

KEW BOTANICAL GARDENS, 5 miles from Hyde Park 
Corner, on the road to Richmond. The gardens have been 
laid out under the direction of Sir W. Jackson Hooker, the 
Botanist. The best way of reaching Kew is by one of the 
White Richmond or red-coloured Kew Bridge omnibuses that 
leave Piccadilly every quarter of an hour — fare Is. ; and the 
best account of the Gardens is Sir W. Hooker's own little 
Handbook, to be purchased at the Gardens, price 6d. The 
entrance is on Kew Green, by very handsome gates, designed 
by Decimus Burton. Visitors are obliged to leave baskets 
and parcels with the porter at the gate. The Palm House, 
the leading attraction of the Gardens, is 362 feet long, 100 
feet wide, 64 feet high, and cost nearly 30,000Z. Here, too, 
the Victoria Regia may be seen. 

Among the hothouses — that devoted to Cactuses is alone 
worth going 5 miles to see. Here are specimens whose 
thickness exceeds that of the body of a man — brought 700 
miles from the interior of South America. 

Che Botanical Museum, formed by Sir W. Hooker, is filled 
with vegetable objects, most instructive and interesting. 
The Gardens are beautifully kept, prettily laid out, and most 
creditable to the present director. In short, London and 
its neighbourhood affords no more pleasing sight. The 
Gardens are open daily. (See Hints and Suggestions, p. xlvii.) 
Gentlemen requiring good gardeners can occasionally obtain 
them here; the Royal Gardens at Kew forming a kind of 
horticultural college, to which even foreign gardeners are 
constantly seeking to be admitted. The salary of the Director 
is 800?. a year. 



HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 

THE HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT, or The New Palace 
at Westminster, on the left bank of the Thames, between 




GROUND PLAN OF THE NEW HOUSES OP PARLIAMENT. 



HOUSES OY PARLIAMENT. 'Si 

the river and Westminster Abbey. This is one of the most 
magnificent buildings ever erected continuously in Europe — 
probably the largest Gothic edifice in the world. It occupies 
the site of the old Royal Palace at Westminster, burnt 
down Oct. 16th, 1834, and covers an area of nearly 8. acres. 
The architect is Charles Barry, R.A., and the first stone 
was laid April 27th, 1840. In its style and character the 
building reminds us of those magnificent civic palaces, the 
town-halls of the Low Countries, — at Ypres, Ghent, Louvain, 
and Brussels, — and a similarity in its destination renders 
the adoption of that style more appropriate than any form 
of classic architecture. The stone employed for the ex- 
ternal masonry is a magnesian limestone from Anston in 
Yorkshire, selected with great care from the building stones 
of England by commissioners appointed in 1839 for that 
purpose. The River Terrace is of Aberdeen granite. 
There is very little wood about the building ; all the main 
beams and joists are of iron; and the Houses of Parliament, 
it is said, can never be burnt down again. The E., or the 
River Front, may be considered the principal. This magni- 
ficent facade, 900 feet in length, is divided into five principal 
compartments, panelled with tracery, and decorated with 
rows of statues and shields of arms of the Kings and Queens 
of England, from the Conquest to the present time. The 
W. or Land Front is as yet in an imperfect state, but will, 
it is believed, surpass in beauty and picturesqueness any of 
the others, though, from the nature of the ground, it will 
not be in an uninterrupted line. A new facade is to replace 
the Law Courts, but is not yet commenced. 

The Royal or Victoria Tower, at the S.-W. angle, one of the 
most stupendous works of the kind ever conceived, contains 
the Royal Entrance, is 75 feet square, and will rise to the im- 
mense height of 340 feet, or 64 feet less than the height of the 
cross of St. Paul's. The entrance archway of this noble struc- 
ture is 65 feet in height, and is covered with a rich and beauti- 
fully worked groined stone vault, while the interior is deco- 
rated with the statues of the patron saints of England, Scotland, 
and Ireland, and with a statue of her present Maj esty, supported 
on either side by figures emblematical of Justice and Mercy. 
This stately tower (supplying what Wren considered West- 
minster was so much in need of) will not be finished till the 
building is very near completion, the architect considering it 
of importance that the works should not proceed, on account 
of its great height and the danger of settlements, at a greater 
rate than 30 feet a-year. The Central Tower, 60 feet in diameter, 
and 300 feet high to the top of the lantern surmounting it, 



38 HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 

rises above the Grand Central Octagonal Hall, which reminds 
one of the glorious Chapter Houses attached to our English 
Cathedrals, but exceeds them in size ; and its exquisitely- 
groined stone vault is supported without a central pillar. The 
Clock Tower, abutting on Westminster Bridge, is 40 feet square, 
and surmounted above the clock with a richly decorated 
belfry spire, rising to a height of about 320 feet. Various 
other subordinate towers break the line of the roofs, and by 
their picturesque forms and positions add materially to the 
effect of the whole building. 

The Westminster Bridge end contains the apartments of 
the Speaker and the Serjeant-at-arms, and the Vauxhall 
Bridge end the apartments of the Usher of the Black Bod 
and the Lords' librarian. Above these a long range of rooms 
has been appropriated to Committees of either House. The 
statues in and about the building will exceed in number 450. 

The principal public Entrances are through Westminster 
Hall, from Old Palace Yard, and both lead into the Central 
Octagon Hall, whence the right-hand passage will take you 
to the Lords, and the left to the Commons. This magni- 
ficent hall is covered with a groined roof, containing 
upwards of 250 elaborately carved bosses. Westminster 
Hall, together with the ancient cloisters (now augmented 
by an upper story and stair — a gem of florid Gothic 
architecture) and crypt of St. Stephen's (the only remains 
of the ancient Palace), have been skilfully incorporated 
into the new building. Westminster Mall has been some- 
what altered in detail internally, to make it accord 
more with the style of the rest of the building. The archi- 
tect has planned that the walls, below the windows, should 
be decorated with a series of historical paintings, and that 
there should be two tiers of pedestals, to be occupied by 
figures of those eminent Englishmen to whom Parliament 
may decree the honour of a statue. The conception is grand, 
and appropriate to the building in which so many English- 
men have been distinguished. 

The Royal Entrance is under the Victoria Tower, and leads 
to the Norman Porch, so called from the frescoes illustrative 
of the Norman history of this country and the figures of the 
Norman Kings, with which it is proposed to be decorated. 

On the right hand is the Robing Room, a spacious apartment 
in the south front of the building, intended to be fitted up 
with much magnificence. After the ceremony of robing, 
which takes place in this room, her Majesty will pass through 
a magnificent chamber 110 feet in length, 45 in width, and 
45 feet high, called the Royal Gallery, decorated with frescoes 
illustrative of events from the history of England, with 



HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 3 ( J 

windows filled with stained glass, and a ceiling rich in gilding 
and heraldry. Passing thence, her Majesty will enter the 
Prince's Chamber, decorated with equal splendour, and thence 
into the House of Peers, 97 feet long, 45 wide, and 45 high, 
a noble room, presenting a coup oVozil of the utmost magni- 
ficence, no expense having been spared to make it one of the 
richest chambers in the world. The spectator is hardly 
aware, however, of the lavish richness of its fittings from the 
masterly way in which all are harmoniously blended, each 
detail, however beautiful and intricate in itself, bearing only 
its due part in the general effect. Observe, in this noble 
apartment, opened for the first time, April 15th, 1847.— The 
Throne, on which her Majesty sits when she attends the 
House, with the chairs for the Prince of Wales and Prince 
Albert ; the Woolsack, in the centre of the House, on which 
the Lord Chancellor sits ; the Eeporters' Gallery (facing 
the Throne) ; the Strangers' Gallery (immediately above) ; 
the Frescoes (the first, on a large scale, executed in this 
country), in the six compartments, three at either end, viz., 
.The Baptism of Ethelbert, by Mr. Dyce, RA. (over the 
Throne) ; Edward III. conferring the Order of the Garter on 
the Black Prince, and Henry, Prince of Wales, committed to 
prison for assaulting Judge Gascoigne, both by Mr. Cope, 
R.A. ; the Spirit of Religion, by Mr. Horsley, in the centre 
compartment, over the Strangers' Gallery ; and the Spirit of 
Chivalry, and the Spirit of Law, both Mr. Maclise, R.A. 
The 12 windows are filled with stained glass, made by Messrs. 
Ballantyne and Allan, of Edinburgh, and Mr. Hardman, of 
Birmingham, and are lighted at night from the outside. Be- 
tween the windows, and at either end of the House, are 18 
niches, for statues of the Magna Charta barons, carved by 
Mr. Thomas, the able sculptor of the whole of the statues 
throughout the building. Immediately beneath the windows 
runs a light and elegant gallery of brass work, filled in 
compartments with coloured mastic, in imitation of enamel. 
On the soffits of the gallery (or cornice immediately beneath 
the gallery) are the arms of the Sovereigns and Chancellors 
of England, from Edward III. to the present time. 

Those strangers who have interest to procure an order 
should endeavour to be present in the House of Lords when 
her Majesty in person opens, prorogues, or dissolves Parlia- 
ment. The opening of Parliament is generally in February, 
the prorogation or dissolution generally in July. To obtain 
a good seat you should be in the House of Lords by half- 
past 12. The arrival of her Majesty may be heard within the 
House from the booming of the cannon. The Speech is pre- 
sented to her Majesty by the Lord Chancellor kneeling, and 



40 HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT. 

is read by her Majesty. The return to Buckingham Palace is 
by 3 at the latest. The address to her Majesty in both 
Houses is moved at 5 the same evening ; and the debate, 
therefore, is always looked to with great interest. The old 
custom of examining the cellars underneath the House of 
Lords, about two hours before her Majesty's arrival, still 
continues to be observe d. The custom had its origin in the 
famous Gunpowder Plot of 1605. The examination is made 
by the Lord Great Chamberlain and the Usher of the Black 
Eod, with a detachment of the yeomen of the guard. 

The House of Commons, 62 feet long by 45 feet broad, and 45 
feet high is more simple in character than the House of 
Peers ; — the ceiling is, however, of nearly equal beauty. The 
windows are filled with stained glass, of a simple charac- 
ter, to subdue an excessive glare ; the walls are lined with 
oak richly carved, and, supported on carved shafts and 
brackets, is a gallery extending along them, on either side. 
At the N. end is the chair for the Speaker, over which is a 
gallery for visitors, and for the reporters of the debates; 
while the S. end is occupied by deep galleries for the 
Members of the House, and for the public. The Entrance for 
the Members is either by the public approaches, or a private 
door and staircase from the Star Chamber Court (one of the 
twelve Courts lighting the interior), so called from occupying 
the site of that once dreaded tribunal. England and Wales 
return 498 members, Ireland 105, and Scotland 53, making 
in all 656 members, composing the House of Commons. 

St. Stephen's Hall, 95 feet long by 30 wide, and to the apex 
of the stone groining 56 feet high, derives its name from 
occupying the same space as St. Stephen's Chapel of the 
ancient Palace. The crypt of St. Stephen's, which has been 
mutilated more by abuse than by the fire, still exists beneath, 
and, as a most interesting example of English architecture of 
the thirteenth century, is undergoing a careful restoi'ation. 
This well-proportioned Hall will be decorated, on the walls 
below the windows, with frescoes, and the .windows will be 
filled with stained glass. The Palace Clock in the Clock 
Tower, constructed under the direction and approval of Mr. 
Airy, the Astronomer Royal, will be an eight-day clock, and 
will strike the hours on a bell weighing from eight to ten 
tons, chime the quarters upon eight bells, and show the time 
upon four dials about 30 feet in diameter. The diameter of 
the dial at St. Paul's is only 1 8 feet. The entire cost of this vast 
and splendid building will, probably, not fall short of a million 
and a half, nor will it be completed, it is thought, before 1856. 

The Upper Waiting Hall, or Poets' Hall, will contain 8 
frescoes from 8 British poets — viz., Chaucer, Spenser, Shaks- 



THE THAMES. 41 

peare, Milton, Dryden, Pope, Scott, and Byron. Four have 
been completed. The Chaucer, by C. W. Cope, R. A., repre- 
senting a scene from Griselda; the Shakspeare, by /. R. Herbert, 
R.A ., Lear and his Daughter ; the Milton, by /. C. Horsley, Satan 
starting at the touch of Ithuriel's Spear ; and the Dryden, by 
John Tenniel, St. Cecilia. The artists for the other poets 
have not as yet been named. The Queens Robing-Room 
will contain the Legend of King Arthur, in fresco, by 
W. Dyce, R.A. The Peers' Robing-Rooni "Justice on Earth and 
its Development in Law and Justice," by /. R. Herbert, R. A. ; 
and the Peers' Corridor, " Charles I. erecting his Standard at 
Nottingham," by F. R.Pickersgill, A .R.A . ; and "Speaker Lent- 
hall asserting the Privilege of the Commons, when Charles I. 
attempted to seize the five members," by Mr. Cross. 

31 ode of Admission to Inspect the House of Lords — order 
from the Lord Great Chamberlain, or the personal introduc- 
tion of a peer whilst the House is not sitting. The orders 
are available only [see Introduction]. Mode of admission 
to the Strangers' Gallery to hear the debates — a peer's 
order. When occupied in the hearing of appeal cases the 
House is open to the public. Mode of Admission to the 
Commons — a member's order. Any member can give an 
order. If you know an M.P., go to the lobby with the 
member's name written on your card; at the door of the 
House you will see a good-tempered old gentleman, with a 
powdered head, sitting in a watch-box. If you civilly ask 
him, he will send your card into the House, and thus fetch 
out the member you have named. Take care to keep free 
from the thoroughfare to the door, or you will be warned oft 
by a policeman. You must take your seat before 5. On 
the night of an interesting debate the House is seldom over 
before 2 o'clock in the morning. At every division the 
Strangers' Gallery is cleared, and a fresh struggle for a seat 
takes place upon re-admission. Three or four divisions may 
take place in one night. Ladies have been excluded from 
the Strangers' Gallery since 1738. The Speaker takes the 
chair at 5 p.m., when prayers are read, and business then 
commences. The House of Commons empties at 7 p.m., and 
refills about 9 p.m. 



THE THAMES AND ITS BRIDGES; THAMES TUNNEL, 
POOL AND PORT OF LONDON. 

The Thames, on whose banks London is situated, is the noblest 
commercial river in the world ; above, below, and at London, 



42 THE THAMES. 

it is, however, little more than a common sewer, oscillating 
with the tide ; about Richmond and Twickenham, it is a 
sweet flowing stream; still higher up, about Pangbourne 
(where you may catch some pleasing glimpses of it from the 
Great Western Railway), it is pastoral and pretty; and at 
the Nore and Sheerness, where the Med way joins it, it is an 
estuary where the British navy may sail, or ride safely at 
anchor. The Thames rises in Gloucestershire, and passing 
Oxford, Windsor, Hampton Court, Twickenham, Richmond, 
Fulham, Chelsea, London, and Greenwich, falls into the 
English Channel at a distance of 60 miles from London. At 
very high tides, and after long easterly winds, the water at 
London Bridge is very often brackish. Spenser calls it 
" The silver-streaming Thames." Denham has sung its 
praises in some noble couplets — 

u O could I flow like thee, and make thy stream 
My great example, as it is my theme ! 
Though deep yet clear, though gentle yet not dull, 
Strong without rage, without o'erflowing full." 

Sir John Dtnham. 

And Pope described its banks with the accuracy of a Dutch 
painter in his ludicrous imitation of Spenser's manner. 

The bridges were built or opened to the public in the 
following order : — old London Bridge, 1209 ; Westminster 
Bridge, 1750; Blackfriars Bridge, 1769; Vauxhall Bridge, 
1816; Waterloo Bridge, 1817; Southwark Bridge, 1819; new 
London Bridge, 1831 ; and Hungerford Suspension Bridge, 
1845. The Thames Tunnel was opened, 1843. The first 
steamboat seen on the Thames was in 1816. The distance 
between Richmond Bridge and Westminster Bridge (14 miles 
3 furlongs) was rowed with tide, July 31st, 1848, by a 
Mr. Clayton, in one hour forty-three minutes and forty -five 
seconds. His bet was to row the distance in one hour and 
fifty minutes. 

The London visitor should make a point of descending the 
Thames by a steamboat from Chelsea to Blackwall (the work 
of an hour and a half), and of observing the following places, 
principally on the left or Middlesex bank : — (1.), Chelsea Old 
Church ; Chelsea Hospital ; Vauxhall Bridge ; (rt.), Peni- 
tentiary ; (1.), Lambeth Palace ; (rt.), church of St. John's, 
Westminster, and Houses of Parliament ; Westminster 
Bridge ; (1.), Board of Control ; Montague House ; Sir 
Robert Peel's house in Privy-gardens (distinguished by its 
bay windows ; the late Sir Robert Peel died in the dining- 
room of this house — the ground-floor facing the river); 
(1.), Whitehall-stairs; the Great Coal Dep6t at Scotland-yard; 



THE THAMES. 43 

Hungerford Suspension Bridge ; (1.), York Watergate, one of 
Inigo Jones's finest works ; the Adelphi Terrace (David 
Garrick died in the centre house) ; Waterloo Bridge ; 
(1.), Somerset House ; Temple-gardens, and roof of Middle 
Temple Hall ; St. Bride's Church (the steeple one of Wren's 
great works) ; (1.), Whitefriars, the site of Alsatia, now partly- 
occupied by enormous gas-works ; Blackfriars Bridge ; here 
you have a very fine view of St. Paul's, and the city churches: 
Observe how grandly Bow steeple, with its dragon on the top, 
towers above them all, and commands attention by the har- 
mony of its proportions ; South wark Bridge ; here the right 
or Surrey side, commonly called the Bankside, becomes 
interesting from its fine associations — here stood the Globe 
Theatre, the Bear Garden, and Winchester House, and (rt.) 
here is the church of St. Saviour's, Southwark. You now 
pass under London Bridge, and should observe, (1.), the 
steeple of St. Magnus and the Monument. Here begins the 
Pool. Observe. — (1.), Traitors' Gate and the White Tower; 
St. Katherine's Docks ; (rt.), Rotherhithe Church ; here you 
pass over the Thames Tunnel ; (rt.), Greenwich Hospital, one 
of Wren's great masterpieces; the Observatory at Greenwich; 
Blackwall Reach, &c. 

" The morning was fair and bright, and we had a passage thither 
[from London to Gravesend] I think as pleasant as can be conceived ; 
for take it with all its advantages, particularly the number of fine ships 
you are always sure of seeing by the way, there is nothing to equal it in 
all the rivers of the world. The yards of Deptford and Woolwich are 
noble sights. . . . We saw likewise several Indiamen just returned 
from their voyage. . . . The colliers likewise, which are very 
numerous and even assemble in fleets, are ships of great bulk ; and if 
we descend to those used in the American, African, and European 
trades, and pass through those which visit our own coasts, to the small 
craft that lie between Chatham and the Tower, the whole forms a most 
pleasing object to the eye, as well as highly warming to the heart of an 
Englishman, who has any degree of love for his country, or can recognise 
any effect of the patriot in his constitution." — Fidding, A Voyage to Lisbon. 

It is much to be wished that the side sewer and terrace 
embankment scheme (so long talked about, and first pro- 
jected by John Martin, the painter) may be carried out 
before many years are over. By narrowing the current we 
shall recover a large quantity of waste ground on each side, 
and escape from the huge unhealthy mudbanks that disfigure 
the river about Whitehall and Scotland-yard. The right to 
the soil at the bottom of the river is now matter of action at 
law, between Her Majesty's Government and the Lord Mayor 
and Corporation of London. The Port of London, legally so 
called, extends 6£ miles below London Bridge to a point 
called Bugsby's Hole, over against Blackwall ; but the Port 



44 LONDON BRIDGE. 

itself docs not reach beyond Limehouse. In 1849 (the last 
year for which returns have been received), 6,923 British 
Vessels and 3,047 Foreign Vessels entered the port of London; 
and 2,894 British, and 1,148, the port of Liverpool, the next 
in number to London; the London tonnage amounting to 
1,890,524, and the Liverpool to 1,582,948. The largest amount 
of tonnage of British Vessels entering the London port are 
from Holland, Russia, and France ; of Foreign from the 
United States, Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. In the same 
year (1849) 20,640 general coasters including colliers, 482 
Irish traders, and 1,799 vessels with cargoes from the Colonies 
and Dependencies of England, entered the Port. The Pool is 
that part of the Thames between London Bridge and Cuckold's 
Point, where colliers and other vessels lie at anchor. From 
London Bridge to King's-Head-stairs at Rotherhithe, is called 
the Upper Pool ; from King's-Head-stairs to Cuckold's Point, 
the Lower Pool. For some account of the Docks, see post, 
Commercial Buildings, &c, p. 59. 

Every master of a collier is required, upon reaching 
Gravesend, to notify the arrival of his vessel to the officer 
upon the spot ; and then he receives a direction to proceed 
to one of the stations appointed for the anchorage of colliers. 
There are seven of these stations on different Reaches of the 
river. The ships are then directed to proceed in turn to the 
Pool, where 243 are provided with stations in tiers, at which 
they remain for a limited time to unload their cargoes. 

LONDON BRIDGE, 928 feet long, of five semi-elliptical 
arches, built from the designs of John Rennie, a native of Scot- 
land, and of his sons, John and George. The first stone was 
laid June 15th, 1825, and the bridge publicly opened by 
William IV., August 1st, 1831. It is built of granite, and is 
said to have cost, including the new approaches, near two 
millions of money. The centre arch is 152 feet span, with a 
rise above high-water mark of 29 feet 6 inches; the two 
arches next the centre are 140 feet in span, witli a rise of 
27 feet 6 inches ; and the two abutment arches are 130 feet 
span, with a rise of 24 feet <> inches. The lamps are made 
from cannon taken in the Peninsular War. It is the last 
bridge over the Thames, or the one nearest to the 

SOUTH WARK BRIDGE. 708 feet long, of three cast-iron 
arches, resting on stone piers, designed by John Rennie, and 
erected by a public company, at an expense of about 800,000/. 
The first stone was laid April 23rd, 1 815 j and the bridge 
publicly opened April, 1819. The span of the centre arch is 



IIUNGERFORD SUSPENSION BRIDGE. 45 

240 feet (38 feet wider than the height of the Monument, 
and the largest span of any arch in the world until the 
tubular bridges were made). The entire weight of iron em- 
ployed in upholding the bridge is about 5780 tons. 

BLACKFRIARS BRIDGE. The work of Robert Mylne, 
a native of Edinburgh, and originally called Pitt-bridge, by 
way of compliment to the great Earl of Chatham. The first 
stone laid Oct. 31st, 1760, and the bridge finally and generally 
opened, Sunday, Nov. 19th, 1769. It consists of nine 
arches, is 995 feet in length from wharf to wharf, and cost 
152,8402. 3s. 10d.,— 1632. less than the original estimate. 
This bridge affords a stately and imposing view of St. Paul's 
Cathedral : indeed it is one of the best points from which its 
exterior can be seen. The bridge was lowered in 1837, and 
the open balustrade removed, so that it presents very little 
of its original appearance, and having sunk considerably, has 
but small claims to architectural consideration. 

HUNGERFORD SUSPENSION" BRIDGE, called also 
Charing-cross Bridge, crosses the Thames from Hungerford 
Market to Belvedere-road, Lambeth, is 1352 feet long, and is 
for foot-passengers only. It was constructed under the 
direction of Mr. I. K. Brunei, and opened April 18th, 1845. 
It consists of three openings; the span of the centre is 
676 feet 6 inches, and that of each of the side openings 
333 feet. The height of the roadway from high-water mark 
is 22 feet 6 inches; at the piers, 28 feet; and in the centre, 
32 feet. The clear width of the roadway is 14 feet. The 
piers are built on the natural bed of the river without piles. 
The roadway is carried by four chains, in two lines, with 
single suspension-rods on each side, 12 feet apart. The 
chains pass over rollers in the upper part of the towers, so as 
to equalise the strain, and are secured in tunnels at the 
abutments to two iron girders, 44 feet long and 5 feet deep, 
solidly embedded in a mass of brickwork in cement, further 
strengthened and backed up with concrete. The span of the 
central opening is greater than that of any suspension-bridge 
in Britain. It is only second to the suspension-bridge at 
Fribourg, in Switzerland, the span of which, from pier to 
pier, is nearly 900 feet. The first stone was laid in 1841 ; 
and the total cost, including the purchase of property, parlia- 
mentary, law, and other expenses, was 110,0002. In 1845, 
the bridge was sold to the original proprietors for the sum 
of 226,0002., but only the first instalment was paid, and the 
purchase was thus void. The toll charged is a halfpenny 
each person each way. 



46 WESTMINSTER BRIDGE. 

WATERLOO BRIDGE, perhaps the noblest bridge in the 
world, was built by a public company pursuant to an act 
passed in 1809. The first stone was laid 1811, and the 
bridge opened on the second anniversary of the battle of 
Waterloo, June 18th, 1817. It is said to have cost above a 
million. The engineer was John Rennie, son of a farmer at 
Phantassie, in East Lothian — the engineer of many of our 
celebrated docks and of the breakwater at Plymouth. 

" Canova, when he was asked during his visit to England what struck 
him most forcibly, is said to have replied— that the trumpery Chinese 
Bridge, then in St. James' Park, should be the production of the Govern- 
ment, whilst that of Waterloo was the work of a Private Company." — 
Quarterly Reviev>, No. 112, p. 309. 

M. Dupin calls it " a colossal monument worthy of Sesostris 
and the Csesars." It consists of nine elliptical arches of 120 
feet span, and 35 feet high, supported on piers 20 feet wide 
at the springing of the arches. The bridge and abutments 
are 1380 feet long, the approach from the Strand 310 feet, 
and the causeway on the Surrey side, as far as supported by 
the land-arches, 766 feet. The bridge is, therefore, on a level 
with the Strand, and of one uniform level throughout. This 
bridge affords a noble view of Somerset-house, the chef-d'ceuvre 
of Sir William Chambers. The toll charged is a halfpenny 
each person each way, and the receipts from foot-passengers 
in a half-year of 1850 was 46761. 17s. lie?., received from 
2,244,910 persons, so that in one half-year the population of 
London may be said to pay for passing over the bridge. 

WESTMINSTER BRIDGE, the second stone bridge over 
the Thames at London, 1223 feet long, by 44 feet wide, and 
built by Charles Labelye, a Swiss, naturalised in England. 
The first stone was laid, 1739, and the bridge opened, 1750. 
It consists of 15 arches, the centre being 76 feet wide, and is 
built on caissons or rafts of timber, floated to the spot 
destined for the piers, and then sunk, each containing 150 
loads, of a form and size suitable to the pier. It was formerly 
surmounted by a lofty parapet, which M. Grosley, a French 
traveller, gravely asserted was placed there in order to pre- 
vent the English propensity to suicide ; but the real intention 
of Labelye was to secure a sufficient weight of masonry to 
keep his caissons to their proper level. The system, how- 
ever, of building on caissons, though certainly ingenious, has, 
in this case more especially, been found to be wholly erro- 
neous. The bed of the Thames on which the caissons rest 
became undermined so much by the body of water and 
increased velocity of the tide, after the removal of old 



THAMES TUNNEL. 47 

Loudon Bridge, that several of the piers have given way, 
and in 1846 it was found necessary to close the bridge 
for carriages. Portions of the enormous masonry about 
it were then removed, including the lofty parapet, and the 
bridge itself at the same time considerably lowered. At 
present it is allowed to remain only tmtil another can be 
substituted — for which Mr. Barry has given an elegant design 
— or until the Thames shall wash it entirely away. 

VAUXHALL BRIDGE. An iron bridge, of nine equal 
arches, over the Thames at Vauxhall, communicating with 
Millbank on the left bank of the river, built from the designs 
of James Walker; commenced May 9th, 1811, and opened 
June 4th, 1816. It is the property of a private company, 
and the toll charged is a halfpenny each person each way. 
It is 798 feet long. 

THE THAMES TUNNEL is two miles below London 
Bridge, and is easily reached by the numerous steam-boats ply- 
ing on the Thames. It is 1200 feet in length, beneath the 
bed of the river Thames, connecting Wapping, on the left 
side of the river, with Rotherhithe, or Redriff, on the right. 
This great work a monument of the skill, energy, and enter- 
prise of Sir Isambard K. Brunei (d. 1849), by whom it was 
planned, carried out through great difficulties, and finally 
completed) was commenced March 2nd, 1825, closed for 
seven years by an inundation, which filled the whole tunnel 
with water, Aug. 12th, 1828, recommenced Jan. 1835, (thou- 
sands of sacks of clay being thrown into the river-bed above 
it,) and opened to the public, March 25th, 1843. The idea 
of the shield, upon which Sir Isambard Brunei's plan of 
tunnelling was founded, was suggested to him by the opera- 
tions of the teredo, a testaceous worm covered with a cylin- 
drical shell, which eats its way through the hardest wood. 
Brunei's shield (the great feature in the Thames Tunnel 
operations) consisted of 12 separate parts, or divisions, each 
containing three cells, or 36 cells in all. In these cells the 
miners worked, protected by the shield above and in front, 
and backed by the bricklayers behind, who built up as fast 
as the miners advanced. Government lent 247,000?., in 
Exchequer Bills, to advance the works, and the total cost is 
said' to have been about 614,000?. The yearly amount of 
tolls and receipts is under 5000?., a sum barely sufficient to 
cover the necessaiy expenditure, from the constant influx of 
land springs. It belongs to a public company called the 
Thames Tunnel Company. The descent and ascent are by 



48 HOME OFFICE. 

cylindrical shafts of 100 steps each, and the toll for foot 
passengers is one penny each passenger. It has not been 
rendered accessible for vehicles of any sort, owing to the 
great cost of completing the approaches. 



GOVERNMENT OFFICES. 

THE TREASURY, Whitehall. A large range of building, 
between the Horse Guards and Downing-street, so called 
from its being the office of the Lord High Treasurer; an 
office of great importance, first put into commission in 1612, 
on Lord Salisbury's death, and so continued with very few 
exceptions till the present time, The prime minister of the 
country is always First Lord of the Treasury, and enjoys a 
salary of 5,000?. a-year, the same as the Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, but smaller in amount than the salaries of the 
Lord Chancellor and of the Lord Chief Justice. He has also 
an official residence in Downing-street. All the great money 
transactions of the nation are conducted here. The Lord 
High Treasurer used formerly to carry a white staff, as the 
mark of his office. The royal throne still remains at the 
head of the Treasury table. The present facade toward the 
street was built (1846-47), by Charles Barry, R.A., to replace 
a heavy and somewhat dowdy front, the work of Sir John 
Soane. The shell of the building is of an earlier date, ranging 
from Ripley's time, in the reign of George I., to the times 
of Kent and Sir John Soane. The building called "the 
Treasury " includes the Board of Trade, the Home and Privy 
Council offices. 

PRIVY COUNCIL OFFICE, Whitehall, is part of the 
south end of the present range of Treasury buildings, as 
altered by Mr. Barry in 1847-48. Here are kept the minutes 
of the Privy Councils of the Crown, commencing in 1540. 
A minute of the reign of James II. contains the original 
depositions attesting the birth of the Prince of Wales, after- 
wards known as the Old Pretender. 

THE HOME OFFICE, in which the business of the 
Secretary of State for the Home Department (i.e. Great Britain 
and Ireland) is conducted, is in part of the Treasury buildings. 
The salary of the Secretary is 5000/. a-year, and his duty is to 
see that the laws of the country are observed. His office is 
one of great importance, and is always a Cabinet appointment. 



CUSTOM HOUSE. 49 

FOREIGN OFFICE, Downing Street, Westminster, con- 
sists of four private houses, gradually purchased at each side 
of the centre one ; two look into the Park, two others front 
to Downing-street and back to Fludyer-street. The chief 
officer is a Cabinet Minister, and is called the " Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs." His salary is 5000?. a-year. 

Passports are here issued to British subjects known to the 
Foreign Secretary, or recommended by a banker, at a charge 
of 7*. 6d. 

THE COLONIAL OFFICE, 14, Downing Street, White- 
hall, is a Government office for conducting the business 
between great Britain and her colonies. The head of the 
office is called the " Secretary for the Colonies," and is always 
a Cabinet minister. His salary is 5000?. In a small waiting- 
room, on the right hand as you enter, the Duke of Wellington, 
then Sir Arthur Wellesley, and Lord Nelson, both waiting 
to see the Secretary of State, met the only time in their lives. 
The duke knew Nelson, from his pictures. Lord Nelson 
did not know the duke, but was so struck with his conversa- 
tion that he stept oiit of the room to enquire who he was. 

THE EXCHEQUER, or, Office of the Chancellor of 
the Exchequer. The principal office for fixing or receiving 
taxes is in Downing-street, Westminster, the last house on the 
right-hand side. The word Exchequer is derived from a four- 
cornered board, about 10 feet long and 5 feet broad, fitted in 
manner of a table for men to sit about ; on every side whereof 
was a standing ledge or border, 4 fingers broad. Upon this 
board was laid a cloth, parti-coloured, which the French call 
Chequy, and round this board the old Court of Exchequer was 
held. The Chancellor was one of the judges of the Court, and in 
ancient times he sat as such, together with the Lord Treasurer 
and the Barons. His duties are now entirely ministerial. The 
salary of the Chancellor is 5000?. a year, with a seat in the 
Cabinet. 

THE CUSTOM HOUSE is in Lower Thames-street, facing 
the river. It was erected 1814-17 from the designs of 
David Laing, but in consequence of some defects in the 
piling, the original centre was taken down, and the present 
front, to the Thames, erected by Sir Robert Smirke. Nearly 
one half of the customs of the United Kingdom are collected 
in the Port of London, and about one half of the persons 
in the Civil Service of the country are employed in duties 
connected with the collection. In London alone, in 1849, 
2228 persons were employed in and attached to the London 

E 



50 POST OFFICE, 

Custom House, maintained at an expense of 271.213?. 10s. 3c?. 
Liverpool, after London, is the next great port where the 
largest amount of customs is collected. The staff of servants 
at Liverpool, in 1849, was 1141. The average revenue col- 
lected by the Customs in the last nine years is about 20 
millions, and the duties of the offices are conducted by com- 
missioners appointed by the Crown. Observe. — The " Long 
Room," 190 feet long by 66 broad. The Quay is a pleasant 
walk fronting the Thames. Hither Cowper, the poet, came, 
intending to make away with himself, 

INLAND REVENUE OFFICE, or Excise, Stamp, Legacy- 
duty, and Property-tax Office. The Excise Office, in Old 
Broad-street, was built by the elder Dance, in 1768, on the 
site of Gresham College. Malt, spirits, and soap, are the 
articles producing the most Excise-money to the Exchequer. 
The duty of excise was first introduced into this country by 
an ordinance of Parliament, of July 22nd, 1643, when an im- 
post was laid upon beer, ale, wine, and other provisions, for 
carrying on a war against the king. The duties of the Inland 
Revenue Office have been consolidated since 1848. The 
total produce of the excise for one year is estimated at 13 
millions, of stamps at 7 millions, and of property and income- 
tax at 5 millions. 

OFFICE OF WOODS AND WORKS is in Whitehall-place, 
the second door on your left as you enter from Whitehall. 
This office is managed by Commissioners. The Forests have 
not yielded a profit for many years, so that the chief revenue 
of the office lias been derived from the Crown property in 
houses in the Bailiwick of St. James's, Westminster, and 
in the Regent's Park. A recent enquiry, instituted by the 
House of Commons, has led to the exposure of many abuses 
connected with this office and to their correction as well, so 
that the Forests will yield, it is thought, in a very few 
years, a profit to the country. The principal forest belonging 
to the Crown is the New Forest in Hampshire, formed by 
William the Conqueror, and in which William Rums was 
slain by an arrow while hunting. 

The Office of Woods and Works has the charge of all the 
trees, roads, walls, fences, buildings, and lodges in the public 
parks; and the rangers of the parks have the charge of the 
herbage, fish, and deer. There ifl a bill now before Parliament 
for dividing the duties of Woods and Works, and another 
for the permanent removal of deer from the New Forest. 

THE GENERAL POST OFFICE, near St. Paul's, Cm..\r- 



POST OFFICE. 51 

side, and Newgate Street, stands on the site of the collegiate 
church of St. Martin's-le-grand, and was built between 1825 
and 1829, from the designs of Sir Robert Smirke, R.A, The 
office is managed by a Post-Master-General, two Secretaries, 
an Assistant-Secretary, a Receiver-General, and other officers, 
together with a formidable staff of clerks, sorters, letter 
carriers, &c, amounting in May, 1843, to 8398 persons in 
England and Wales, 1399 in Scotland, and 1505 in Ireland. 
The gross income of the office, for the year ending Jan. 5th, 
1848, was 2,181,0162.; the expenditure 1,196,520?.; and the 
net income 984,4962. This, however, is without allowing for 
the expenses of the contract Mail Packet service, paid for 
by the Admiralty. The number of letters delivered in the 
year 1848 amounted to 329,000,000, or between four and 
five-fold the number delivered before the reduction of the 
postage to one penny for every letter not exceeding half an 
ounce. At the present time the number of letters delivered 
in the London district, comprising a radius of 12 miles round 
the Post Office in St. Martin's-le-Grand, is quite as great as 
that which, under the old system, was delivered in the whole 
United Kingdom. Post- Office money-orders, for sums not ex- 
ceeding 52., are issued at the several offices at the following 
rates : — For any sum not exceeding 22., threepence; above 22. 
and not exceeding 52., sixpence. The number of money- 
orders issued each year is about 4,000,000, the amount about 
8,000,0002. A statement, called the Daily Packet List, of the 
arrival and departure of packet-boats, of unclaimed letters, &c, 
is published every morning, under the authority of the Post- 
Master-General, and may be had of J. H. Kendall, the con- 
tractor, 8, Philpot Lane, Fenchurch Street ; the yearly sub- 
scription to which (to be paid in advance) is 18s. Letters for 
departure the same night are received at this office later than 
at any other office. Some notion of the extent of business 
carried on in this hive of industry may be obtained from the 
fact that the weekly wages of the London District Post alone 
amount in one year to upwards of 15,0002. 

As recently as 1826, there was but one receiving office in 
Pimlico for letters to be delivered within the London radius, 
and the nearest office for receiving general-post letters, that 
a person living in Pimlico could go to, was situated in St. 
James's-street. The introduction of mail-coaches, for the 
conveyance of letters, by which the revenues of the Post 
Office were so materially increased, was made by Mr. Palmer, 
and the first conveyance of the kind left London for Bristol 
on the evening of the 24th of August, 1784. The penny 
postage (introduced by the untiring exertions of Mr. Rowland 

e 2 



52 l'AYM aster-general's office. 

Hill) came into operation on Jan. 1 Oth, 1840. For an excel- 
lent account of the Post Office see Dickens's Homehold Woi'ds, 
Vol. I., and Quarterly Review for 1849. 

General Directions. — Letters addressed " Post Office, 
London," or " Poste Restante, London," are delivered only 
at the window of the General Post Office, St. Martin's-le- 
Grand. The hours of delivery from the Post Office window 
are from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. When the person applying for 
letters is a foreigner, he must produce his passpoit. "When 
a foreigner does not apply in person, but by a messenger 
despatched for that purpose, the messenger must produce 
the passport of the person to whom the letters are addressed, 
as well as a written order, signed and dated by such person. 
In the case of a messenger being sent for the letters of 
more persons than one, he must produce passports and orders 
from each person. If the applicant for the letters is a sub- 
ject of the United Kingdom, he must be able to state from 
what place or district he expects letters before he can receive 
them. Subjects of States not issuing passports are treated 
as subjects of the United Kingdom. If letters are directed 
to individuals simply addressed " London " (and not " Post 
Office," or " Poste Restante, London,") they will not be de- 
livered from the window at all, but will be sent out by 
letter carriers for delivery at the address furnished by the 
applicant. Foreign letters addressed " Post Office, or Poste 
Restante, London," are retained for two months at the 
Post Office window. Inland letters similarly addressed are 
retained one month at the window ; after the expiration of 
these periods both classes of letters are respectively sent to 
the Dead Letter-office, to be disposed of in the usual manner. 
All persons applying for letters at the Post Office window 
must be prepared to give the necessary explanations to the 
clerk at the window, in order to prevent mistakes and to 
insure the delivery of the letters to the persons to whom 
they properly belong. It will much facilitate the business 
of the Post Office, if the words " to be called for " are added 
to the address of letters which are directed Post Office, 
London. 

PAYMASTER-GENERAL'S OFFICE, Whitehall. The 

office of her Majesty's Paymaster-General for the payment 
of army, navy, ordnance, civil services, and exchequer bills. 
The office is managed by a paymaster, an assistant-paymaster, 
and a staff of sixty clerks. It was originally the office of the 
Paymaster-General of the Forces, and was not permanently 
enlarged till 1836, when the offices of Treasurer of the Navy 



HORSE GUARDS. o'3 

and Treasurer of the Ordnance were abolished. This office 
is yearly increasing in importance, and before very long will 
make nearly all the national payments in detail. A large 
staff of clerks is employed in examining and paying the non- 
effective services of the army, navy, and ordnance — such as 
half-pay, pensions, pensions to widows and children. 

HORSE GUARDS, at Whitehall. A guard-house and 
public building where the Secretary of War, the Commander- 
in-chief, the Adjutant-General, and Quarter-Master-General 
have their offices. It was built about 1753, after a design 
furnished, it is said, by Kent. The archway under it forms 
a principal entrance to St. James's Park from the east ; but 
the entree for carriages is permitted only to royal and other 
personages having leave. At each side of the entrance facing 
Whitehall two mounted cavalry soldiers do duty every day 
from 10 to 4. The guard is relieved every morning at a 
quarter to 11. The salary of the Secretary at War is 
2480Z., of the Commander-in-chief , of the Adju- 

tant-General , of the Quarter-Master-General 

The Adjutant-General is responsible to the Commander-in 
chief for the arming, clothing, training, recruiting, discipline, 
and general efficiency of the army; the Quarter-Master- 
General has the responsibility of settling with the Com- 
mander-in-chief the movements and quarters of the troops. 
The Secretary at War has nothing to do with promotions 
but to see that they are gazetted. The English soldier it is 
understood enlists for life, but may purchase his discharge, 
for which it is said every facility is afforded, and at the end 
of fifteen years may claim his discharge as a matter of 
course. The British army is composed of 7093 regimental 
officers on full pay, and the War Office (the principal office 
in the Horse Guards) is maintained at a cost of 29,000£. a 
year. The total cost of the British army is about 7 millions, 
of the navy about 7 millions, and of the ordnance about 
3 millions. The number of men in the army is determined 
by the Cabinet and sanctioned by Parliament. The troops 
are divided into Household Troops and the Line — the former 
seldom leaving London, and the latter liable to be moved to 
our most distant and unhealthy colonies. A private of the 
Life Guards has Is. lljd a day, and a private of the Horse 
Guards Is. S\d. a day; the difference arising from an oversight 
in 1796, in not withdrawing barrack allowances from the 
privates of the Life Guards. The privates in the Foot 
Guards have Id. a day more than the Line. The Line have 
Is. a day, and Id a day for beer money. The price of a 



54 ADMIRALTY. 

Lieutenant-Colonel's commission in the Guards is, 9000/., 
and the price of an Ensign's commission 1200/. In the Line 
the price of an Ensign's commission is only 450/. 

THE ADMIRALTY, in Whitehall, occupies the site of 
Wallingford House, whither, in the reign of William III., the 
business of the Admiralty was removed. The front towards 
the street was built (circ. 1726) by Thomas Ripley, architect 
of Houghton Hall in Norfolk, the "Ripley with a rule," 
commemorated by Pope. 

" See under Ripley rise a new Whitehall, 
While Jones' and Boyle's united labours fall." 

TheDunciad, B.iii. 

The screen towards the street was erected in 1776, by the 
brothers Adam, and is now, it is said, about to be removed 
for the purpose of erecting a front corresponding to that of 
the Treasury, so as to include the whole of the Admiralty 
departments. The office of Lord High Admiral, since the 
Revolution of 1688, has, with three exceptions, been held 
in commission. The exceptions are, Prince George of Den- 
mark, the husband of Queen Anne, 1702 to 1708 ; Thomas, 
Earl of Pembroke, for a short time in 1709 ; and the Duke 
of Clarence, afterwards King William IV., in 1S27-28. 
Among the First Lords Commissioners we may find the names 
of Anson, Hawke, Howe, Keppell, and St. Vincent. Adjoin- 
ing to, and communicating with the Admiralty, is a spacious 
house for the residence of the First Lord. The Secretary 
and three or four of the junior Lords have residences in the 
Northern wing of the building. The salary of the First Lord, 
who has the whole of the patronage of the navy in his hands, 
is 4500/. a year. The correspondence of the Admiralty is 
chiefly conducted here, but the accounts are kept by five 
different officers in what used to be the Navy and Victualling 
Offices at Somerset House in the Strand, viz., 1. Surveyor of 
the Navy. 2. Accountant-General. 3. Store-keeper-General. 
4. Comptroller of the Victualling and Transport Services. 5. 
Inspector-General of Naval Hospitals and Fleets. Observe. — 
Characteristic portrait of Lord Nelson, painted at Palermo, 
in 1799, for Sir William Hamilton, by Leonardo Guzzardi; 
he wears the diamond plume which the Sultan gave him. 
In the house of the Secretary are the portraits of the Secre- 
taries from Pepys to the present time. 

ORDNANCE OFFICES, No. 86, Pall Mall, and Tower 
of London. The Pall-mall OlRcc was built for the Duke of 
York, brother of George III. (d. 1767), and was afterwards 



SOMERSET HOUSE. 55 

inhabited by the Duke's brother, Henry, Duke of Cumber- 
land (d. 1790). The business of the Office of the Master- 
General and Board of Ordnance is conducted here and at the 
Tower. The stores are kept at the Tower and at Woolwich, 
but the correspondence is carried on in Pall-mall. The total 
cost of both establishments is about 55,000Z. a year. The 
departments at the Tower are on the eve of being removed 
to Pall Mall. 

SOMERSET HOUSE, in the Strand. A handsome pile 
of building, erected between the years 1776 and 1786, on the 
site of the palace of the Protector Somerset. The architect was 
Sir William Chambers, son of a Scottish merchant. The general 
proportions of the building are good, and some of the details 
of great elegance, especially the entrance archway from the 
Strand. The terrace elevation towards the Thames was 
made, like the Adelphi-terrace of the brothers Adam, in 
anticipation of the long projected embankment of the river, 
and is one of the noblest fafades in London. The building 
is in the form of a quadrangle, with wings, and contains within 
its walls, from 10 to 4 every day, about 900 government 
officials, maintained at an annual cost of something like 
275,000£. The principal government offices in the building are 
the Audit Office, established 1785, where the accounts of the 
kingdom and the colonies are audited by commissioners 
appointed for the purpose, with an accuracy and rapidity of 
late years worthy of imitation by other public departments ; 
the Office of the Duchy of Cornwall, for the management of 
the estates of the Prince of Wales, who is also Duke of Corn- 
wall ; the Office of Stamps, Taxes, and Excise, or the Inland 
Revenue Office (as they are now called), where stamps on 
patents, deeds, newspapers, and receipts are issued, and 
public taxes and excise duties received from the several dis- 
trict collectors. Every sheet of paper used for * The Times " 
is first stamped in this building, and the bulk of the carts 
within the quadrangle are those of paper-makers bringing 
paper to be stamped. The Inland Revenue is managed by 
Commissioners, the chairman having a salary of 25001. a-year, 
the highest received by any public officer in Somerset House. 
In rooms two stories below the level of the quadrangle, the 
mechanical operations are conducted. Legal and commer- 
cial stamps are impressed by hand-presses, newspaper stamps 
by hand without any mechanical aid. The name of each 
newspaper has been inserted in the die, hi moveable type, 
since the reduction of duty in 1836, and by this means a 
register is obtained of the circulation of every newspaper in 



."SO SOMERSET HOUSE. 

the kingdom. In the basement story, are presses moved by- 
steam : some employed in printing medicine-labels ; some in 
printing the stamp on countiy bank-notes ; others in stamping 
the embossed medallion of the Queen on postage envelopes, 
and on shilling postage stamps; and others in printing 
penny and twopenny postage stamps on sheets. The 
Admiralty occupies more than a third of the building, 
and is a branch (rather perhaps, the body) of the Admiralty 
at Whitehall. The Model Room is worth seeing. The Pool' 
Law Commission Office is the head-quarters of the Commis- 
sioners for regulating the administration of the law with 
respect to the poor ; and the Registrar-Generals Office is for 
the registration of the births, marriages, and deaths of the 
United Kingdom. The Tithe and Copyhold Commissions are 
also in this building. The Strand front is occupied by the 
Royal Society, the Society of Anticpiaries, the Senate of 
London University, the London School of Design, the Astro- 
nomical Society, the Geographical Society, and the Geological 
Society. [See Learned Institutions, p. 181.] Observe, under 
the vestibule, on your left as you enter (distinguished by a 
bust of Sir Isaac Newton), the entrance-doorway to the apart- 
ments of the Royal Society and Society of Antiquaries ; Herschel 
and Watt, and Davy and Wollaston, and Walpole and Hallam 
have often entered by this door; — under the same vesti- 
bule, on your right as you enter (now the School of Design, 
&c, distinguished by a bust of Michael Angelo),the entrance- 
doorway of the apartments, from 1780 to 1830, of the Royal 
Academy of Arts. ' Some of the best pictures of the English 
School have passed under this doorway to the great room of 
the yearly exhibition ; and under the same doorway, and up 
the same steps, Reynolds, Wilkie, Flaxman, and Chantrey 
have often passed. The last and best of Reynolds's Discourses 
was delivered, by Sir Joshua himself, in the great room of 
the Academy, at the top of the building. The east wing of 
the building, erected 1829, is occupied by King's College. 
The bronze statue of George III., and figure of Father Thames, 
in the quadrangle, are by John Bacon, R.A., and cost 2000£. 

A little above the entrance-door to the Stamps and Taxes 
is a white watch-face, regarding which the popular belief has 
been, and is, that it Avas left there by a labouring man who 
fell from a scaffold at the top of the building, and was only 
saved from destruction by the ribbon of his watch, which 
caught in a piece of projecting work. In thankful remem- 
brance (so the story runs) of his wonderful escape, he after- 
wards desired that his watch might be placed as near as 
possiH lot where hi3 life had been saved. Such is 



the story told fifty times a week to groups of gaping listeners 
— a story I am sorry to disturb, for the watch of the labour- 
ing mau is nothing more than a watch-face, placed by the 
Koyal Society as a meridian mark for a portable transit 
instrument in one of the windows of their ante-room. The 
number of windows in Somerset House is 3600. This was 
re-ascertained last year by the painter who contracted to 
paint the outside of the building. It took one man three 
days to count them. 

THE EOYAL MINT, on Tower Hill. The elevation of 
the building was by a Mr. Johnson, the entrances, &c, by Sir 
Eobert Smirke. The coinage of the three kingdoms, and of 
many of our colonies, is executed within these walls. Mode of 
Admission. — Order from the master, which is not transferable, 
and is available only for the day specified. In all applications 
for admission, the names and addresses of the persons wishing 
to be admitted, or of some one of them, with the number of 
the rest, are to be stated. The various processes connected 
with coining are carried on by a series of ingenious machines. 
The most curious process is that by which the metal, when 
tested to show that it contains the proper alloy, is drawn 
through rollers by an engine called " the drawing bench," 
to the precise thickness required for the coin which is to be 
cut out of it. In the case of gold, the difference of a hair's 
breadth in any part of the plate or sheet of gold would alter 
the value of a sovereign. By another machine circular disks 
are punched out of the sheets of metal of any size required, 
and by a number of screw presses these blanks, as they are 
called, are stamped on obverse and reverse at the same time. 
Every process has an interest of its own ; but none are more 
suggestive, and more worth seeing than the rapid motion by 
which sixty or seventy sixpences may be struck in a minute, 
and half-crowns or sovereigns in minor proportions ; or the 
mode in which the press feeds itself with the blanks to be 
coined, and, when struck, removes them from between the dies. 
The coins are, of course, struck from dies. A matrix in relief 
is first cut in soft steel by the engraver. When this is 
hardened, many dies may be obtained from it, provided the 
metal resists the great force required to obtain the im- 
pression. Many matrices and dies split in the process of 
stamping. The mode of hardening the dies, by a chemical 
process, is kept secret. There are few periods in the 
annals of our coinage when the coins of the realm have 
been more distinguished as works of ai"t than while executed 
1 ) y the present engraver, W. Wy on, R. A. The present Master of 



58 RECORD OFFICES. 

the Mint is Sir John W. Herschel, the celebrated astronomer, 
an office formerly held by Sir Isaac Newton. Thomas Simon 
was graver to the Mint during the Protectorate of Crom- 
well, and the early part of the reign of Charles II. 

RECORD OFFICES in London are six in number :— The 
Chapel, in the Tower of London ; the Chapter-house, West- 
minster Abbey ; the Rolls Chapel, in Chancery-lane ; Carlton 
Ride, in St. James's Park ; State Paper Office, in St. James's 
Park ; Prerogative Will Office, in Doctors' Commons, wherein 
all wills are proved, and all administrations granted that 
belong to the Archbishop of Canterbury by his prerogative. 
A Public Record Office to contain the Records of the 
Kingdom is now in course of erection on the Rolls estate in 
Chancery-lane, and will be ready for the reception of the 
Records in 1853. 

At the Chester House may be seen Doomsday Book, or the 
Suiwey of England made by William the Conqueror, two 
volumes on vellum of unequal size ; deed of resignation of 
the Scottish Crown to Edward II. ; the Charter granted by 
Alfonso of Castile to Edward I., on his marriage with Eleanor 
of Castile, with a solid seal of gold attached; a Treaty of 
Peace between Henry VIII. and Francis I. of France, with 
the gold seal attached hi high relief, and undercut, supposed 
to be the work of Benvenuto Cellini. 

At Carlton Ride are preserved the several instruments of 
the surrender to Henry VIII. of the whole of the monasteries 
in England and Wales. 

Access to the papers in the State Paper Office can only be 
obtained by a written order from the Secretary of State for 
the Home Department. Unrestricted access has never as 
yet been granted. 

In the Prerogative Will Office* may be seen the original will 
of Shakspeare, on three folio sheets of paper, with his signa- 
ture to each sheet ; the will of Napoleon, made at St. Helena, 
bequeathing a legacy of 10,000 francs to the man who tried 
to assassinate the Duke of Wellington in Paris ! the wills of 
Van Dyck the painter, of Inigo Jones, Sir Isaac Newton, 
Dr. Johnson, Izaak Walton ; in .short, of all the great men 

* It is much to be regretted thai tin' facilities afforded l>y this tffloe 
are so very few, that no plan has yet been adopted, by which proper 
persons might have unrestricted access to the register* of the Court. 
The office abounds in matter of greal biographical importance illustra- 
tive of the lives of eminent men, of the descent of property, and of the 
manners and customs of bygone times. T" literary nun of known 
attainments the freedom of the office might be given with perfect security. 




Princes-street. 



1. Nightly watch. 
2,2. Secretary's office 
and room. 

3. Chief accountant's 

parlour. 

4. Secretary's house, 
a. Power of attorney's 

office. 

6. Private rooms 
Branch hanks office. 

7. Deputyaccountant's 

office. 

8. Chief accountant's. 

9. Chief cashier's. 

10. Governor's room. 

11. Deputy governor's. 
12, 12. Committee rooms. 



13. Officers' rooms. 

14. Three per cent, or I 

per cent, transfer 

15. Rotunda or dividen 

pay office. 

16. Bullion office. 

17. Pay hall. 
IS. Cheque office, 

19. Servants' room. 

20. Coffee room. 

21. Discount office. 

22. Open courts 
light. 

23. Passages, lobbie 
&c. 

24. Waiting room. 
23. Chancery offices 



a 



(<Z 



GROUND PLAN 

OF THE 

BANK 

OF 

ENGLAND. 




BANK OF ENGLAND. 59 

of this country who died possessed of property in the 
south of England. The office hours at the Prerogative Will 
Office are 9 to 3 in winter, and 9 to 4 in summer. The 
charges for searching the calendars of names is Is. for every 
name. The charge for seeing the original will is a shilling 
extra. Persons are not allowed to make even a pencil 
memorandum, but official copies of wills may be had at 
eightpence per folio. At the other Record Offices you are 
permitted to make extracts and memoranda. 



COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS AND DOCKS. 

BANK OF ENGLAND, Threadneedle-street, City,— 
" the principal Bank of Deposit and Circulation ; not in this 
country only, but in Europe," — was founded in 1694, and 
grew out of a loan of 1,200.000/. for the public service. Its 
principal projector was Mr. William Paterson, an enterprising 
Scotch gentleman ; who, according to his own account, com- 
menced his exertions for the establishment of a National 
Bank in 1691. By the laws and regulations which he left 
behind, no Scotchman can be eligible to fill the post of a 
Director. 

The business of the Bank was carried on in Grocers' Hall, 
in the Poultry, from its foundation in 1694 to 1734, when it 
was removed to an establishment of its own (part of the 
present edifice), designed by Mr. George Sampson. East and 
west wings were added by Sir Robert Taylor, between 1766 
and 1786. Sir John Soane subsequently receiving the ap- 
pointment of architect to the Bank, and the business 
increasing, much of the old building was either altered or 
taken down, and the (one-storied) Bank, much as we now see 
it, covering an irregular area of four acres, was completed by 
the same architect. There is little to admire in it : parts, 
however, are good. Yet it has the merit of being well 
adapted for the purposes and business of the Bank. The 
corner towards Lothbury, though small, is much admired. 
The copings made since the Chartist meeting on the memo- 
rable 10th of April were added by C. R. Cockerell, R.A., the 
present architect to the Bank. The area in the centre, 
planted with trees and shrubs, was formerly the churchyard 
of St. Christopher, Threadneedle-street. The management 



60 BANK or ENGLAND. 

of the Bank affairs is vested in a Governor, Deputy-Governor, 
;md twenty-four Directors, eight of whom go out every year. 
The qualifi cation for Governor is 4000/. Stock, Deputy- 
Governor 30007., and Director 2000/. The room in which 
the Directors meet is called the Bank Parlour. The profits 
of the Bank accrue from interest on Exchequer-bills, dis- 
counts of commercial bills, interest on the capital lent to 
Government, an allowance of about 70,000/. a year for 
managing the Public Debt, and some other sources. The 
dividend received by the proprietors is 7 per cent. In the 
lobby of the Parlour is a portrait of Abraham Newland, who 
rose from a baker's counter to be chief clerk of the Bank of 
England, and to die enormously rich. Madox, who wrote 
the History of the Exchequer, was the first chief cashier. 
The number of clerks employed is about 800, and the salaries 
rise from 50/. to nearly 2000/. a year. The cost in salaries 
alone is about 190,000/. a year. A valuable library, iutended 
for the especial use of the clerks, has recently been established 
in the Bank by the liberality of the Directors. The Bullion 
Office is situated on the northern side of the Bank, in the base- 
ment story, and formed part of the original structure, but has 
since been enlarged. It consists of a public chamber for the 
transaction of business, a vault for public deposits, and a 
vault for the private stock of the Bank. The duties are dis- 
charged by a Principal, a Deputy-Principal, Clerk, Assistant 
Clerk, and porters. In the process of weighing, a number of 
admirably-constructed balances are brought into operation. 
A large balance, invented by Mr. Bate, weighs silver in bars, 
from 50 lbs. to 80 lbs. troy ; — a balance, invented in 1820, by 
Sir John Barton, of the Mint, weighs gold coin in quantities 
varying from a few ounces to 18 lbs. troy, and gold in bars 
of any weight up to 1 5 lbs. ; — a third, invented by Mr. Bate, 
weighs dollars to amounts not exceeding 72 lbs. 2 oz. troy. 
These instruments are very perfect in their action, admit of 
easy regulation, and are of durable construction. The public 
are admitted to a counter, separated from the rest of the 
apartments, but are on no account allowed to enter the 
bullion vaults. The amount of bullion in the possession of 
the Bank of England constitutes, along with their securities, 
the assets which they place against their liabilities, on account 
of circulation and deposits ; and the difference (about three 
millions) between the several amounts is called the " Host, - ' 
or- guarantee fund to provide for the contingency of pos>iUe 
Gold is almost exclusively obtained by the Bank in 
the "bar" form; although no form of the deposit would be 
refused. A bar of gold is a small slab, weighing in lbs., and 



ROYAL EXCHANGE. <il 

•worth about 800?. In the weighing office is the balance made 
by Mr. Cotton, with glass weights, and weighing at the rate of 
33 sovereigns a minute. The machine appears to be a square 
brass box, in the inside of which, secure from currents of 
air, is the machinery. This wonderful and ingenious piece 
of mechanism is so contrived, that, on receiving the 
sovereigns, it discriminates so as to throw those of full 
weight into one box, and to reject those of light weight 
into another. Do not omit to see the wonderful machinery- 
invented by Mr. Oldham, by which Bank-notes are printed 
and numbered with unerring precision, in progression 
from 1 to 100,000; the whole accompanied by such a 
system of registration and checks as to record everything 
that every part of the machine is doing at any moment, 
and render fraud impossible. The value of Bank-notes in 
circulation in one quarter of a year is upwards of 18.000,000?., 
and the number of persons receiving dividends in one year 
is about 284,000. The Stock or Annuities upon which the 
Public Dividends are payable amount to about 774,000,000?., 
and the yearly dividends payable thereupon to about 
25,000,000?.. The issue of paper on securities is not permitted 
to exceed 14,000,000?. In 1844 the Bank Charter was con- 
tinued till 1855. The mode of admission to view the 
Bank is by an order from the Governor, Deputy-Governor, 
or any of the Directors. The commonest almanack or 
pocket-book is sure to contain a list of Bank Directors for 
the current year. 

THE ROYAL EXCHANGE, (a quadrangular edifice, with 
a portico on the W. side facing down Cheapside ; and the 
third building of the kind on the same site,) erected for the 
convenience of merchants and bankers ; built from the 
designs of William Tite, and opened .by Queen Victoria, 
Oct. 28th, 1844. . The pediment was made by R. Westmacot, 
R.A. (the younger). The building contains an open court or 
quadrangle, surrounded by a colonnade ; a marble statue of 
her Majesty, by Lough ; and statues of Sir Thomas Gresham, 
Sir Hugh Mvdclelton, and Queen Elizabeth, by Messrs. Joseph, 
Carew, and Watson. It is said to have cost 180,000?. The 
hour of 'Change, the busy period, is from half-past 3 to 
half-past 4 p.m. The two great days on 'Change are 
Tuesday and Friday. The Rothschilds occupy a pillar on 
the S. side of the Exchange. In the E. part, up-stairs, 
are Lloyd's Subscription Rooms {originally Lloyd's Coffee 
House), the centre and focus of all intelligence, commercial 
and political, domestic and foreign, where merchants, 



62 Lloyd's. 

shippers, and underwriters attend to obtain shipping 
intelligence, and where the business of Marine Insurance 
is carried on through the medium of underwriters. There 
is no one engaged in any extensive mercantile business 
in London who is not either a member or subscriber to 
Lloyd's : and thus the collective body represents the greater 
part of the mercantile wealth of the country. The entrance 
to Lloyd's is in the area, near the eastern gate of the Royal 
Exchange. A wide flight of steps leads to a handsome 
vestibule, ornamented by marble statues of Prince Albert, by 
Lough; the late William Huskisson, by Gibson, R. A., pre- 
sented by his widow. On the walls are the tablet, erected as 
a testimonial to the Times Newspaper, for the public spirit 
displayed by its proprietor in the exposure of a fraudulent 
conspiracy. In this vestibule are the entrances to the three 
principal subscription-rooms — the Underwriters', the Mer- 
chants', and the Captains' Room. 

The affairs of LloycVs are managed by a committee of nine 
members. The chairman is elected annually : he is generally 
a merchant of eminence and a member of Parliament. There 
is a secretary and 8 clerks, 8 waiters, and 5 messengers. 
The expenses amount to upwards of 10,0007. per annum. 
The income is derived from the subscriptions of about 1900 
members and subscribers, and substitutes ; the payments 
from the insurance and other public companies; the adver- 
tiring of ships' bills, and the sale of Lloyd's List. Each 
member pays 25/. admission, and an annual subscription of 
41. As.; but if an underwriter, 10Z. 10s. Annual subscribers 
to the whole establishment pay four guineas, or if to the 
Merchants' Room only, then two guineas. The admission is 
by ballot of the committee, on the recommendation of six 
subscribers. 

What is called Lloyd?* Register of British ami Foreign 
Shipping, is in No. 2, White-Lion-court. Comhill, and was 
established in 1834. The object of the society n 
obtain a knowledge of the condition of the mercantile 
shipping, by means of careful surveys to be made by com- 
petent surveyors, and thus to secure an accurate classification 
according to the real and intrinsic worth of the ship. The 
affairs of the Society which instituted this book are mai 

by a committee consisting of 2 t members, namely, 8 mer- 
chants, < s shipowners, and 8 underwriters, six members 
(2 of each of the description just mentioned) retire annually, 
but are eligible to be re-elected. The right of election rests 
equally with the committee for Lloyd's, and the committee 
of the General Shipowners' Society. 



TRINITY HOUSE. — stock EXCHANGE. 63 

On the architrave of the N. facade of the Exchange 
are three inscriptions in relief, each divided by a simple 
moulding. The one on the left of the spectator is the common 
City motto, "domine. dirige. nos," and that on the right 
"honor, deo." The motto in the central compartment, 
" Fortvx. a. my," was the motto of Sir Thomas Gresham. 

It is contemplated, we are told, to glaze in the whole 
quadrangle of the Royal Exchange. This will add to the 
comfort of the merchants on 'Change, but hardly to the 
architectural character of Mr. Tite's building. 

The first Royal Exchange was founded by Sir Thomas 
Gresham, June 7th, 1566, and the building opened by Queen 
Elizabeth, Jan. 23rd, 1570-1. 

TRINITY HOUSE, on the K side of Tower Hill, built 
by Samuel Wyatt. The house belongs to a company or 
corporation founded by Sir Thomas Spert, Comptroller of 
the Navy to Henry VIII., and commander of the Harry Grace 
de Dieu, and was incorporated (March 20th, 1529) by the 
name of " The Master, Wardens, and Assistants of the Guild, 
Fraternity, or Brotherhood, of the most glorious and Undivid- 
able Trinity, and of St. Clement, in the parish of Deptford 
Strond, in the county of Kent." The corporation consists of 
a Master, Deputy Master, 31 Elder Brethren, and an unlimited 
number of "younger brethren," and has for its object the 
increase and encouragement of navigation, &c, the regulation 
of light-houses, and seamarks, and the general management 
of matters not immediately connected with the Admiralty. 
The revenue of the corporation, arising from tonnage, ballast- 
age, beaconage, &c, is applied (after defraying the expenses 
of light-houses, buoys, &c, to the relief of decayed seamen, 
their widows and children. The Duke of Wellington is the 
present master. 

STOCK EXCHANGE, Capel Court. This is the ready- 
money market of the world. It stands immediately in front 
of the Bank of England. The first stone of the present Hall 
was laid in 1801, and the building opened in March, 1802. 
Capel-court, in which it stands, was so called from the 
London residence and place of business of Sir William Capel, 
ancestor of the Capels, Earls of Essex, and Lord Mayor of 
London in 1504. The members of the Stock Exchange, 
about 850 in number, consist of brokers and dealers in 
British and foreign funds, railway and other shares exclu- 
sively ; each member paying an annual subscription of 1 0/. 
A notice is posted at ever}' entrance that none but members 



64 EAST INDIA HOUSE. 

are admitted. A stranger is soon detected, and by the custom 
of the place is made to understand that he is an intruder, 
and turned out. The admission of a member takes place in 
committee, and is by ballot. The election is only for one 
year, so that each member has to be re-elected every Lady- 
day. The committee, consisting of thirty, are elected by 
the members at the same time. Every new member of the 
" house," as it is called, must be introduced by three members, 
each of whom enters into security in 300?. for two years. 
An applicant for admission who has been a clerk to a 
member for the space of four years has to provide only two 
securities for 2501. for two years. A bankrupt member 
immediately ceases to be a member, and cannot be re-elected 
unless he pays 6s. 8d. in the pound from resources of his 
own. The usual commission charged by a broker is one- 
eighth per cent, upon the stock sold or purchased ; but on 
foreign stocks, railway bonds and shares, it varies according 
to the value of the securities. The broker generally deals 
with the "jobbers," as they are called, a class of members 
who are dealers or middle men, who remain in the Stock 
Exchange in readiness to act upon the appearance of the 
brokers, but the market is entirely open to all the members, 
so that a broker is not compelled to deal with a jobber, but 
can treat with another broker if he can do so more advan- 
tageously to his client. ^ The fluctuations of „ price are 
produced by sales and purchases, by " continental news, 
domestic politics and finance ; and sometimes by a fraud 
or trick like that ascribed to Lord Cochrane and others, 
in 1814, when the members were victimised to a large 
amount. 

EAST INDIA HOUSE, Leadenhall Street,— the House 
of the East India Company, the largest and most mag- 
nificent Company in the world,— "was built on the site of 
a former house by Mr. R. Jupp, in 1799, and subsequently 
enlarged from designs by C. R. Cockerell, R.A., and W. 
Wilkins, R.A. The poor sculpture in the pediment was the 
work of the younger Bacon. The Company was first incor- 
porated in 1600. The last great change was made in 1833, 
when an Act of Parliament was passed, by which the go- 
vernment of India is continued in the hands of the Company 
until 1854. The home government of the Company consists 
of " The Court of Proprietors, or General Court," composed 
of the owners of India stock; "The Court of Directors," 
selected from the Proprietors ; and " The Board of Control," 
nominated by the Sovereign. Here is a Museum open to 
the public on Fridays, from 11 to 3. Observe. — Large and 



DOCKS. 65 

capital drawing of old East India House. Hindu idols in 
silver and gold. Hindu and Goorkha swords. Pair of 
Gauntlets made at Lahore, sometimes used by the native 
chiefs and horsemen in India (beautifully elaborate). Sword 
of the executioner attached to the palace of the King of 
Candy (taken at the capture of Candy). Piece of wood of 
the ship " Farquharson," containing the horns of a fish 
called the monodon ; the largest horn had penetrated 
through the copper sheeting and outside lining into one 
of the floor timbers. An emblematic organ (a tiger on a 
man), contrived for the amusement of Tippoo Sultan. Surya, 
the Sun, in his seven-horse car. Buddhist idols and relics. 
A perfumed gold necklace. The state howdah of Durgan 
Sal, usurper of Bhurtpore. Full-length portrait of the 
famous Nadir Shah. Boman tesselated pavement found in 
front of the East India House — human figure reclining on 
a tiger. Babylonian inscription on stone, as sharp and 
perfect as the day it was cut. Monument to the great Lord 
Clive ; monument to Major Lawrence, the friend of Clive. 
Bust of Mr. Colebrooke, by Chantrey. The coins (a most 
valuable collection under the care of Prof. H. H. Wilson) can 
only be seen by special permission. Hoole, the translator of 
Tasso ; Charles Lamb, author of Elia ; and James Mill, the 
historian of British India; were clerks in the East India 
House. " My printed works," said Lamb, " were my recrea- 
tions — my true works may be found on the shelves in 
Leadenhall-street, filling some hundred folios." 

THE DOCKS OF LONDON are five in number: West 
India Docks, East India Docks, St. Katherine's Docks, 
London Docks, and Commercial Docks, have all of them 
been formed since 1800, previous to which time the several 
proprietors of wharfs and landing-places, both above and 
below bridge, were in the way of their formation. One and 
all of these Docks have been constructed by joint-stock com- 
panies, and though not unprofitable to their promoters, have 
redounded more to the advantage of the Port of London 
than to that of their projectors. 

WEST INDIA DOCKS, the most magnificent in the world 
(William Jessop, engineer), cover 295 acres, and lie between 
Limehouse and Blackwall, on the left bank of the Thames. 
The first stone was laid by William Pitt, July 12th, 1800, and 
the docks opened for business, Aug. 21st, 1802. The north- 
ern, or Import Dock, is 170 yards long by 166 wide, and will 
hold 201 vessels of 300 tons each; and the southern, or 

F 



66 LKXK^. 

Export Dock, is 170 yards long by 135 yards wide, and will 
hold 195 vessels. South of the Export Dock is a canal 
nearly three-quarters of a mile long, cutting off the great 
bend of the river, connecting Liniehouse Reach with Black- 
wall Reach, and forming the northern boundary of the Isle 
of Dogs. The two docks, with their warehouses, are en- 
closed by a lofty wall five feet in thickness, and have held at 
one time 148,563 casks of sugar, 70,875 barrels and 433,618 
bags of coffee, 35,158 pipes of rum and Madeira, 14,021 logs 
of mahogany, and 21,350 tons of logwood. Though they 
retain their old name, they belong to the East and West 
India Dock Company, and are used by every kind of shipping. 
The office of the Company is at No. 8, Billiter-square ; and 
the best way of reaching the docks is by the Blackwall 
Railway. The original capital of the Company was 500,000/., 
afterwards raised to 1,200,000Z. The revenues in 1809 
amounted to 330,623/., and in 1813, when they reached their 
climax, to 449,421/. Since that time the depreciation of the 
West India Trade has caused a great falling off. The annual 
expenses of the establishment amounted in 1819 to 151,644/., 
of which above 50,000/. went to workmen, above 40,000/. to 
building and improvements, and 13,320/. to taxes. 

EAST INDIA DOCKS, Blackwall, a little lower down 
the river than the West India Docks, and considerably smaller, 
were originally erected for the East India Company, but since 
the opening of the trade to India, the property of the East and 
West India Companies. The first stone was laid March 4th, 
1805, and the docks opened for business Aug. 4th, 1806. The 
number of directors is 13, who must each hold 20 shares in the 
stock of the Company, and 4 of them must be directors of the 
East India Company. This forms the only connexion which 
the East India Company has with the Docks. The possession 
of five shares gives a right of voting. The Import Dock has 
an area of 19 acres, the Export Dock of 10 acres, and the 
Basin of 3, making a total surface of 32 acres. The gates are 
closed at 3 in the winter months, and at 4 in the summer 
months. The mode of admission for visitors is much stricter 
than at any of the other Docks. The best way of reaching the 
Docks is by the Blackwall Railway from Fenchurch-strcet. 
This is the head-quarters of White Bait, which may be had 
in the neighbouring Brunswick Tavern. 

ST. KATHERINE'S DOCKS, near the Tower. First stone 
laid May 3rd, 1827, and the Docks publicly opened, Oct. 25th, 
1828; 1250 houses, including the old Hospital of St. Kathe- 



DOCKS. 67 

line, -were purchased and pulled down, and 11,300 inhabitants 
removed, in clearing the ground for this magnificent under- 
taking, of which Mr. Telford was the engineer, Mr. Hardwick 
the architect, and Sir John Hall, the present secretary, the 
active promoter. The total cost was 1,700,0002. The 
area of the Docks is about 24 acres, of which 11£ are 
water. The lock is sunk so deep that ships of 700 tons 
burden may enter at any time of the tide. The warehouses, 
vaults, sheds, and covered ways will contain 110,000 tons of 
goods. The gross earnings of the Company in 1845 were 
230,9922. 15s. 2c?. ; expenses, 122,7172. 7s. lid. ; balance, 
108,2752. 7s. 3<rZ. The gross earnings for 1846 were 
229,8142. 14s. 10(7.; expenses, 124,2692. 14s. 7(2. ; balance, 
105,5452. 0s. 3(2. The earth excavated at St. Katherine's when 
the Docks were formed was carried by water to Millbank, 
and employed to fill up the cuts or reservoirs of the Chelsea 
Waterworks Company, on which, under Mr. Cubitt's care, 
Eccleston-square, and much of the south side of Pimlico, has 
been since erected. 

THE LONDON DOCKS, situated on the bank of the 
Thames, between St. Katherine's Docks and Ratcliffe 
Highway. The first and largest dock (John Rennie, engineer) 
was opened, Jan. 30th, 1805 ; the entrance from the Thames 
at Shadwell (Henry R. Palmer, engineer) was made, 1831 ; 
and the New Tea Warehouses, capacious enough to receive 
120,000 chests, were erected in 1844-45. This magnificent 
establishment comprises an area of 90 acres — 35 acres of 
water, and 12,980 feet of quay and jetty frontage, with three 
entrances from the Thames, viz., Hermitage, 40 feet in width; 
Wapping, 40 feet; and Shadwell, 45 feet. The Western 
Dock comprises 20 acres ; the Eastern, 7 acres ; and the 
Wapping Basin, 3 acres. The entire structure cost 4,000,0002. 
of money. The wall alone cost 65,0002. The walled-in range 
of dock possesses water-room for 302 sail of vessels, exclusive 
of lighters ; warehouse-room for 220,000 tons of goods ; and 
vault-room for 60,000 pipes of wine. The tobacco warehouse 
alone covers 5 acres. The number of ships entered in the six 
months ending May 31st, 1849, was 704, measuring upwards 
of 1 95,000 tons. Six weeks are allowed for unloading, beyond 
which period the charge of a farthing per ton is made for 
the first two weeks, and a halfpenny per ton afterwards. The 
business of the Docks is managed by a Court of Directors, 
who sit at the London Dock House, in New Bank-buildings. 
The capital of the shareholders is 4,000,0002. As many as 
2900 labourers have been emplovedin these docks in one day. 

f 2 



! DOCKS. 

M The TobaccoTVarehouses are rented by Government at 14,0007. a year. 
They will contain about 24,000 hogsheads, averaging 1200 lbs. each, and 
equal to 30,000 tons of general merchandise. Passages and alleys, each 
several hundred feet long, are bordered on both sides by close and com- 
pact ranges of hogsheads, with here and there a small space for the 
counting-house of the officers of customs, under whose inspection all the 
arrangements are conducted. Near the north-east corner of the ware- 
houses is a door inscribed 'To the Kiln,' where damaged tobacco is burnt, 
the long chimney which carries off the smoke being jocularly called ' The 
Queen's Pipe.' " — Knight's London, iii. 76. 

This is the great depot for the stock of wines belonging to 
the Wine Merchants of London. Port is principally kept 
in pipes ; sherry in hogsheads. On the 30th of June, 1849, 
the Dock contained 14,783 pipes of port ; 13,107 hogsheads 
of sherry; 64 pipes of French wine; 796 pipes of Cape 
wine; 7607 cases of wine, containing 19,140 dozen; 10,113 
hogsheads of brandy; and 3642 pipes of rum. The total 
of port was 14,783 pipes, 4460 hogsheads, and 3161 quarter 
casks. 

" As you enter the dock, the sight of the forest of masts in the distance, 
and the tall chimneys vomiting clouds of black smoke, and the many- 
coloured flags flying in the air, has a most peculiar effect: while the 
sheds, with the monster wheels arching through the roofs, look like the 
paddle-boxes of huge steamers. Along the quay, you see now men with 
their faces blue with indigo, and now gangers with {their long brass- 
tipped rule dripping with spirit from the cask they have been probing ; 
then will come a group of flaxen-haired sailors, chattering German ; and 
next a black sailor, with a cotton handkerchief twisted turban-like around 
hu» head. Presently a blue-smocked butcher, with fresh meat and a 
bunch of cabbages in the tray on his shoulder, and shortly afterwards 
a mate with green parroquets in a wooden cage. Here you will see, 
sitting on a bench, a sorrowful-looking woman, with new bright cooking 
tins at her feet, telling you she is an emigrant preparing for her voyage. 
As you pass along this quay the air is pungent with tobacco, at that it 
overpowers you with the fumes of rum. Then you are nearly sickened 
with the stench of hides and huge bins of horns, and shortly afterwards 
the atmosphere is fragrant with coffee and spice. Nearly everywhere 
you meet stacks of cork, or else yellow bins of sulphur or lead-coloured 
copper ore. As you enter this warehouse, the flooring is sticky, as if it 
had been newly tarred, with the sugar that has leaked through the casks, 
and as you descend into the dark vaults you see long lines of lights 
hanging from the black arches, and lamps flitting about midway. Here 
you sniff the fumes of the wine, and there the peculiar fungous smell of 
dry-rot. Then the jumble of sounds as yon pass along the dock blends in 
anything lmt sweet concord. The Bailors axe singing boisterous niggex 
songs from the Yankee ship just entering, the ooopei is hammering at 
the casks ou the quay ; the chains of the cranes, loosed of their weight, 
rattle as they fly up again ; the ropes splash in the water; some captain 
shouts his orders through bis hands; a goat bleats from some ship in 
the basin; and empty casks roll along the stones with a hollow drum- 
like sound. Here the heavy laden ships are down far below the quay, 
and you descend to them by ladders, whilst in another basin they are 
high up out of the water, so that their green copper sheathing is almost 
level With the eye of the passenger, while above his head a long line of 
bowsprits stretch tax oyer the quay, and from them hang spars and 



COAL EXCHANGE. 69 

planks as a gangway to each ship. This immense establishment is 
worked by from one to three thousand hands, according as the business 
is either ' brisk ' or ' slack.' " — Henry Mayhew, Labour and the Poor, in the 
Morning Chronicle for Oct. 1849. 

Mode of Admission. — The basins and shipping are open to 
the public ; but to inspect the vaults and warehouses an 
order must be obtained from the Secretary at the London 
Dock House in New Bank-buildings ; ladies are not admitted 
after 1 p.m. 

COMMERCIAL DOCKS. Five ample and commodious 
docks on the south side of the river, the property of the 
Commercial Dock Company, with an entrance from the 
Thames, between Randall's-rents and Dog-and-Duck-stairs, 
nearly opposite King's- Arms-stairs in the Isle of Dogs. They 
were opened in 1807, and consist principally of the old 
Greenland Docks for Greenland ships, enlarged and provided 
with warehouses for bonding foreign corn. They comprise 
49 acres, 40 of which are water ; and are principally used by 
vessels engaged in the Baltic and East Country commerce 
and importation of timber. Office of the Company, No. 106, 
Fenchurch-street. The removal of the mud deposited in the 
Docks by the steam navigation of the Thames, costs the 
Company, on an average, about 1000£. a year. 

CORN EXCHANGE, Mark Lane, City, projected and 
opened 1747, enlarged and partly rebuilt in 1827, and 
reopened, June 24th, 1828. The market days are Monday, 
Wednesday, and Friday, and the hours of business are from 
10 to 3 ; Monday is the principal day. Wheat is paid for in 
bills at one month, and all other descriptions of com and 
grain in bills at two months. The Kentish " hoymen " (dis- 
tinguished by their sailors' jackets) have stands free of 
expense, and pay less for rentage and dues than others. 

COAL EXCHANGE, in Lower Thames Street, nearly 
opposite Billingsgate, established pursuant to 47 Geo. III., 
cap. 68. The first stone of the present building (J. B. 
Bunning, architect) was laid Dec. 14th, 1847, and the building 
opened by Prince Albert, in person, Oct. 30th, 1849. In 
making the foundations a Roman hypocaust was laid open, 
perhaps the most interesting of the many Roman remains 
discovered in London. It has been arched over, and is still 
visible. The interior decorations of the Exchange are by 
F. Sang, and are both appropriate and instructive, represent- 
ing the various species of ferns, palms, and other plants found 
fossilised amid strata of the coal formation ; the principal 



70 RAILWAY STATIONS. — SMITHFIELD. 

collieries and mouths of the shafts ; portraits of men who 
have rendered service to the trade; colliers' tackle, imple- 
ments, &c. The floor is laid in the form of the mariner's 
compass, and consists of upwards of 40,000 pieces of wood. 
The black oak portions were taken from the bed of the 
Tyne, and the mulberry wood introduced as the blade of 
the dagger in the City shield was taken from a tree said to 
have been planted by Peter the Great when working in this 
country as a shipwright. 20,000 seamen are employed in 
the carrying department alone of the London Coal Trade. 

LONDON AND NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY STA- 
TION", Euston Square, by far the finest railway station in 
London, will be found to repay a visit. The depot of the 
Company at Euston-square is of enormous and increasing 
magnitude. The total length of the line in which the Com- 
pany is interested, directly or indirectly, is 1141 miles, and 
the total amount expended up to October, 1848 (when the 
great financial statement of the Company was made), was 
22,835,120?. The great Hall at Euston-square station (opened 
May, 1849), was built from the designs of P. C. Hardwick, son 
of Philip Hardwick, R.A., and the building is said to have 
cost 150,000?. The bas-reliefs of London, Liverpool, Man- 
chester, &c, are by John Thomas, the sculptor of the statues 
and bosses at the New Houses of Parliament. 

The LONDON BRIDGE STATION is the property of two 
Companies, and is perhaps a more wonderful sight, from the 
complication of its rails, than any other station in London or 
indeed elsewhere. 

Some further notion of the extent of private enterprise in 
this country may be obtained from the establishment of 
Messrs. Cox and Greenwood, the large army agents in Craig's- 
court, Charing-cross. They employ about 48 clerks for 
Regimental agency alone, and these are maintained at an 
annual cost of 12,500?. Of the 35,000?. a year, or thereabouts, 
paid by the Government for Army agency, something like 
23,000?. a year is paid to the firm of Cox and Greenwood. 



MARKETS. 

SMITHFIELD, the great cattle market of London :— an 
open area, in the form of an irregular polygon, containing five 
acres and three quarters, surrounded by bone-hou.-e-. i 



SM1THF1EJLD. 71 

manufactories, public-houses, and knackers' yards. The name 
would seem to have been originally Smoothfield, "campus 
planus." Monday is set apart for fat cattle and sheep ; 
Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday, for hay and straw ; Friday, 
cattle and sheep and milch cows, and at 2 o'clock for scrub- 
horses and asses. 

" Falstaff. Where's Bardolph? 

" Page. He 's gone into Smithfield to buy your worship a horse. 

" Falstaff. I bought him in Paul's, and he '11 buy me a horse in 
Smithfield : an I could get me but a wife in the Stews, I were manned, 
horsed, and wived." — Second Part of Henry IV., Act i., sc. 2. 

All sales take place by commission. The City receives a 
toll upon every beast exposed to sale of Id. per head, and of 
sheep at 2d. per score, and for every pen Is. The total pro- 
duce to the Corporation is from 5000/. to 6000Z. a-year. 
Smithfield salesmen estimate the weight of cattle by the eye, 
and from constant practice, approach so near exactness, that 
they are seldom out more than a few pounds. The sales are 
always for cash. No paper is passed, but when the bargain 
is struck, the buyer and seller shake hands and close the 
sale. Several millions are annually paid away in this manner. 
The average weekly sale of beasts is about 3000; and of 
sheep about 30,000 ; increased in the Christmas week to 
about 4000 beasts, and 47000 sheep. As a sheep market, 
Smithfield has been constantly on the decrease within the 
last ten years. There are about 4000 butchers in the metro- 
polis. The best time, indeed the only time, that a stranger 
should attempt to see Smithfield, is on a Monday morning 
before daylight, on the second week in December preparatory 
to the great cattle show. The scene by torch-light is 
extremely picturesque. The cruelties inflicted are " pething," 
(hitting them over the horns,) and " hocking." To prevent 
undue seventy, the drovers have stamped sticks, but this 
effects but very little. The market commences at 11 o'clock 
on Sunday night. The principal thoroughfare to the market 
is by St. John's-street. Many attempts have been made to 
remove Smithfield Market to a less central situation and less 
crowded thoroughfare. A market, admirably adapted for the 
purposes for which it was intended, was built in the Lower- 
road, Islington, and opened April 18th, 1836, but such was 
the influence of custom in the name of Smithfield, and the 
associations attached to an old spot, that salesmen still con- 
tinued through crowded streets to drive their cattle to the 
favourite locality of the London butchers. An Abattoir 
Company has since proved a failure, and, in 1849, another 
attempt to establish a market for the sale of beasts at Isling- 



72 BILLINGSGATE. 

ton has proved unsuccessful. Nothing, I fear, but an act of 
Parliament will ever remove Smithfielcl Market, and this the 
Government has now undertaken to see carried out. To pen 
the cattle sent for sale at Smithfield, as they are pent at 
Poissy, near Paris, from seven to eight acres would be re- 
quired ; the present extent is, as we have seen, five acres and 
three quarters. The insufficiency of space has therefore led 
to much cruel packing, and the closeness with which the 
animals are wedged together has not been untruly likened to 
the wedging of so many figs in a dram, The space is not 
capable of holding more than 4000 head of cattle and 30,000 
sheep. 

" Different statements have from time to time been put forth respecting 
the consumption of the principal products brought to London; but, with 
the exception of coal, and one or two other articles, there are no means 
by which to arrive at anything like a correct conclusion. Allowing for 
the carcases imported by steam and otherwise, the annual consumption 
of butcher's meat may, however, be at present (1851) estimated at about 
'-'•40,000 bullocks, 1,700,000 sheep, 28,000 calves, and 35,000 pigs, exclusive 
of vast quantities of bacon and ham." — Me CullocKs London in 1850-1851, 
p. 55. 

Smithfield is famous in History for its jousts, tournaments, 
executions and burnings, and in the present day for its 
market, the great cattle market of the largest city in the 
world. Here Wallace and the gentle Mortimer were exe- 
cuted. Here, on Saturday the 15th of June, 1381, 
Sir William Walworth slew Wat Tyler ; the King standing 
towards the cast near St. Bartholomew's Priory, and the 
Commons towards the west in form of battle. The stake, at 
which so many of the Marian martyrs died, was fixed imme- 
diately opposite the church of St. Bartholomew the Great. 
Here too, from September 3rd to 6th, is still held Barthohnm w 
Fair, once one of the leading fairs in England, but now only 
a nuisance. 

BILLINGSGATE. A gate, wharf, and market a little 
below London Bridge on the left bank of the Thames 
(Mr. Buuning, architect), appointed by Queen Elizabeth "an 
open place for the landing and bringing in of any fish, corn, 
salt, stores, victuals, and fruit (grocery wares excepted), and 
to be a place of carrying forth of the same, or the like, and 
for no other merchandizes : " and made, in the reign of 
William III., on and after May 10th, 1699, " a free and open 
market for all sorts offish." 

"How this <,'atc took that name, or of what antiquity the Bame is, 
i most leave uncertain, as not baying read any ancient record thereof, 
more than that (Jeffrey Monmouth vriteth, that Belin, a kinj,' of the 
Britons, about four hundred years before Christ's Nativity, built this 



COVENT GARDEN MARKET. 73 

gate, and named it Belin's gate, after his own calling ; and that when he. 
was dead, his body being burnt, the ashes in a vessel of brass were set 
upon a high pinnacle of stone over the same gate. It seemeth to me not 
to be so ancient, but rather to have taken that name of some later owner 
of the place, happily named Beling or Biling, as Somer's key, Smart's 
key, Frost wharf, and others thereby, took their names of their 
owners." — Stow, p. 17. 

The coarse language of the place has long been famous : — 

" There stript, fair Rhetoric languish'd on the ground; 
His blunted arms by sophistry are borne, 
And shameless Billingsgate her robes adorn." 

Pope, The Dunciad, B. iv. 

" One may term Billingsgate," says old Fuller, " the Esculine 
gate of London." 

The market opens at 5 o'clock throughout the year. All 
fish are sold by the tale except salmon, which is sold by 
weight, and oysters and shell-fish, which are sold by measure. 
The salmon imports are from Scotland and Ireland, and from 
Holland, and the north of Europe. The best cod is brought 
from the Dogger-bank, and the greater number of the lobsters 
from Norway. The eels are chiefly from Holland. Many 
vain attempts have been made to estimate the value of the 
fish sold or consumed in London, but we have no good data 
to go on. The consumption in London is less than the sale, 
the opening of railways having made London the fish-mai'ket 
of at least half of England. Salmon is sent in boxes on com- 
mission to agents, who charge 5 per cent, and take the risk of 
bad debts. This business is in few hands, and those en- 
gaged in it are the most wealthy of all dealers in fish. 

"I ascertained," says Mr. Mayhew, writing in 1850, "from 
the authorities at Billingsgate, and from experienced sales- 
men, that of the quantity of fish conveyed to that great mart, 
the costermongers bought one-third ; another third was sent 
into the country ; and another disposed of to the fishmongers, 
and to such hotel-keepers, or other large purchasers, as 
resorted to Billingsgate." 

Here every day (at 1 and 4), at the " One Tun Tavern," 
a capital dinner may be had for Is. 6d., including three kinds 
of fish, joints, steaks, and bread and cheese. 

COVENT GARDEN MARKET, the great fruit, vegetable, 
and herb market of London, originated (circ. 1656) in a few 
temporary stalls and sheds at the back of the garden wall of 
Bedford-house on the south side of the square. The present 
Market-place (William Fowler, architect) was erected (1830) 
at the expense of the late Duke of Bedford. The market is 



74 LEADENHALL MARKET. 

rated (1849) to the poor at 4800?., rather under than above 
the amount derived from the rental and the tolls. The 
stranger in London who wishes to see what Covent-garden 
Market is like, should visit it on a Tuesday, Thursday, or Satur- 
day morning in summer, between 3 and 7 o'clock. To see 
the supply of fruit and vegetables carted off, 7 a.m. is early 
enough. To enjoy the sight and smell of flowers and fruit, 
the finest in the world, any time from 10 a.m. to 4 or 5 p.m. 
will answer. The centre arcade at mid-day is one of the 
prettiest sights in London. Saturday is the best day. 

NEWGATE MARKET, between Newgate-street and 
Paternoster-row, originally a meal market, now a meat 
market, and much frequented, having grown into reputation 
from the time when the stalls and sheds were removed from 
Butcher-hall-lane and the localities adjoining the church of 
St. Nicholas Shambles. The West End carcase butchers 
come to this market for almost all their meat, and Newgate- 
street, on a market morning, has not been unaptly likened to 
one continuous butcher's tray. 

LEADENHALL MARKET, between Gracechurch-street 
and the East India House. A large market for butchers' 
meat, fish, poultry, vegetables, leather, hides, bacon, &c. 
The manor-house of Leadenhall, which gave the name to the 
market, belonged (1309) to Sir Hugh Neville, knight, and 
was converted into a granary for the City by Simon Eyre, 
draper, and Mayor of London, in 1445. It appears to have 
been a large building and covered with lead, then an unusual 
roofing on halls and houses. The market escaped the Great 
Fire of 1666. 

" YVould'st thou with mighty heef augment thy meal ? 
Seek Leadenhall." — Gay, Trivia. 

Leadenhall is no longer celebrated for its beef, but is de- 
servedly esteemed as the largest and best poultry market in 
London. 

Of the minor markets in London, Hungerford Makkkt and 
Farringdon Market are the two largest. The former is a 
general market for butchers' meat, fish, poultry, flowers, and 
fruit. Farringdon is the great water-cress market of London. 

"To visit Furriiigdon Market on I Mc .inlay morning [not later tlian 
six] is the only proper way to Judge of the fortitude and courage and 
perseverance of the poor." — //. Maphtto. 

The greatest number of horses are sold at Tattersai.i. 'l in 
Grosvenor-place close to the Duke of Wellington's, and 



BREWERIES. 75 

entered by a narrow lane at the side of St. George's Hospital. 
The mart was so called after Richard Tattersall (d. 1795), 
originally a training groom to the second and last Duke of 
Kingston, who laid the foundation of his fortune by the pur- 
chase, for 2500/., of the celebrated horse " Highflyer." All 
horses for sale must be sent on the Friday before the day of 
sale. The days of sale are Mondays throughout the year, and 
Thursdays in the height of the season. Here is a subscrip- 
tion-room, under the revision of the Jockey Club (who have 
rooms in Old Bond-street), and attended by all the patrons of 
the turf, from noblemen down to innkeepers. Days of meet- 
ing, Monday and Thursday throughout the year. Settling 
days, Tuesday after the Derby, Monday after the St. Leger. 
It is necessary to have an introduction from a subscriber. 
Annual subscription, 21. 2s. The number of members is 
stated to be between three and four hundred. The betting 
at Tattersall's regulates the betting throughout the country. 



BREWERIES. 

Among the host of curiosities to be seen in London 
nothing can be more interesting to the agriculturist than 
paying a visit to one or other of the great breweries. There 
are, in all, 2460 brewers in the United Kingdom, the prin- 
cipal of whom carry on their business in London. The fol- 
lowing statement of the malt used by the most eminent 
London brewers in one year, is supposed to be an average 
of the consumption for some years past : — 

Qrs. 

Barclay, Perkins, and Co., Park-street, Soutlrwark . . 115,542 

Hanbury and Co., Brick-lane, Spitalfields 105,022 

Meux and Co., Tottenham Court Road 59,617 

Reid and Co., Liquorpond-street, Gray's Inn-lane . . . 56,640 



Whitbread and Co., Chiswell-st., Old-street-road, St 
Combe and Co., Castle-street, Long Acre 
Calvert and Co., 89, Upper Thames-street . 
Mann and Co., 
Charrington and Co., 
Thorne and Co., 
Taylor and Co., 



Luke's 51,800 

. 43,282 

. . 29,630 

. 24,030 

. . 22,023 

. 21,016 

. . 15,870 



At Barclay's (the largest, extending over 10 acres) 600 quar- 
ters of malt are brewed daily. Among the many vats, one 
is pointed out containing 3500 barrels of porter, which, at 
the selling price, would yield 9000Z. One hundred and 
eighty horses are employed in the cartage department. They 



7G WATER COMPANIES. 

are brought principally from Flanders, cost from 50/. to 80/. 
each, and are noble specimens of the cart-horse breed. 
There are four partners in Barclay's house, who conduct 
every department of it in the most liberal maimer. Their 
head brewer has a salary of 1000/. a year. The founder of 
the firm was Henry Thrale, the friend of Dr. Johnson. The 
business, at Thrale's death, was sold by Johnson and his 
brother executor, in behalf of Mrs. Thrale, to Messrs. Barclay, 
Perkins, and Co., for 135,000/. "We are not here," said 
Johnson on the day of sale, " to sell a parcel of boilers and 
vats, but the potentiality of growing rich beyond the dreams 
of avarice." Robert Barclay, the first of the name in the 
firm (d. 1831), was a descendant of the famous Barclay, 
who wrote the Apology for the Quakers, and Perkins was the 
chief clerk on Thrale's establishment. While on his tour to 
the Hebrides, in 1773, Johnson mentioned that Thrale "paid 
20,000/. a year to the revenue, and that he had four vats, each 
of which held 1G00 barrels, above a thousand hogsheads." 
The amount at present paid to the revenue by the firm is 
nine times 20,000/. 

The visitor should exert his influence among his friends to 
obtain an order of admission to any one of the largest I have 
named. Foreigners wearing moustaches had better abstain 
altogether, remembering the disgraceful treatment which an 
Austrian officer received in one of these establishments. The 
best London porter and stout in draught is to be had at the 
Cock Tavern, 201, Fleet-street, and at the Rainbow Tavern, 
15, Fleet-street, immediately opposite. Judges of ale recom- 
mend John O'Groat's, 61, Rupert-street, Haymarket ; and 
the Edinburgh Castle, 322, Strand. 



WATER COMPANIES. 



The cities of London and Westminster, and the borough 
of Southwark, and certain parishes and places adjacent 
thereto are at present supplied with water by nine Com- 
panies, who exercise absolute and irresponsible discretion in 
the quality, price, and quantity, of the article they sell. 
These Companies are: — New River Company: East Lon- 
don Water Works Company ; Southwark ano Vauxhall 
Watki: Company; West Middlesex Water Works Com- 
pany; Lambeth Watbb Works Company ; Chblbba Watbb 
Works Company; Grand .Unction Watbb WOBKfl Com- 



NEW RIVER. 77 

PANT : Kent "Water Works Company; Hampstead Water 
Works Company. 

The daily supply at present is nearly 46 millions of gallons 
per day, of which 20 millions are from the Thames, and 26 
millions from the New River and other sources. This supply 
is equal, it is said, to a river 9 feet wide and 3 feet deep, 
running at two miles an hour.* The City is entirely supplied 
from the New River and the River Lea ! not by the Thames. 
The nine companies supply 271,795 tenements ; the New 
River supplying 83,206 of that number. At present the 
Thamesf* is at once our cistern and our cesspool. 

A proposal was made to Parliament, in 1851, to combine 
the various water companies into one Company, to be called 
" The Metropolitan Water Company," the Secretary of State 
for the Home Department being vested with a power as to 
quality, price, and quantity, but it was not adopted. 

The NEW RIVER is an artificial stream, 38 miles, 

3 quarters, and 16 poles in length, about 18 feet wide and 

4 feet deep, projected 1608-9, and completed 1620, by Sir 
Hugh Myddelton, a native of Denbigh, in Wales, and a member 
of the Goldsmiths' Company, for the purpose of supplying the 
City of London with water. Nearly ruined by his scheme, 
Myddelton parted with his interest in it to a company, 
called the New River Company, in whose hands it still 
remains, reserving to himself and his heirs for ever an 
annuity of 100?. per annum. This annuity ceased to be 
claimed about the year 1715. The river has its rise at 
Chadswell Springs, situated in meadows, midway between 
Hertford and Ware, runs for several miles parallel with the 
river Lea, from which it borrows water at Ware, and at last 
empties itself into the throats of 600,000 persons, having run 
nearly double the double number of miles required by a 
straight line from its source to London. The principal spring, 
marked by a stone erected by the Company, is now a spacious 
basin with an islet, containing a monument to Myddelton, 
erected, in 1800, byMylne, the architect and engineer. The 
dividend for the year 1633, which is believed to have been the 
first, was 1 51. 3s. 3c?. A single share bequeathed by Myddelton 
to the Goldsmiths' Company for charitable purposes, produces 
200?. a year. The main of the New River at Islington was, it 
is said, shut down at the time of the Great Fire of London in 

* Mr. Napier's Report to Board of Health, The Times, 12th Nov , 1S50. 
t The South Lambeth Company now draws its supply from the 
Thames, at Thames. Ditton, where the water is pure. ' 



ra BEWTRAl 

1666; and it was believed by some, who pretended to the 
means of knowing, that the supply of water had been stopped 
by Captain John Graunt, a papist, under whoso name Sir 
William Petty published his Observations on the Bills of Mor- 
tality. The story, however, it is reasonable to think, was a 
mere party invention of those heated times. One of the 
figures in Tempest's Cries of London, executed and published 
in the reign of James II., carries " New River Water," 



SEWERAGE. 

Tiie ordinary daily amount of London sewerage discharged 
into the River Thames on the N. side has been calculated 
at 7,045,120 cubic feet, and on the south side 2,457,600 cubic 
feet, making a total of 9,502,720 cubic feet, or a quantity 
equivalent to a surface of more than 36 acres in extent and 
6 feet in depth. Of the 9 square miles of the London district on 
the S. side three miles are from 6 to 7 feet below high water- 
mark, so that the locality may be said to be drained only 
for 4 horn's out of the 12, and during these 4 hours very 
imperfectly. The sewers now empty themselves into the 
Thames at various levels. "When the tide rises above the 
orifices of those sewers, the whole drainage of the district is 
stopped until the tide recedes again, rendering the whole 
system of Bowers in Kent end Surrey only an art ieulation of 
cesspools.* Within the City of London alone, which is said 
to include about 50 miles of streets, alleys, and courts, there 
are 47* miles of sewerage. Mr. Frank Fanner's scheme 
(adopted by the General Hoard of Health and the Commie* 
sioners of Sewers) is to have the aewage of the N. side 
conveyed, by intercepting Beweri or trunk drains, to a point 
called the "Pumping Station," on the eastern hank of the 
river Lea, whence it will be again transferred to a second 
point four miles distant, on tho bank of the river Ltoding at 

the eastern extremity of Galleons Reach, a little below 

Blackwall. Here there is to bo a reservoir, in which the 

sewago will accumulate during flood tide, and be thenoe 
effectually discharged during the first 3 hours of tho ebb, so 
that, according to computation, no portion of it can erer 
return to our doors. This, it will be Been, gets rid of 
pools, and supplies I direct drainage instead. The cost, at 

• Mr. BtflpbSMOB, in the Timet of lOffa A.«f. 1860. 



TOWSH 01 LONDON. 79 

the lowest calculation, will be at least a million, exclusive of 
what may be required for land-purchases and compensations. 
Of this great work, the Victoria-street sewer, extending from 
Scotland Yard, Whitehall, through Parliament-square aud 
Victoria-street, to Shaftesbury-terrace, Pimlico, is now (July, 
1851) in operation. 



TOWER OF LONDON. 



TOWER OF LONDON", the most celebrated fortress in 
Great Britain, stands immediately without the City walls, on 
the left or Middlesex bank of the Thames, and "below 
bridge." 

" This Tower," says Stow, " is a citadel to defend or command the 
City ; a royal palace for assemblies or treaties ; a prison of state for the 
most dangerous offenders ; the only place of coinage for all England at 
this time ; the armoury for warlike provisions ; the treasury of the 
ornaments and jewels of the Crown ; and general conserver of the most 
records of the King's courts of justice at Westminster." — Stow, p. 23. 

Tradition has carried its erection many centuries earlier than 
our records : — 

" Prince. Where shall we sojourn till our coronation ? 

" Gloster. Where it seems best unto your royal self. 
If I may counsel you, some day or two 
Your highness will repose you at the Tower. 

"Prince. I do not like the Tower, of any place. — 
Did Julius Caesar build that place, my lord? 

" Buck. He did, my gracious lord, begin that place, 
Which since succeeding ages have re-edified. 

"Prince. Is it upon record, or else reported 
Successively from age to age, he built it? 

" Buck. Upon record, my gracious lord." 

Shakspeare, King Richard III., Act iii., sc. 1. 

" This is the way 
To Julius Caesar's ill-erected Tower." 

Sliakspeare, King Richard II., Act v., sc. 1. 

" Ye towers of Julius, London's lasting shame, 
With many a foul and midnight murder fled. 

Gray, TJie Bard. 

Antiquaries fail to confirm tradition in the remote antiquity 
assigned to the Tower. No part of the existing structure is 
of a date anterior to the Keep, or the great white and square 
tower in the centre, called the White Tower, and this, it is 
well known, was built by William the Conqueror (circ. 1078), 
the King appointing Gundulph, Bishop of Rochester, to be 



BO TOWBB W LONDON. 

principal surveyor and overseer of that work. The chapel in 
this Tower, now the Record Room, is one of the most 
complete remaining specimens of a Norman church, on a 
small scale. 

The Tower was formerly accessible by four gates only : the 
Lions' Gate, on the W. side, where the lions and King's beasts 
were kept, and still the principal entrance ; by the Water 
Gate, for receipt of boats and small vessels ; by the Iron 
Gate, a great and strong gate, but not usually opened ; and 
by Traitors' Gate, a small postern with a drawbridge, fronting 
the Thames, seldom let down but for the receipt of some 
great persons, prisoners. 

" On through that gate misnamed, through which before 
Went Sidney, Russell, Raleigh, Cranmer, More." 

Rogers's Human Life. 

It was also defended by a broad, deep ditch of water, long 
an eyesore and unwholesome, more like a sewer than the 
wet ditch of a fortification ; till it was drained and made a 
garden, as we now see it, in 1S43. The towers within the 
fortress are called the Lion Tower ; the Middle Tower ; the 
Bell Tower, said to have been the prison of Fisher, Bishop of 
Rochester, and afterwards of Queen Elizabeth ; the Bloody 
Tower, so called, it is said, from the sons of Edward IV., 
supposed to have been murdered there, and described by the 
Duke of Wellington as the best if not the only good place of 
security, at the disposition of the officers of the Tower, in 
which state prisoners can be placed ; * the Beauchamp, or 
Wakefield Tower, on the W. side, the place of imprisonment 
of Anna Boleyn, and scratched over with inscriptions cut by 
prisoners confined within its walls, now a repository for the 
ancient enrolments of Chancery, the most valuable portion, 
it is said, of the public records ; the Develin Tower ; the 
Bowyer Tower, on the N. side, where the Duke of Clarence, 
it is traditionally believed, was drowned in a butt of Malin.-ev : 
the Brick Tower, on the X.E. side, the prison, it is said, of 
Lady Jane Grey ; the Martin Tower, near the site of the 
Jewel House; and the Salt Tower, on the E. side, containing 
the curious sphere, with the signs of the zodiac. &C., engraved 
on the walls, May 80th, 1561, by Hugh Draper, of Bristol, 
committed to the Tower in 1 560, on suspicion of sorcery and 
practice against Sir William St. I. owe and his lady. It is 
much to be regretted that the several Towers, more especially 
the fine old Norman chapel in the White Tower, are not 
accessible to the public. Tho keeper of the Tower was 

Appendix T. to Eighth Report of Deputy Keeper of Public Records. 




O K 



D 



GROUND PLAN OF THE TOWER. 



A Lion Tower. 

B Middle Tower. 

C Bell Tower. 

D Lieutenant's Lodgings. 

E Bloody Tower. 

F Entrance to Armouries* 



G Salt Tower. 

II Brick Tower,— Lady Jane Grey confined in. 
I Bowyer Tower,— Duke of Clarence murdered in. 
K Beauchamp Tower— Anna Boleyn imprisoned in. 
L Entrance Gate. 



82 TOWER OF LONDON. 

called the Lieutenant of the Tower, whose lodgings were in 
the S.W. part of the building, to the left of the Bloody 
Tower. Opposite to the church, at the S.W. corner of the 
Tower Green, arc " The Lieutenant's Lodgings," a structure 
of the time of Henry VIIL, now the residence of the Governor. 
In a room of this house, called the Council Chamber, the 
commissioners met to examine Guy Fawkes and his accom- 
plices; an event commemorated by a curious monument, 
constructed of party-coloured marbles, and with inscriptions 
in Latin and Hebrew. In another part of this building is an 
inscription carved on an old mantelpiece relating to the 
Countess of Lenox, grandmother of James the First, " com- 
mitede prysner to thys Logynge for the Mange of her Sonne, 
my Lord Henry Darnle and the Queene of Scotlande." 
The present representative of the " Lieutenant " is called 
Constable of the Tower, an office at present held by the Duke 
of Wellington. The visitor is conducted over the Tower 
armouries by the warders of the Tower, who wear the dress 
of the yeomen of the guard of the reign of Henry VIIL 
The entrance is by the eastern gate, and tickets must be 
bought at the Ticket-office, on your right as you enter. The 
Armoury tickets and the Jewel-house tickets are the same 
price, 6d. each. The warders conduct parties of twelve in 
number every half-hour from half-past 10 to 4 inclusive. 

The Horse Armoury is contained in a handsome gallery 150 
feet long by 33 feet wide, built in 1826 on the south side of 
the White Tower. The general assignment of the suits and 
arrangement of the gallery were made by the late Sir Samuel 
Meyrick, of Goodrich Court, and author of A Critical Inquiry 
into Ancient Armour. The centre is occupied by a line of 
equestrian figures, 22 in number, clothed in the armour of 
various roigns, from the time of Edward I. to James II., 
(1272 — 1088). Each suit is assigned, for the sake of chrono- 
logy, to some King or knight, but none are known to havo 
been worn by tho persons to whom they are assigned, except 
in a very few instances (such as Henry VIII. ; Dudley, Earl 
of Leicester; Henry, Prince of Wales; and Charles I.). 
Observe. — In tho centre of this gallery, suit of the time of 
Edward I., (1272 — 1307), consisting of a hauberk with sleeves 
and chausses, and hood with camail ; the emblazoned surcoat 
and baudric arc modem : the spurs are prick-spura Suit of 
the time of Henry VI. 122 1 161) ; the back and breast- 
platcs arc flexible armour, the aleeves and skirt of chain 
mail, the gauntlets fluted, the helmet Q salade armed with a 
frontlet and surmounted by a crest. Suit of tho time of 
Edward IV., (HG1— 1483) ; the vamplate or guard of tho 



TOWEIl OF LONDON. 83 

tilting-lance is ancient, the war-saddle is of later date. Suit 
of ribbed armour of the time of Richard III. (1483—1485), 
worn by the Marquis of Waterford at the Eglintoun Tourna- 
ment. Suit of fluted armour, of German fabric, of the time 
of Henry VII. (1485—1509), the knight dismounted; the 
helmet is called a burgonet, and was invented by the Bur- 
gundians. Suit of fluted armour of the same reign ; the 
armour of the horse is complete all but the flanchards. 
Suit of damasked armour, known to have been worn by 
Henry VIII. (1509 — 1547); the stirrups are curious from 
their great size. Two suits of the same reign, called Charles 
Brandon, Duke of Suffolk, and Edward Clinton, Earl of 
Lincoln. Suit in central recess (behind you) of German 
workmanship, very fine, and originally gilt, made to com- 
memorate the union of Henry VIII. and Katherine of Aragon. 
The badges of this king and queen, the rose and pomegranate, 
are engraved on various parts of the armour. On the fans 
of the genouilleres is the Sheaf of Arrows, the device adopted 
by Ferdinand, the father of Katherine, on his conquest of 
Granada. Henry's badges, the Portcullis, the Fleur-de-lys, 
and the Red Dragon, also appear ; and on the edge of the 
lamboys or skirts are the initials of the royal pair, " H.K.," 
united by a true-lover's knot. The same letters similarly 
united by a knot, which includes also a curious love-badge 
formed of a half rose and half pomegranate, are engraved on 
the croupiere of the horse. Suit of the time of Edward VI. 
(1547 — 1553), embossed and embellished with the badges of 
Burgundy and Granada, and formerly exhibited as the suit 
of Edward the Black Prince. Suit assigned to Francis 
Hastings, Earl of Huntingdon (1555). Suit actually worn 
by Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, of the time of Queen 
Elizabeth; the Earl's initials, R. D., are engraved on the 
genouilleres, and his cognizance of the Bear and Ragged 
Staff on the chanfron of the horse. Suit assigned to Sir 
Henry Lea (1570), and formerly exhibited as the suit of 
William the Conqueror. Suit assigned to Robert Devereux, 
Earl of Essex (1581), and worn by the King's champion 
at the coronation of George II. Suit of the time of James I., 
formerly shown as the suit of Henry IV. Suits assigned to 
Sir Horace Verc and Thomas, Earl of Arundel, of the time of 
James I. Suit actually made for Henry, Prince of Wales, 
eldest son of James I., richly gilt, and engraved with battles, 
sieges, &c. Suit assigned to George Villiers, Duke of Buck- 
ingham, the favourite of James I. Suit made for Charles I., 
when Prince of Wales. Suit assigned to Wentworth, Earl of 
Strafford. Richly gilt suit presented to Charles I., when 

Q 2 



84 TOWER OF LONDON. 

Prince of Wales ; this suit was laid on the coffin of the great 
Duke of Marlborough at his first interment in Westminster 
Abbey ; the face of the king was carved by Grinling Gibbons. 
Suit, with burgonet, assigned to Monk, Duke of Albemarle. 
Suit assigned to James II., but evidently of William Ill.'s 
reign, from the W.R. engraved on several parts of it; the 
face was carved by Grinling Gibbons for Charles II. 0h.« rvt . 
in other parts of the gallery, and in the cabinets, (ask the 
warder to show them to you,) suit of the time of Henry VIII., 
formerly exhibited as John of Gaunt' s. Suit, " rough from 
the hammer," said in the old inventories to have belonged to 
Henry VIII. Asiatic suit (platform, north side) from Tong 
Castle, in Shropshire, probably of the age of the Crusades, 
an 1 the oldest armour in the Tower collection. " Anticke 
head-piece," with ram's horns and spectacles on it, assigned 
in the old inventories to Will Somers, Henry VIII.'s jester, 
aud probably worn by him. Ancient warder's horn of carved 
ivory. Helmet, belt, straight sword, and scimitars of Tippoo 
Saib. Maltese cannon (of exquisite workmanship, " Philip 
Lattarellus, delin. et sculp. 1773 ") taken by the French in 
1798, and, while on its passage from Malta to Paris, captured 
by Captain Foote, of the Seahorse frigate; the barrel is 
covered with figures in alto relievo ; in one part is the portrait 
of the Grand Master of Malta ; the centre of each wheel 
represents the sun. 

Queen Elizabeth's Armoury is entered from the Horse 
Armoury by a narrow staircase, ornamented with two 
coloured carvings in wood, called "Gin and Beer,'' from the 
old buttery at Greenwich Palace, with a suit of armour, sent 
to Charles II. by the Great Mogul, and long an object of 
attraction at the Tower. This interesting room (recently 
cased witl i wood in the Norman style) is within the White 
Tower; and the visitor would do well to examine the thick- 
ness of the walls (fourteen feet thick), and to enter the 
apartment, dark and small, traditionally reputed to have been 
the prison of Sir Walter Raleigh. On your left (as you enter 
the Raleigh sleeping-room) are three inscriptions, rudely 
carved in the stone (left open for inspection) by prisoners, in 
the reign of Queen Mary, concerned in the plot oi Sir Thomas 
Wyatt. 

" III. THAT INDVnKTH TO Till: B1TDS SHAM. UK SAVII) M. 10. 15. K 

( M i . A v. i.V.:;." 

■• i'.i i- a 1 1 1 1 ii i rare inr. I'Kin and I wit. arm ran icaowirtof 

Un. T. Fan i ., 1664." 

T. Ciii i ii:i: 01 Harford." 

Observe.— "Early shields hung round the walls. Two white 



TOWER OF LONDON. 85 

bows of yew, recovered in 1841 from the wreck of the Mary- 
Rose, sunk off Spithead in 1515; they are fresh in appearance, 
as if they had been newly delivered out of the bowyer's 
hands. Spontoon of the guard of Henry VIII. " Great Holly 
Water Sprincle with thre gonnes in the top," of the time of 
Henry VIII. The " Iron Coller of Torment taken from ye 
Spanyard in y e year 1 588." " The Cravat," an iron instrument 
for confining at once the head, hands, and feet. Match- 
lock petronel ornamented with the badges of Hemy VIII., 
the rose surmounted by a crown and the fleur-de-lys, with, 
the initials H.R., and other devices. Partizan engraved with 
the arms of Sir Dudley Carleton, Viscount Dorchester, of the 
time of Charles I., and formerly exhibited as " the Spanish 
General's Staff."' Heading-axe, said to have been used in the 
execution of the Earl of Essex in the reign of Queen Eliza- 
beth. Block on which Lord Lovat was beheaded, in 1746 ; 
Lord Lovat was the last person beheaded in this country : it 
was a neio block for the occasion. Thumbikins, or thumb- 
screws. A Lochaber axe. Matchlock arquebuse, time of 
Henry VIII. Shield of the sixteenth century, with the 
death of Charles the Bold in high relief upon it. The cloak 
on which General Wolfe died before Quebec. Sword and 
belt of the Duke of York, second son of King George III. 
— The visitor returns by the door by which he entered, and 
is then conducted to the Jewel-house. Do not fail to ex- 
amine with attention the cannon and other trophies without 
the walls of the White Tower, on the south side. Several of 
these interesting remains of early gunnery were seriously 
damaged in the great fire of the 30th of October, 1841, in 
which the storehouse of arms, built in the reign of William III., 
was burnt to the ground. — Observe. — No. 7, a chamber or 
gun of the time of Henry VI. No. 17, a portion of a large 
brass gun of the time of Henry VIII., said to have belonged 
to the Great Harry, of which we have a representation in the 
curious picture at Hampton Court. No. 18, a gun of the 
same reign, and thus inscribed, " Thomas Semeur Knyght 
was master of the King's Ordynance whan Iohn and Robert 
Owen Brethren made thys Pece Anno Domini 1546." Iron 
serpent with chamber, time of Henry VIIL, recovered from 
the wreck of the Mary Rose, sunk off Spithead, in 1545. 
Brass gun taken from the Chinese in 1842, and thus inscribed, 
"Richard: Philips : made: this: Pece: An: Dni : 1601." 
Two brass guns, called " Charles " and " Le Temeraire," cap- 
tured from the French at Cherbourg, in 1758, bearing the 
arms of France and the motto of Louis XIV., " Ultima ratio 
regum." Large mortar employed by William III., at the 
siege of Namur. 



86 TOWER OF LONDON. 

The Jewel-house within the Tower was kept by a particular 
Officer called "The Master of the Jewel-house," formerly 
esteemed the first Knight Bachelor of England. The treasures 
constituting the Regalia arc arranged in the centre of a well- 
lighted room, with an ample passage for vision to walk 
round. Observe. — St. Edward's Crown, made for the coro- 
nation of Charles II, and used in tho coronations of all our 
Sovereigns since his time. This is the crown placed by the 
Archbishop of Canterbury on the head of the Sovereign at 
the altar, and the identical crown which Blood stole from the 
Tower on the 9th of May, 1671. — The New State Crown, 
made for the coronation of Queen Victoria ; composed of a 
cap of purple velvet, enclosed by hoops of silver, and studded 
with a profusion of diamonds ; it weighs one pound and 
three quarters. The large unpolished ruby is said to have 
been worn by Edward the Black Prince ; the sapphire is of 
great value, and the whole crown is estimated at 111,900/. — 
The Prince of Wales's crown, of pure gold, unadorned by 
jewels.— The Queen Consort's Crown, of gold, set with dia- 
monds, pearls, &c. — The Queen's Diadem, or circlet of gold, 
made for the coronation of Marie d'Este, Queen of James II. 
— St. Edward's staff, of beaten gold, 4 feet 7 inches in length, 
surmounted by an' orb and cross, and shod with a steel spike. 
The orb is said to contain a fragment of the time Cross. — Tho 
Royal Sceptre, or Sceptre with the Cross, of gold, 2 feet 9 
inches in length ; the staff is plain, and the pommel is orna- 
mented with rubies, emeralds, and diamonds. The fleurs-de- 
lys with which this sceptre was formerly adorned have been 
replaced by golden leaves bearing the rose, shamrock, and 
thistle. The cross is covered with jewels of various kinds, 
and has in the centre a large table diamond. — The Rod of 
Equity, or Sceptre with the Dove, of gold, 3 feet 7 Inchei in 
length, set with diamonds, &c. At the top is an orb, banded 
with rose diamonds, and surmounted with a cross, on which 
is the figuro of a dove witli expanded wings. — The Queen's 
Sceptre with the Cross, smaller in size, but of rich workman- 
ship, and set with precious stones. — The Queen's Ivory 
Sceptre (but called the Sceptre of Queen Anna Boloyn). made 
for Marie d'Kste, consort of James II. It is mounted in gold, 
and terminated by a golden cross, bearing a dove of white 
onyx.' — Sci-jitre found behind the wainscot ting of the old 
Jewel Office, in 1814; supposed to haw been made for 
Queen Mary, consort of William 111. -The Olb, of gold, 
C inches in diameter, banded with a lillet of the same metal* 
set with pearls, and surmounted by a large amethyst sup- 
porting a cross of gold. — Tho Queen's Orb, of smaller 



TOWER OF LONDON. 87 

dimensions, but of similar fashion and materials. — The Sword 
of Mercy, or Curtana, of steel, ornamented with gold, and 
pointless. — The Swords of Justice, Ecclesiastical and Tem- 
poral. — The Armillae, or Coronation Bracelets, of gold, 
chased with the rose, fieur-de-lys, and harp, and edged with 
pearls. — The Royal Spurs, of gold, used in the coronation 
ceremony, whether the sovereign be King or Queen. — The 
Ampulla for the Holy Oil, in shape of an eagle. — The Gold 
Coronation Spoon, used for receiving the sacred oil from the 
ampulla at the anointing of the sovereign, and supposed to 
be the sole relic of the ancient regalia. — The Golden Salt 
Cellar of State, in the shape of a castle. — Baptismal Font, of 
silver gilt, used at the christening of the Royal children. — 
Silver Wine Fountain, presented to Charles II. by the corpo- 
ration of Plymouth. 

The Lion Tower, containing the Tower Menagerie (on your 
right as you enter), was one of the sights of London from the 
time of Henry III. to the reign of Henry IV., and the removal 
of the few animals that remained to the Zoological Gardens 
in the Regent's Park. A century ago the lions in the Tower 
were named after the reigning Kings ; and it was long a 
vulgar belief, "that when the King dies, the lion of that 
name dies after him ; " that the lions in the Tower were 
the best judges of the title of our British Kings, and always 
sympathised with our Sovereigns. The Menagerie was 
removed in November, 1S34. The present Refreshment-room, 
by the Ticket-house, occupies the site. 

Eminent Persons confined in the Tower. — "Wallace. — Mor- 
timer. — John, King of France. — Charles, Duke of Orleans, 
father of Louis XII. The duke, who was taken prisoner at the 
battle of Agincourt, acquired a very great proficiency in our 
language. A volume of his English poems, preserved in the 
British Museum, contains the earliest known representation 
of the Tower, and has often been engraved. — Queen Anna 
Boleyn, executed, 1536, by the hangman of Calais, on a scaf- 
fold erected within the walls of the Tower.— Queen Katherine 
Howard, fourth wife of Henry VIII, beheaded, 1541-2, on a 
scaffold erected within the walls of the Tower. Lady Roch- 
ford was executed at the same time. — Sir Thomas More. — 
Archbishop Cranmer. — protector Somerset. — Lady Jane 
Grey, beheaded on a scaffold erected within the walls of the 
Tower. — Sir Thomas Wyatt, beheaded on Tower Hill. — 
Devereux, Earl of Essex, beheaded on a scaffold erected 
within the walls of the Tower. — Sir "Walter Raleigh. (He 
was on three different occasions a prisoner in the Tower ; 
once in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, on account of his 



88 TOWER OF LONDON. 

marriage, and twice in the reign of King James I. Here he 
began his History of the World ; here he amused himself 
with his chemical experiments ; and here his son, Carew 
Raleigh, was born.) — Lady Arabella Stuart and her husband, 
William Seymour, afterwards Duke of Somerset. (Seymour 
escaped from the Tower.) — Countess of Somerset, (for Over- 
bury's murder). — Sir John Eliot. (Here he wrote The 
Monarchy of Man; and here he died, in 1632.) — Earl of 
Strafford. — Archbishop Laud. — Lucy Barlow, mother of the 
Duke of Monmouth. (Cromwell discharged her from the 
Tower in July, 1656.) — Sir William Davenant.— Villiers, 
second Duke of Buckingham. — Colonel Hutchinson, at the 
Restoration of Charles II. 

" His chamber was a room where 'tis said the two young princes, 
King Edward the Fifth and his brother, were murdered in former days, 
and the room that led to it was a dark great room, that had no window in 
it, where the portcullis to one of the inward Tower gates was drawn up 
and let down, under which there sat every night a court of guard. There 
is a tradition that in this room the Duke of Clarence was drowned in a 
butt of Malmsey ; from which murder this room and that joining it, where 
Mr. Hutchinson lay, was called the Bloody Tower." — Mrs. Hutchinson. 

(Mrs. Hutchinson was the daughter of Sir Allen Apsley, 
Lieutenant of the Tower, was herself born in the Tower, 
and, therefore, well acquainted with the traditions of the 
building.) — Sir Harry Vane, the younger. — Duke of Buck- 
ingham. — Earl of Shaftesbury. — Earl of Salisbury, temp. 
Charles II. (When Lord Salisbury was offered his atten- 
dants in the Tower, he only asked for his cook. The King 
was very angry.) — William, Lord Russel. — Algernon Sydney. 
— Seven Bishops, June 8th, 1688. — Lord Chancellor Jefferies, 
1688.— The great Duke of Marlborough, 1692.— Sir Robert 
Walpole, 1712. (Granville, Lord Lansdowne, the poet, was 
afterwards confined in the same apartment, and has left 
a copy of verses on the occasion.) — Harley, Earl of Oxford, 
1715. — William Shippen, M.P. for Saltash (for saying, in the 
House of Commons, of a speech from the throne, by George 
I., "that the second paragraph of the King's speech seemed 
rather to be calculated for the meridian of Germany than 
Great Britain ; and that 'twas a great misfortune that the 
King was a stranger to our language and constitution." He 
is the " downright Shippen " of Pope's poems). — Bishop 
Atterbury, 1722. 

" How pleasing Atterbury's softer hour, 
How shone his soul unconquered in the Tower ! " — Pope . 

(At his last interview with Pope, Atterbury presented Pope 



TOWER OF LONDON. 89 

with a Bible. When Atterbuiy was in the Tower, Lord 
Cadogan was asked, "What shall we do with the man]" 
His reply was, " Fling him to the lions.") — Dr. Freind. (Here 
he wrote his History of Medicine.) — Earl of Derwentwater, 
Earl of Nithsdale, Lord Kenmuir. (Lord Nithsdale escaped 
from the Tower, Feb. 28th, 1715, dressed in a woman's cloak 
and hood, provided by his heroic wife, which were for 
some time after called " Nithsdales." The Earl of Derwent- 
water and Lord Kenmuir were executed on Tower Hill. 
The history of the Earl of Nithsdale's escape, contrived and 
effected by his countess, with admirable coolness and in- 
trepidity, is given by the countess herself, in an admirable 
letter to her sister.) — Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and 
Lovat, 174(j. (The block on which Lord Lovat was beheaded 
is preserved in Queen Elizabeth's Armoury.) — John Wilkes, 
1762. — Lord George Gordon, 1780. — Sir Francis Burdett, 
April 6th, 1810. — Arthur Thistlewood, 1820, the last person 
sent a prisoner to the Tower. 

Persons murdered in. — Hemy VI. — Duke of Clarence 
drowned in a butt of Malmsey in a room in the Bowyer, 
or rather, it is thought, Bloody, Tower. — Edward V. and 
Richard, Duke of York : their supposed remains (preserved 
in a cenotaph in Westminster Abbey) were found in the 
reign of Charles II., while digging the foundation for the 
present stone stairs to the Chapel of the White Tower. — Sir 
Thomas Overbury. (He was committed to the Tower, April 
21st, 1613, and found dead in the Tower on Sept. 14th 
following. The manner of his poisoning is one of the most 
interesting and mysterious chapters in English History.) — 
Arthur Capel, Earl of Essex. (He was found in the Tower 
with his throat cut, July 13th, 1638.) 

Persons horn in. — Carew Raleigh (Sir Walter Raleigh's son). 
— Mrs. Hutchinson, the biographer of her husband. — Countess 
of Bedford (daughter of the infamous Countess of Somerset, 
and mother of William, Lord Russell). 

The first stone of the Waterloo Barracks, a large building 
of questionable style intended to serve as a barrack and ar- 
moury, loop-holed, and capable of defence, was laid by the Duke 
of Wellington, June 14th, 1845, on the north side of the White 
Tower, on the site of the Grand Storehouse, built Jby William 
III., and burned down in 1841. The principal loss by that 
conflagration was 280,000 stand of muskets and small arms, 
ready for use, with a few other of antique make, with flint 
locks. The ordnance stores in the Tower were estimated in 
1849 at 640,023£. The ordnance stores at home and abroad 
are valued at 6,000,000?. The area of the Tower, within the 



90 TOWER HILL. 

walls, is 12 acres and 5 poles J and the circuit outside of the 
ditch is 1050 yards. The portcullis, by the Bloody Tower, 
has been described by the Duke of Wellington as the only 
one remaining in England, in a state of repair, and capable 
of being used. 

The high ground to the N.W. of the Tower is called Tower 
Hill. Till within the last 150 years stood a large scaffold 
and gallows of timber, for the execution of such traitors or 
transgressors as were delivered out of the Tower, or other- 
wise, to the sheriffs of London for execution. 

Executions on Tower Hill. — Bishop Fisher, 1535. — Sir 
Thomas More, 1535. 

"Going up the scaffold, which was so weak that it was ready to fall, he 
said hurriedly to the Lieutenant, ' I pray you, Master Lieutenant, see me 
safe up, and for my coming down let me shift for myself.' "—Roper's Life. 

Cromwell, Earl of Essex, 1540. — Margaret, Countess of 
Shrewsbury, mother of Cardinal Pole, 1541. — Earl of Surrey, 
the poet, 1547. — Thomas, Lord Seymour of Sudley, the 
Lord Admiral, beheaded, 1549, by order of his brother the 
Protector Somerset. — The Proctector Somerset, 1552. — Sir 
Thomas Wyatt. — John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and 
Northumberland, 1553. — Lord Guilford Dudley, (husband 
of Lady Jane Grey,) 1553-4. — Sir Gervase Helwys, Lieutenant 
of the Tower, (executed for his share in the murder of Sir 
Thomas Overbury.) — Earl of Strafford, 1641. — Archbishop 
Laud, 1644-5. — Sir Harry Vane, the younger, 1662. — Viscount 
Stafford, 1680, beheaded on the perjured evidence of Titus 
Oates, and others. — Algernon Sydney, 1683. — Duke of Mon- 
mouth, 1685. — Earl of Dcrwentwater and Lord Kcnmuir, 
implicated in the rebellion of 1715. — Lords Kilmarnock and 
Balmcrino, 1746. — Simon, Lord Lovat, 1747, was not only 
the last person beheaded on Tower Hill, but the last person 
beheaded in this country. 

Lady Raleigh lodged on Tower Hill while her husband was 
a prisoner in the Tower. William Perm, the founder of 
Pennsylvania, was born (1644) on the E. side of Tower Hill, 
within a court adjoining to London Wall. At a public- 
house on Tower Hill, known by the sign of tho Bull, whither 
he had withdrawn to avoid Ins creditors, Otway, tho poet, 
died (it is laid, of want) April 14th, 1685. At a cutler*! 
shop on Tower Mill. Felton bought tho knifo with which ho 
Stabbed the first Duke of Buckingham of the. Yilliers family ; 
it wax a broad. sharp, limiting knife, and cost If. The MOOM 
duke often ropaircd in disguise to tho lodging of a poor 
porson, " about Tower Hill," who professed skill in horo- 
scopes. 



THE CHURCH IN THE TOWER. 91 

The church of the Liberty of the Tower is called St. Peter's 
ad Vincula, and consists of a chancel, nave, and N. aisle ; the 
pier columns are Early English ; but the whole structure 
has been disfigured so often by successive alterations and 
additions, that little remains of the original building. 

" I cannot refrain from expressing my disgust at the barbarous 
stupidity which lias transformed this interesting little church into the 
likeness of a meeting-house in a manufacturing town. ... In truth, 
there is no sadder spot on earth than this little cemetery. Death is there 
associated, not, as in Westminster Abbey and St. Paul's, with genius 
and virtue, with public veneration and with imperishable renown ; not, 
as in our humblest churches and churchyards, with everything that is 
most endearing in social and domestic charities ; but with whatever is 
darkest in human nature and in human destiny, with the savage 
triumph of implacable enemies, with the inconstancy, the ingratitude, 
the cowardice of friends, with all the miseries of fallen greatness and of 
blighted fame." — Mr. Macaulay's History of England, i. 628. 

Eminent Persons interred in. — Queen Anne Boleyn (be- 
headed 1536). 

" Her body was thrown into a common chest of elm-tree, that was 
made to put arrows in, and was buried in the chapel within the Tower 
before twelve o'clock." — Bishop Burnet. 

Queen Katherine Howard (beheaded 1542). — Sir Thomas 
More. 

" His head was put upon London Bridge ; his body was buried in the 
chapel of St. Peter in the Tower, in the belfry, or as some say, as one 
entereth into the vestry, near unto the body of the holy martyr Bishop 
Fisher." — Cresacre More's Life of Sir Thomas More, p. 2S8. 

Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex (beheaded 1540). Margaret, 
Countess of Shrewsbury (beheaded 1541). Thomas, Lord 
Seymour of Sudlcy, the Lord Admiral (beheaded 1549), by 
order of his brother, the Protector Somerset. The Protector 
Somerset (beheaded 1552). John Dudley, Earl of Warwick 
and Duke of Northumberland (beheaded 1553). 

" There lyeth before the High Altar, in St. Peter's Church, two Dukes 
between two Queenes, to wit, the Duke of Somerset and the Duke of 
Northumberland, between Queen Anne and Queen Katherine, all four 
beheaded." — Stoio, by Howes, p. 615. 

Lady Jane Grey and her husband, the Lord Guilford Dudley 
(beheaded 1553-4). Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex (be- 
headed 1600). Sir Thomas Overbury, poisoned in the Tower, 
and buried, according to the register, Sept. 15th, 1618. Sir 
John Eliot died a prisoner in the Tower, Nov. 27th, 1632; 
his son petitioned the King (Charles I.) that he would permit 
his father's body to be conveyed to Cornwall for interment, 
but the King's answer at the foot of the petition was, " Let 
Sir John Eliot's body bo buried in the church of that parish 
where he died." Okey, the regicide. Duke of Monmouth 



92 CHURCHES. 

(beheaded 1685), buried beneath the communion-table. 
John Rotier (d. 1703), the eminent medallist, the rival of 
Simon and father of James and Norbert Rotier, also medal- 
lists of great merit. Lords Kilmarnock and Balmerino 
(beheaded 1746). Simon, Lord Lovat (beheaded April 9th, 
1747). Colonel Gurwood, to whose industry we owe the 
"Wellington dispatches (d. 1846). Observe. — Altar-tomb, 
with effigies of Sir Richard Cholmondeley and his wife ; this 
Sir Richard Cholmondeley was Lieutenant of the Tower in the 
reign of Henry VII. Monument, with kneeling figures, to 
Sir Richard Blount, Lieutenant of the Tower (d. 1564), and 
his son, Sir Michael Blount, his successor in the office. Monu- 
ment in chancel to Sir Allen Apsley, Lieutenant of the. 
Tower (d. 1630), the father of Mrs. Lucy Hutchinson. In- 
scribed stone on floor of nave, over the remains of Talbot 
Edwards (d. 1674), Keeper of the Regalia in the Tower, 
when Blood stole the crown. Here, in the lieutenancy of 
Alderman Pennington (the regicide Lord Mayor of London), 
one Kem, vicar of Low Leyton, in Essex, preached in a gown 
over a buff coat and scarf. Laud, who was a prisoner in the 
Tower at the time, records the circumstance, with becoming 
horror, in the History of his Troubles. 



CHURCHES. 

Of the 9S parish churches within the walls of the City of 
London, at the time of the Great Fire, 85 were burnt down, 
and 13 unburnt ; 53 were rebuilt, and 35 united to other 
parishes. " It is observed and is true in the late Fire of 
London," says Pepya in his Diary, " that the fire burned just 
as many parish churches as there were hours from the begin- 
ning to the end of the Fire ; and next that there were just 
a> many churches left standing in the rest of the city that 
was not burned, being, I think, 13 in all of each; which ifl 
pretty to observe." 

The following is the Yearly Value of Church Livings in 
London : — 

St Botolph's, Bishopsgate . .} [ £S 

st. Giles's, Cripplegate . . . ... •-•"is 

Bt Olave'B, Hsrt-stree1 . . \ ff5*7? \ 18M 

St. Andrews, HolbOIU . . . U 1888 

st. Catherine Coleman . j [ 1019 

St. Bartholomew the Loss, the lowest ... 80 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 93 



Lambeth ") before ("£2277 

St. Marylebone . . . . )~ the sepa- -s ; 1898 
St. George's, Hanover-square .) ration. ( 1550 



St. James's, Westminster 1468 

St. Martm's-in-the-Fields 1258 

All Souls', Langham-place 118G 

St. Mary's, Islington 1155 

St. Luke's, Chelsea 1003 

The income of the Bishop of Loudon is above 15,000?. a 
year, but the bishop's successor will have a fixed income of 
10,000Z. ayeamett. 

In the following account of the London churches, those 
which are particularly worthy of attention are alone mentioned. 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY, or the Collegiate Church of 
St. Peter's, "Westminster, originally a Benedictine monas- 
tery — the "minster west" of St. Paul's, London — founded, 
it is said, by Sebert, king of the East Saxons, circ. 616 ; en- 
larged by King Edgar and King Edward the Confessor ; and 
rebuilt nearly as we now see it by Henry III., and his son 
Edward I. Here our Kings and Queens have been crowned, 
from Edward the Confessor to Queen Victoria ; and here 
very many of them are buried, some with and others without 
monuments. 

The architecture throughout (with the exception of 
Henry VIL's Chapel and the west towers) is Early English, 
very rich, and rather late in the style. Henry VIL's Chapel 
is late Perpendicular, very richly ornamented with panelling, 
&c. ; and the western towers, erected from the designs of 
Sir Christopher Wren, are in a debased style of mixed Gre- 
cian and Gothic. 

The Abbey is open to public inspection between the hours 
of 11 and 3 generally; and also in the summer months be- 
tween 4 and 6 in the afternoon. The public are not admitted 
to view the monuments on Good Friday, Christmas Day, or 
Fast Days, or during the hours of Divine Service. The Nave, 
Transepts, and Cloisters are free. The charge for admission 
to the rest of the Abbey (through which you are accompanied 
by a guide) is 6d. each person. The entrance is at the south 
transept, better known as Poets' Corner. 

The usual plan observed in viewing the Abbey is to 
examine Poets' Corner, and wait till a sufficient party is 
formed for a guide to accompany you through the chapels. 
If you find a party formed, you will save time by joining it 
at once. You can examine the open parts of the building 
afterwards at your own convenience. Observe, in the chapels, 
d-c, through which you are taken by the guide— Part of an 



94 WESTMINSTER AHBEY. 

altar-decoration of the 13th or 14th century, 11 feet long by 
3 feet high (under glass, and on your left as you enter). 

"The work is divided into two similar portions; in the centre is a 
figure, which appears to be intended for Christ, holding the globe, and in 
the act of blessing ; an angel with a palm branch is on each side. The 
single figure at the left hand of the whole decoration is St. Titer: the 
figure that should correspond on the right, and all the Scripture subjects 
on that side, are gone. In the compartments to the left, between the 
figure of St. Peter and the centre figures, portions of those subjects 
remain : the fourth is destroyed. These single figures and subjects are 
worthy of a good Italian artist of the fourteenth century. The remaining 
decorations were splendid and costly ; the small compartments in the 
architectural enrichments are filled" with variously-coloured pieces of 
glass, inlaid on tinfoil, and have still a brilliant effect. The compart- 
ments not occupied by figures were adorned with a deep-bin 
resembling lapis lazuli, with gold lines of foliage executed on it. The 
smaller spaces and mouldings were enriched with cameos and gems, 
some of which still remain. That the work was executed in England 
there can be little doubt."— Eastlake on Oil Painting, p. 17G. 

The Jirst chapel you are shown is called the " Chapel of 
St. Benedict," or the " Chapel of the Deans of the College," 
several of whom are buried here. The principal tombs are 
those of Langham, Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 137*5) ; the 
Countess of Hertford, sister to the Lord High Admiral 
Nottingham, so famous for his share in the defeat of the 
Spanish Armada (d. 1598) ; and Lionel Cranfield, Earl of 
Middlesex, and Lord High Treasurer in the reign of James I. 
(d. 1645). 

The second chapel is that of " St. Edmund," containing 20 
monuments, of which that on your right as you enter, to 
William do Valence, Earl of Pembroke, half-brother to 
Henry III., and father of Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pem- 
broke (d. 1296), is the first in point of time and also the 
most important; the effigy exhibits the earliest existing 
instance in this country of the use of enamelled metal for 
monumental purposes. The other tombs and monuments of 
importance in this chapel are — tomb of John of Elthain, son 
of Edward II. ; tomb with two alabaster figures, twenty inches 
in length, representing William of Windsor and Blanch de la 
Tour, children of Edward III.: monumental brass (the best 
in the Abbey), representing Eleanora de Bohun, Duchess of 
Gloucester, in her conventual dress, as a nun of Buking 
Abbey (d. 1899); monumental I n bert de Waldeby, 

Archbishop of xbrs (A 1397); effigy of Frances, Duel 
Suffolk, grand-daughter of Henry \ il.. and mother of Lady 
Jane Grey; and alabaster statue of Elizabeth Russell, of the 
Bedford family— foolishly shown for many years as the lady 
who died by the prick of a needle. 

The third chapel is that of '• St. Nicholas," containing the 







ND PLAN UF WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 



96 WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 

monument of the wife of the Protector Somerset ; the great 
Lord Burghley's monument to his wife Mildred, and their 
daughter Anne ; Sir Robert Cecil's monument to his wife ; 
and a large altar-tomb in the area, to the father and mother 
of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, the Stcenie of James I. 

The fourth chapel is that of the " Virgin Mary," called 
* Henry YII.'s Chapel," and entered by a flight of twelve steps 
beneath the Oratory of Henry V. The entrance gates are of 
oak, overlaid with brass, gilt, and wrought into various de- 
vices — the portcullis exhibiting the descent of the founder 
from the Beaufort family, and the crown and twisted rosea 
the union that took place, on Henry's marriage, of the White 
Rose of York with the Red Rose of Lancaster. The chapel 
consists of a central aisle, with five small chapels at the east 
end, and two side aisles, north and south ; the banners and 
stalls appertain to the Knights of the Most Honourable Mili- 
tary Order of the Bath, an order of merit next in rank in this 
country to the Most Noble Order of the Garter ; the knights 
were formerly installed in this chapel; and the Dean of 
"Westminster is Dean of the Order. The principal monuments 
in Henry Vll.'s Chapel arc— altar-tomb with effigies of 
Henry VII. and Queen (in the centre of the chapel), the 
work of Peter Torrigiano, an Italian sculptor :— Lord Bacon 
calls it "one of the stateliest and daintiest tombs in Europe:" 
— the heads of the King and Queen were originally sur- 
mounted with crowns ; the Perpendicular enclosure or 
screen is of brass, and the work of an English artist. In 
South Aisle. — Altar-tomb, with effigy (by Peter Torrigiano) of 
Margaret, Countess of Richmond, mother of Henry VII. 
Altar-tomb, with effigy of the mother of Lord Darnley. hus- 
band of Mary, Queen of Scots. Tomb, with effigy (by Cor- 
nelius Cure) of Mary, Queen of Scots, creeled by .lames I., 
who brought his mothers body from Peterborough Cathedral, 
and buried it here. The face is very beautiful, and is Q.OW 
generally admitted to be the most genuine likeness of the 
Queen. Monument to George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham, 
and his dnche-s ; — the duke was assassinated by Pelton in 
lu'28: his younger son, Francis, who was killed in the ( 'nil 
Wars, and his eldest sou. the Becond and profligate duk< 
buried with their lather in the vault beneath. Statue of the 
first wife of sir Robert Walpole, erected by her boo, Horace 

Walpole, the great letter-writer. ]\\ North Aide. — Tomb, 
with effigy (by Maximilian Coult) of Queen Kli/.abeth (the 

lion-hearted Queen); her sister, Queen Mary, is buried in the 
rave. Alaba ber cradle, with effigy of Sophia, daughter 

of .lames L, who died when only three da\> old : Jamos I. 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 97 

and Arnie of Denmark, Henry Prince of Wales, the Queen of 
Bohemia, and Arabella Stuart are buried beneath. Monu- 
ment to Lodowick Stuart, Duke of Richmond and Lennox, 
and his duchess, of the time of James I. (La Belle Stuart is 
buried beneath this monument). Monument to George 
Monk, Duke of Albemarle, who restored King Charles II. 
Sarcophagus of white marble, containing certain bones acci- 
dentally discovered (1674) in a wooden chest below the stairs 
which formerly led to the chapel of the White Tower, and 
believed to be the remains of Edward V. and his brother 
Richard, Duke of York, murdered by order of their uncle, 
King Richard III. Monuments to Saville, Marquis of Halifax, 
the statesman and wit (d. 1695);— to Montague, Earl of 
Halifax, the universal patron of the men of genius of his 
time (d. 1715), (here Addison and Craggs are buried) — to 
Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, the patron of Dryden, with 
its inscription, " Dubius, sed non Improbus, Vixi." Recum- 
bent figure, by Sir R. Westmacott, of the Duke of Mont- 
pensier, brother to Louis Philippe, King of the French. The 
statues in the architecture of this chapel are commended by 
Flaxman for " their natural simplicity, and grandeur of cha- 
racter and drapery." Charles II., William and Mary, and 
Queen Anne are buried in a vault at the east end of the 
south aisle. George II. and Queen Caroline, — Frederick, 
Prince of Wales, the father of George III., — and William, 
Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, in a vault in the 
central aisle. The remains of George II. and his Queen lie 
mingled together, a side having been taken by the King's own 
direction from each of the coffins for this purpose : the two 
sides which were withdrawn were seen standing against the 
wall when the vault was opened for the last time in 1837. 

The fifth chapel is " St. Paul's." Observe. — Altar-tomb on 
your right as you enter to Lodowick Robsart, Lord Bourchier, 
standard-bearer to Henry V. at the battle of Agincourt. 
Altar-tomb of Sir Giles Daubeny (Lord Chamberlain to 
Henry VII.) and his lady. Stately monument against the 
wall to Sir Thomas Bromlej^, Lord Chancellor of England in 
the reign of Queen Elizabeth; he sat as Chancellor at the 
trial of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Fotheringay. Monuments 
to Viscount Dorchester, and Francis, Lord Cottington, of the 
time of Charles I. Colossal portrait-statue of James Watt, 
the great engineer, by Sir Fi'ancis Chantrey — cost 60007. ; 
the inscription by Lord Brougham. Archbishop Usher is 
buried in this chapel; — his funeral was conducted with great 
pomp by command of Cromwell, who bore half the expense 
of it ; the other half fell very heavily on his relations. 



98 WtiBTHimraR ABBEV. 

The sixth chapel (the most interesting of all) occupies the 
space at the back of the high altar of the Abbey ; is called 
the " Chapel of St. Edward the Confessor," or the " Chapel 
of the Kings," and is entered from the ambulatory by a tem- 
porary staircase. The centre of this chapel is taken up by 
the shrine of King Edward the Confessor, erected in the 
reign of Henry III., and richly inlaid with mosaic work : of 
the original Latin inscription, only a few letters remain. 
The wainscot addition at the top was erected in the reign of 
Mary I., by Abbot Fekcnham. Henry IV. was seized with 
his last illness while performing his devotions at this shrine. 
No part of this chapel should bo overlooked. Observe. — 
Altar-tomb, with bronze effigy of Henry III. (the effigy of 
the king very fine). Altar-tomb of Edward I., composed of 
five large slabs of Purbcck marble, and carrying tins appro- 
priate inscription :- - 

" EDWAKDV.-5 PHOtVB PCOTOKVM MALLEUS— IIIC EST." 

When the tomb was opened in 1774, the body of the King 
was discovered almost entire, with a crown of tin gilt upon 
his head, a sceptre of copper gilt in his right hand, and a 
sceptre and dove of the same materials in his left : and in 
this state lie is still lying. Altar-tomb, with effigy of Eleanor, 
Queen of Edward I. ; the figure of the Queen was the work 
of Master William Torell, goldsmith, i.e., Torclli, an Italian, 
and is much and deservedly admired for its simplicity and 
beauty ; the iron work (recently restored) was the work of a 
smith living at Leighton Buzzard, in Bedfordshire. Altar- 
tomb, with effigy of Edward III. ; the sword and shield of 
state, carried before the King in France, are placed by the 
side of the tomb. Altar-tomb, with effigy of Philippa, Queen 
of Edward III. Altar-tonib, with effigies of Richard II. and 
his Queen. Altar-tomb and chantry of Henry V., the hero 
of Agincourt ; the head of the King was of solid silver, and 
the figure was plated with the same metal ; the head was 
stolen at the Reformation ; the helmet, shield, and saddle of 
the King arc still to be seen on a bar above the turrets of the 
chantry. Grey slab, formerly adorned with a rich brftflB 
figure (a few nails are still to be seen), covering the remain! 
of Thomas of Woodstock, youngest son of Edward III., mur- 
dered by order of his nephew, Richard II. Small altar-tomb 
of Margaret of York, infant daughter of Edward IV. Small 
altar-tonib of Elizabeth Tudor, infant daughter of Henry VII. 
much worn, represent ing John de Waltham, Bishop of 
Salisbury, and Lord High Treasurer of England in the reign 
<>f Richard II. : Richard loved him so much, that he 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 99 

ordered his body to be buried in the Chapel of the Kings. 
The two Coronation Chairs, still used at the coronations of 
the Sovereigns of Great Britain — one containing the famous 
stone of Scone on which the Scottish Kings were crowned, 
and which Edward I. carried away with him, as an evidence 
of his absolute conquest of Scotland : this stone is 26 inches 
long, 16 inches wide, and 11 inches thick, and is fixed in the 
bottom of the chair by cramps of iron ; it is nothing more 
than a piece of reddish-grey sandstone squared and smoothed; 
— the more modern chair was made for the coronation of 
Mary, Queen of William III. The screen dividing the chapel 
from the Choir was erected in the reign of Henry VI. : 
beneath the cornice runs a series of 14 sculptures in bas- 
relief, representing the principal events, real and imaginary, in 
the life of Edward the Confessor ; the pavement of the chapel, 
much worn, is contemporary with the shrine of the Confessor. 

The seventh chapel is that of " St. Erasmus," and through 
it (it has nothing to detain you) you enter the eighth chapel, 
dedicated to " St. John the Baptist," containing the tombs of 
several early Abbots of Westminster; Abbot William de 
Colchester (d. 1420); Abbot Mylling (d. 1492); Abbot 
Fascet (d. 1500). Observe. — The very large and stately 
monument to Cary, Lord Hunsdon, first cousin and Cham- 
berlain to Queen Elizabeth. Large altar-tomb of Cecil, Earl 
of Exeter (eldest son of the great Lord Burghley), and his 
two wives ; the vacant space is said to have been intended 
for the statue of his second countess, but she disdainfully 
refused to lie on the left side. Monument to Colonel 
Popham, one of Cromwell's officers at sea, and the only 
monument to any of the Parliamentary party suffered to 
remain in the Abbey at the Restoration ; the inscription, 
however, was turned to the wall ; his remains were removed 
at the same time with those of Cromwell, Ireton, Bradshaw, 
Blake, &c. 

The ninth chapel is that of " Abbot Islip," containing the 
altar-tomb of Islip himself (d. 1532), and the monument to 
the great-nephew and eventually heir of Sir Christopher 
Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's Lord Chancellor. The Hatton 
vault was purchased by William Pulteney, the celebrated 
Earl of Bath, who is here interred, and whose monument, by 
the side of General Wolfe's, is without the chapel, in the 
aisle of the Abbey. The Wolfe monument was the work of 
Wilton, and cost 3000/. : the bas-relief (in lead, bronzed over) 
represents the march of the British troops from the river 
bank to the Heights of Abraham ; this portion of the monu- 
ment is by Capizzoldi. 



LOO WESTMINSTER AI5BEY. 

The E. aisle of the Xorth Transept was formerly divided 

by screens into the Chapels of St. John, St. Michael, and 
St. Andrew. Here arc two of the finest monuments in the 
A 1.1 icy. Observe. — Four knights kneeling, and supporting on 
their shoulders a table, on which lie the several parts of a 
complete suit of armour ; beneath is the recumbent figure of 
Sir Francis Verc. the great Low Country soldier of Q 
Elizabeth's reign. Monument by Roubiliac (one of the last 
and best of his works) to Mr. and Mrs. Nightingale : the 
bottom of the monument is represented as throwing open 
able doors, and a sheeted skeleton is seen launching 
his dart at the lady, who has sunk affrighted into her hus- 
band's arms. " The dying woman," says Allan Cunningham, 
" would do honour to any artist. Her right arm and 
hand are considered by Bculptors as the perfection of 
fine workmanship. Life seems slowly receding from her 
tapering fingers and quivering wrist." "When Roubiliac 
was erecting this monument, he was found one day by 
Gayfcre, the Abbey mason, standing with his arms folded, 
and his looks fixed on one of the knightly figures which 
support the canopy over the statue of Sir Francis Vere. 
As Gayfere approached, the enthusiastic Frenchman laid his 
hand on his arm, pointed to the figure, and said, in a whisper, 
" Hush ! hush ! he vil speak presently." 

The Choir, or -cross of the transepts, affords the best point 
of view for examining the architecture of the Abbey. 
Observe. — Tomb of Sebert, King of the East Saxons, erected 
by the abbots and monks of Westminster, in 1308 ; tomb of 
Edmund Crouchback, Earl of Lancaster, second son of 
Edward III.; tomb of his countess; tomb of Aymer do 
Valence, Fail of Pembroke (very fine — one of the best views 
of it is from the N. aisle). 

'' The monuments of Armer de Valence and Edmund Cronchback are 
ppccimi'iis df the magnificence of our sculpture in the reign of the two 
first Edwards. The loftiness of the work, the nnmher <«f arches and 
pinnacles, the lightness of tin- spires, the richness and profhaion of 
foliage and crockets, the Bolemn repose of tin- principal statue, the 
delicacy of thought in the gronp <>t' angels bearing the soul, ami the 
tender sentiment of concern variously expressed in the relations ranged 
in ..rder round the basement, forcibly arresi the attention, and carry the 
thoughts ii"t only to other ages, bat to other states of existence." - 
/ man, 

T<<mb of Ann ofCleves, one of King Henry vJLUL'b six 
The rich mosaic pavement it an i tot ll< nl specimen of the 
Opus Aiexandrinum, and was placed here at the expense of 
Henry [IL, in the year L268. The black mid white pav< 
we* laid at the expense of Dr. Busby, master of W 

School. 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 101 

Here the guide ceases to attend you, and you are left to 
your own leisure and information. You now enter the 
North Transept, where you will Observe. — The inscribed 
stones covering the graves of the rival statesmen, Pitt 
and Fox. 

u The mighty chiefs sleep side by side ; 
Drop upon Fox's grave the tear, 
'Twill trickle to his rival's bier." — Sir Waller Scolt. 

Grattan, Canning, and Castlereagh ; and the following monu- 
ments — to the Duke and Duchess of Newcastle, of the time 
of Charles I. and II. Roubiliac's monument to Sir Peter 
"Warren, containing his fine figure of Navigation ; Rysbraeh's 
monument to Admiral Vernon, who distinguished himself at 
Carthagena ; Bacon's noble monument to the great Lord 
Chatham, erected by the King and Parliament — cost 6000/. 

" Bacon there 
Gives more than female beauty to a stone, 
And Chatham's eloquence to marble lips." 

Cowper, The Task. 

Nollekens's large monument to the three naval captains who 
fell in Rodney's great victory of April 12th, 1782, erected by 
the King and Parliament — cost 4000/. ; Flaxman's noble 
portrait-statue of the great Lord Mansfield, with Wisdom 
on one side, Justice on the other, and behind the figure of 
a youth, a criminal, by Wisdom delivered up to Justice — 
erected by a private person, who bequeathed 2500/. for the 
purpose ; statue of Sir W. Follett, by Behnes ; small monu- 
ment, with bust, to Warren Hastings — erected by his widow ; 
Sir R. Westmacott's Mrs. Warren and Child — one of the best 
of Sir Richard's works ; and Chantrey's three portrait-statues 
of Francis Horner, George Canning, and Sir John Malcolm. 
The statue without an inscription is meant for John Philip 
Kemble, the actor. It was modelled by Flaxman, and exe- 
cuted by Hinchcliffe after Flaxman's death. It is very poor. 
In the N. aisle of the Choir (on your way to the Nave), 
Observe.— Tablets to Henry Purcell (d. 1695), and Dr. Blow 
(d. 1708), two of our greatest English musicians — the Purcell 
inscription is attributed to Dryden; portrait-statues of Sir 
Stamford Raffles, by Chantrey; and of Wilberforce, by 
S. Joseph. 

Observe in Nave.— Small stone, in the middle of the N. 
aisle (fronting Killigrew's monument), inscribed, " O Rare 
Ben Jonson." The poet is buried here standing on his feet, 
and the inscription was done, as Aubrey relates, " at the 
charge of Jack Young (afterwards knighted), who, walking 



102 WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 

here when tho grave was covering, gave the fellow eighteen- 
pence to cut it." When the nave was re-laid, about fifteen 
years ago, the true stone was taken away, and the present 
uninteresting square placed in its stead. Tom Killigrew, the 
wit, is buried by the side of Jon son ; and his son, who fell 
at the battle of Ahnanza, in 1707, has a monument imme- 
diately opposite. Monument, with inscriptions hi Hebrew, 
Greek, Ethiopic, and English, to Sir Samuel Morland's wives ; 
— Morland was secretary to Thurloe, Oliver Cromwell's 
secretary. Monument to Sir Palmes Fairborne, with a fino 
epitaph in verse by Dryden. Monument to Sir William 
Temple, the statesman and author, his wife, sister-in-law. and 
child ; — this was erected pursuant to Temple's will. Monu- 
ment to Sprat, the poet, and friend of Cowley. (Bishop 
Atterbury is buried opposite this monument, in a vault 
which he made for himself when Dean of Westminster, " as 
far," he says to Pope, " from kings and knesars as the space 
will admit of.") Monument, with bust, of Sidney, Earl of 
Godolphin, chief minister to Queen Anne " during the first 
nine glorious years of her reign." Monument to Heneago 
Twysden, who wrote the genealogy of the Bickerstaff family 
in the Tatler, and fell at the battle of Blarcgnics in 1709. 
Monument to Secretary Craggs, with fine epitaph in verse by 
Pope. Monument to Congreve, the poet, erected at tho 
expense of Henrietta, Duchess of Marlborough, to whom, for 
reasons not known or mentioned, he bequeathed a legacy of 
about 10,000?. 

" When the younger Duchess exposed herself by placing a monument 
and silly epitaph of her <>wn comparing anil bed spelling to Congrere in 
Westminster Abbey, her mother (rooting the frordl Mid, 'I know not 

what pleasure she might have had in his company, hut I am sure it was 
no honour.' " — Horace Walpolc 

In front of Congreve's monument Mrs. Oldfield, the actress, 
is buried, " in a very fino Brussells lace head," says her 
maid; "a Holland shift with a tuckor and double ruffles of 
tho same lace; a pair of now kid gloves, ami her body 
wrapped up in a winding-sheet." Hence the allusion of the 
satirist : — 

" Odious! in woollen ; 'twould n Mini provoke I 
fWere tlie Inst wni-iis tii.it poor NareuM spoke) — 
No, let :i oh&rming chintz and Brussels woe 
"W i: 1 1 > my cold Umbo, and shade my lifeless face; 
One would not, sure, be frightful when one's dead— 
And— Betty— give this cheek a little red." 

Undor tho organ-scroen — Monuments to Sir Isaac Now ton, 
designed by Kent, and executed by Rysbrach — cost 600/. ; 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 103 

and to Earl Stanhope. Monument to Dr. Mead, the famous 
physician (d. 1754). Three monuments, by Roubiliac, in 
three successive windows; to Field-Marshal Wade, whose 
part in putting down the Rebellion of 1745 is matter of 
history; to Major-General Fleming, and Lieutenant-General 
Hargrave. The absurd monument, by Nicholas Read, to 
Rear-Admiral Tyrrel (d. 1766): its common name is "The 
Pancake Monument." Heaven is represented with clouds 
and cherubs, the depths of the sea with rocks of coral and 
madrepore ; the admiral is seen ascending into heaven, while 
Hibernia sits in the sea with her attendants, and points to the 
spot where the admiral's body was committed to the deep. 
Monument of Major-General Stringer Lawrence erected by 
the East India Company, " in testimony of their gratitude for 
his eminent services in the command of their forces on the 
coast of Coromandel, from 1746 to 1756." Monument, by 
Flaxman, to Captain Montagu, who fell in Lord Howe's victory 
of June 1st. Monument to Major Andre, executed by the 
Americans as a spy in the year 1780 : — the monument was 
erected at the expense of George III., and the figure of 
Washington on the bas-relief has been renewed with a head, 
on three different occasions, " the wanton mischief of some 
schoolboy," says Charles Lamb, "fired, perhaps, with raw 
notions of transatlantic freedom. The mischief was done," 
he adds, — he is addressing Southey, — " about the time that 
you were a scholar there. Do you know anything about the 
unfortunate relic ? " This sly allusion to the early political 
principles of the great poet caused a temporary cessation of 
friendship with the essayist. — Sir R. Westmacott's monument 
to Spencer Perceval, First Lord of the Treasury and Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, shot by Bellingham in the lobby of 
the House of Commons in 1812 ; cost 5250Z. Monuments to 
William Pitt, cost 6300?. ; and C. J. Fox (there is no inscrip- 
tion) ; both by Sir Richard Westmacott. Monument, by E. 
H. Baily, R.A., to the late Lord Holland. Observe. — In south 
aisle of Choir, recumbent figure of William Thynn, Receiver 
of the Marches in the reign of Henry VIII. Good bust, by 
Le Sceur, of Sir Thomas Richardson, Lord Chief Justice in 
the reign of Charles I. Monument to Thomas Thynn, of 
Longleat, who was barbarously murdered on Sunday the 
12th of February, 1682 ; — he was shot in his coach, and the 
bas-relief contains a representation of the event. 

" A "Welshman bragging of his family, said his father's cfhgy was Bet 
up in Westminster Abbey: being asked whereabouts, he said, ' In the 
same monument with Squire Thynn, for he was his coachman.'"— Joe 
Miller's Jests. 



104 WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 

Monument to Dr. South, the great divine (d. 1716) ; he was 
a prebendary of this church. Monument, by F. Bird (in the 
worst taste), to Sir Cloudesley Shovel (d. 1707). Monument 
to Dr. Busby, master of Westminster School (d. 1695). 
Monument to Sir Godfrey Knell er, with fine epitaph in wr.-e 
by Pope. Monument, by T. Banks, R.A., to Dr. Isaac "Watts, 
who was buried in Bunhill-fields. Bust, by Flaxman, of 
Pasquale de Paoli, the Corsican chief (d. 1807). Monument 
to Dr. Burney, the Greek scholar ; the inscription by Dr. Parr. 
In Poets' Corner, occupying nearly a half of the South 
Transept, and so called from the tombs and honorary monu- 
ments of Chaucer, Spenser, Shakspeare, and several of our 
greatest poets, Observe. — Tomb of Geoffrey Chaucer, the 
father of English poetry (d. 1400) ; erected in 1555, by 
Nicholas Brigham, a scholar of Oxford, and himself a poet ; 
— Chaucer was originally buried in this spot, Brigham re- 
moving his bones to a more honourable tomb (a committee 
has been formed to restore this tomb). Monument to 
Edmund Spenser, author of the Faerie Queene ; erected at 
the expense of 'Anne Pembroke, Dorset and Montgomery,' 
and renewed in 177S at the instigation of Mason, the poet; 
— Spenser died in King-street, "Westminster, " from lack of 
bread," and was buried here at the expense of Queen Eliza- 
beth's Earl of Essex. Honorary * monument to Shakspeare ; 
erected in the reign of George II., from the designs of Kent ; 
— when Pope was asked for an inscription, he wrote : — 

" Thus Britons love me, and preserve my fame, 
Free from a Barber's or a Benson's name.'' 

"We shall see the sting of this presently : Shakspeare stands 
like a sentimental dandy. Monument to Michael Drayton, 
a poet of Queen Elizabeth's reign, erected by the same 'Anne 
Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery ; ' the epitaph in verse by 
Ben Jonson, and very fine. Tablet to Ben Jonson, erected 
in the reign of George II., a century after the poet's death. 
Honorary bust of Milton, erected in 1737, at the expense of 
Auditor Benson : " In the inscription," says Dr. Johnson, 
u Mr. Benson has bestowed more words upon himself than 
upon Milton ; " a circumstance that Pope has called attention 
to in the Dunciad : 

"On poets' tombs see Benson's titles Witt." 

Honorary monument to Butler, author of Hudibras. erected 
in 1721, by John Barber, a pi inter, and Lord Mayor of 

• The word honorary, as hnv OMtA, is meant t>> imply that the person 
to whom the monument is erected is buried elsewhere. 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 105 

London. Grave of Sir William Davenant, with the short 
inscription, " rare Sir William Davenant." (May, the poet, 
and historian of the Long Parliament, was originally buried 
in this grave.) Monument to Cowley, erected at the expense 
of the second and last Villiers, Duke of Buckingham ; the 
epitaph by Sprat. Bust of Dryden, erected at the expense 
of Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham. 

" This Sheffield raised : the sacred dust below 
Was Dryden once : the rest who does not know." — Pope. 

The bust by Scheemakers is very fine. Honorary monument 
to Shadwell, the antagonist of Dryden, erected by his son. 
Honorary monument to John Philips, author of The Splendid 
Shilling (d. 1708). 

" When the inscription for the monument of Philips, in which he was 
said to be uni Miltono secundus, was exhibited to Dr. Sprat, then Dean of 
Westminster, he refused to admit it ; the name of Milton was in his 
opinion too detestable to be read on the -wall of a building dedicated to 
devotion. Atterbury, who succeeded him, being author of the inscription, 
permitted its reception. ' And such has been the change of public 
opinion,' said Dr. Gregory, from whom I heard this account, that I have 
seen erected in the church a bust of that man whose name I once knew 
considered as a pollution of its walls." — Dr. Johnson. 

Monument of Matthew Prior, erected by himself, as the last 
piece of human vanity. 

u As doctors give physic by way of prevention, 

Mat, alive and in health, of his tombstone took care : 
For delays are unsafe, and his pious intention 
May haply be never fulfill" d by his heir. 

" Then take Mat's word for it, the sculptor is paid : 
That the figure is fine, pray believe your own eye ; 
Yet credit but lightly what more may be said, 

For we flatter ourselves and teach marble to lie." — Prior. 

The bust, by A. Coysevox, was a present to Prior from 
Louis XIV., and the epitaph, written by Dr. Friend, famous 
for long epitaphs, for which he has been immortalised by 
Pope : — 

" Friend, for your epitaphs I griev'd, 
Where still so much is said ; 
One half will never be believ'd, 
The other never read." 

Monument to Nicholas Rowe, author of the tragedy of Jane 
Shore, erected by his widow ; epitaph by Pope. Monument to 
John Gay, author of The Beggar's Opera ; the short and 
irreverent epitaph, Life is a jest, <L'c, is his own composition ; 
the verses beneath it are by Pope. Statue of Addison, by 
Sir R. Westmacott, erected 1809. Honorary monument to 
Thomson, author of The Seasons, erected 1762, from the 



106 WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 

proceeds of a subscription edition of his works. Honorary 
tablet to Oliver Goldsmith, by Nollekens; the Latin inscrip- 
tion by Dr. Johnson, who, in reply to a request that he would 
celebrate the fame of an author in the language in which he 
wrote, observed, that he never would consent to disgrace the 
walls of Westminster Abbey with an English inscription. 
Honorary monument to Gray, author of An Elegy in a 
Country Churchyard (the verse by Mason, the monument by 
Bacon, R.A.). Honorary monument to Mason, the poet, and 
biographer of Gray (the inscription, it is said, by Bishop Hurd). 
Honorary monument to Anstey, author of the Bath Guide. 
Inscribed gravestone over Richard Brinsley Sheridan. Hono- 
rary bust of Robert Southey, by H. Weekes. Inscribed 
gravestone over Thomas Campbell, author of the Pleasures of 
Hope, and statue by W. C. Marshall, A.R.A. 

In that part of the South Transept not included in Poets' 
Corner, Observe. — Monument to Isaac Casaubon (1614), editor 
of Persius and Polybius. Monument to Camden, the great 
English antiquary (d. 1623) ; the bust received the injury, 
which it still exhibits, when the hearse and effigy of Essex, 
the Parliamentary general, were destroyed in 1646, by some 
of the Cavalier party, who lurked at night in the Abbey to 
be revenged on the dead. White gravestone, in the ccntro 
of transept, over the body of Old Parr, who died in 1635, at 
the great age of 152, having lived in the reigns often princes, 
viz., Edward IV., Edward V., Richard III., Henry VII., 
Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, Elizabeth, James I., and 
Charles I. Gravestone over the body of Thomas ChifHnch, 
closet-keeper to Charles II. (d. 1666). Monument to M. St. 
Evremont, a French epicurean wit. who tied to England to 
escape a government arrest in his own country (d. 1703). 
Bust of Doctor Isaac Barrow, the divine (d. 1077k Grave- 
stone over the body of the second wife of Sir Richard Steele, 
the " Prue " of his correspondence. Monument, by Roubiliac, 
to John, Duke of Argyll and Greenwich (d. 1743): the figuro 
of Eloquence, with her supplicating hand and earnest brow, is 
very masterly; Canova was struck with its beauty ; he said, 
"That is one of the noblest statues I have scon in England." 
Monument by Roubiliac (his last work) to Handel, the great 
musician, a native of Hallo, in Lower Saxony, and long a resident 
in England (d. 1759). Honorary monument to Barton Booth, 
the original Cato in Addison's play. Honorary monument 
to Mrs. Pritchard, the actress, famous in the charai i 
Lady Macbeth, Zara, and Mrs. Oakley (d. 1768). Inscribed 
gravestones over the bodies of David Garrick and Samuel 
Johnson. Monument to David Garrick, by H. Webber, 



WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 107 

erected at the expense of Albany Wallis, the executor of 
Garrick. 

" Taking a turn the other day in the Abbey, I was struck -with the 
affected attitude of a figure which I do not remember to have seen 
before, and which, upon examination, proved to be a whole-length of the 
celebrated Mr. Garrick. Though I would not go so far with some good 
Catholics abroad as to shut players altogether out of consecrated ground, 
yet I own I was not a little scandalised at the introduction of theatrical 
airs and gestures into a place set apart to remind us of the saddest 
realities. Going nearer, I found inscribed under this harlequin figure a 
farrago of false thoughts and nonsense."— Charles Lamb. 

Inscribed gravestones over the remains of James Macpherson, 
translator of Ossian ; and of "William Gifford, editor of Ben 
Jonson and the Quarterly Review. The painted glass in the 
Abbey will be found to deserve a cursory inspection ; the 
rich rose-window in the North Transept is old ; the rose- 
window in the South Transept the work of Messrs. Thomas 
Ward and J. H. Nixon (1847). The figures are nearly three 
feet high, and the whole effect, for a modern window, most 
excellent. The wax-work exhibition, or The Play of the 
Dead Volks, as the common people called it, was discontinued 
in 1839. The exhibition originated in the old custom of 
making a lively effigy in wax of the deceased — a part of the 
funeral procession of every great person, and of leaving the 
effigy over the grave as a kind of temporary monument. 

You will now leave the interior of the Abbey, for the purpose 
of visiting the Cloisters, walking through St. Margaret's church- 
yard, and entering Dean's-yard, where, on your left, you pass 
the Jerusalem Chamber, in which King Henry IV. died. 

" King Henry. Doth any name particular belong 
Unto the lodging where 1 first did swoon ? 

" Warwick. 'Tis called Jerusalem, my noble lord. 

" King Henry. Laud be to God ! — even there my life must end. 
It hath been prophesied to me many years, 
I should not die but in Jerusalem ; 
Which vainly I supposed the Holy Land :— 
But bear me to that chamber ; there I '11 lie ; 
In that Jerusalem shall Hany die." 

Shakspeare, Second Part of King Henry IV. 

Observe. — In S. cloister effigies of several of the early abbots ; 
large blue stone, uninscribed, marking the grave it is said of 
Long Meg of Westminster, a noted virago in the reign of Henry 
VIII. In E. cloister, honorary monument to Sir Edmunds- 
bury Godfrey, murdered in the reign of Charles II. ; tablet 
to the mother of Addison, the poet; monument to Lieut.- 
General Withers, with epitaph by Pope. In W. cloister, 
monument to George Vertue, the antiquary and engraver ; 
medallion monument to Bonnell Thornton, editor of the 



108 WESTMINSTER ABBET. 

Connoisseur — inscription by Joseph Warton ; honorary 
monument, by T. Banks, R.A., to Woollett, the engraver; 
tablet to Dr. Buchan, author of a work on Domestic Medicine 
(d. 1805). In the E. ambulatory, "under a blue marble 
stone, against the first pillar," Aphra Behn was buried, April 
20th, 1689 : and under stones no longer carrying inscriptions, 
are buried Henry Lawes, " one who called Milton friend ; " 
Betterton, the great actor ; Tom Brown, the wit ; Mrs. 
Bracegirdle, the beautiful actress; and Samuel Foote, the 
famous comedian. A small wooden door, in the S. cloister, 
leads to Ashburnham House, one of Inigo Jones's best remain- 
ing works, and the richly-ornamented doorway in the E. 
cloister to the Chapter-house (an elegant Gothic octagon, 
supported by massive buttresses), taken from the Dean 
and Chapter as early as the Reformation, and made a 
repository for public records. The entrance is in Poets' 
Corner. Observe. — In 5 compartments on the E. wall, 
and not unlike an altar-piece, "Christ surrounded by the 
Christian Virtues," a mural decoration supposed to have been 
executed about the middle of the 14th century. There are 
later decorations, on the story of St. John the Evangelist, 
but poor and feeble in point of execution, compared to the 
Christ surrounded by the Christian Virtues. The floor of 
heraldic tiles, now boarded over, where visible, is extremely 
fine. The roof stood till 1740 ; Wren, it is said, refused to 
remove it. In the Chapel of the Pix attached to the Abbey 
is a stone Altar, one of half-a-dozen, not more, that escaped 
the Reformation and the Great Rebellion. For the Record 
Curiosities in the Chapter-house, see p. 58. 

The following eminent persons are buried in "Westminster 
Abbey. (The names of those persons buried without monu- 
ments or inscribed gravestones are printed in italics.) Kings 
and Queens. — King Sebert ; Edward the Confessor ; 
Henry III. ; Edward I. and Queen Eleanor ; Edward III. and 
Queen Philippa ; Richard II. and his Queen ; Henry V. ; 
Edward V. ; Henry VII. and his Queen ; Anne of Cleves, 
Queen of Henry VIII. ; Edward VI. ; Mary I. ; Mary, 
Queen of Scots ; Queen Elizabeth ; James I. and his Queen; 
Queen of Bohemia, daughter of James I. and mother of Prince 
Rupert: Charles II. ; William III. and Queen Mary ; Queen 
Anne ; George II. and Queen Caroline. Eminent Statesmen. 
— Lord Chancellor Clarendon ; Savile, Lord Halifax ; Sir 
William Temple ; Craggs ; Pulteney, Earl of Bath ; the 
great Lord Chatham ; Pitt, Fox, Canning, and Castloreagh. 
Eminent Soldiers. — Aymer de Valence, Earl of Pembroke ; 
Sir Francis Vere ; Prince Rupert; Monk, Duke of Albemarle; 



st. Paul's cathedral. 109 

William, DuJce of Cumberland, the hero of Cullodeu ; Marshal 
Wade. Eminent Seamen. — Admiral Dean; Sir W. Spragg; 
Montague, Earl of Sandwich; Sir Cloudesley Shovel. Eminent 
Poets. — Chaucer, Spenser, Beaumont, Ben Jonson, Michael 
Drayton, Sir Robert Ayton, Sir W. Davenant, Cowley, 
Denkam, Roscommon, Dry den, Prior, Congreve, Addison 
Rowe, Gay, Macpherson, who gave " Ossian " to the public, 
R. B. Sheridan, and Thomas Campbell. Eminent Actors 
and Actresses. — Betterton, Mrs. Oldfeld, Mrs. Bracegirdle, 
Mrs. Gibber, the second Mrs. Barry, Henderson, and David 
Garrick. Eminent Musicians. — Henry Laives, Purcell, Dr. 
Blow, Handel. Eminent Divines. — Dr. Barrow, Dr. South. 
Eminent Antiquaries. — Camden, Spelman, Archbishop Usher. 
Other Eminent Persons. — Mountjoy, Earl of Devonshire, of 
the time of Queen Elizabeth; the unfortunate Arabella 
Stuart; the mother of Henry VII. ; the mother of Lady 
Jane Grey; the mother of Lord Darnley ; Anne Hyde, 
Duchess of York, the mother of Queen Mary and Queen 
Anne ; the wife of the Protector Somerset ; the wife of the 
great Lord Burghley; the wife of Sir Robert Cecil; the 
Duke and Duchess of Newcastle (the poet and poetess); 
the father and mother of Villiers, Duke of Buckingham; 
Villiers, first Duke of Buckingham, and his two sons, the 
profligate second duke, and Francis, killed when a boy in the 
Civil Wars ; the Duchess of Richmond (La Belle Stuart); 
the second Duke of Ormond, and Atterbury, Bishop of 
Rochester, all of whom died in banishment ; Sheffield, Duke 
of Buckingham ; Hakluyt, who collected the early voyages 
which bear his name ; Sir Isaac Newton ; Dr. Busby, the 
schoolmaster ; Dr. Johnson, the moralist and lexicographer ; 
Tom Killigrew and M. St. Evremont, the English and French 
epicurean wits; Aubrey cle Vere, the twentieth and last Earl 
of Oxford of the house of Vere ; and old Parr, who died 
(1635) at the great age of 152. "A Peerage or Westminster 
Abbey " was one of Nelson's rewards ; and when we reflect 
on the many eminent persons buried within its walls, it is 
indeed an honour. There is, however, some truth in the 
dying observation of Sir Godfrey Kneller — " By God, I will 
not be buried in Westminster ! They do bury fools there." 

ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, the most marked feature in 
the architecture of London, and the noblest building in Great 
Britain in the Classic style, stands on the site of a former 
building to the same saint destroyed in the Fire of London. 
The principal approach to it is by Ludgate-hill, but it is too 
closely hemmed in by houses to be seen in detail to much 



110 st. Paul's cathedral. 

advantage. The best general view of it is from the Thames, 
or Blackfriars Bridge. This is the Cathedral church of the 
Sec of London. Entrance at the N. door. Divine Service is 
performed daily at 8 in the morning in the chapel; — at 
£ before 1 0, and in the afternoon at \ past 3 in the choir. 
The doors are opened \ of an hour before tho beginning of 
each service. Visitors arc admitted to inspect tho whole 
building except during the time of Divine Service. 

COST OF ADMISSION. 

s. J. 
Whispering Gallery and two outside Galleries ..06 

Ball 16 

Library, Great Bell, Geometrical Staircase and 

Model Boom 10 

Clock 2 

Crypt and Nelson's Monument 10 

4 2 

General History. — The ground began to be cleared, and 
the first stone was laid June 21st, 1675. Divine service 
was performed for the first time Dec. 2nd, 1697, on the day 
of thanksgiving for the peace of Ryswick, and the last stono 

laid 1710, 35 years after the first. It deserves to be 

mentioned that the whole Cathedral was begun and com- 
pleted under one architect, Sir Christopher Wren ; one 
master mason, Mr. Thomas Strong; and while one bishop, 
Dr. Henry Compton, presided over the diocese. The whole 
cost, 747,9547. 2s. 9c/., was paid for by a tax on every chaldron 
of coal brought into the port of London, and the Cathedral, 
it is said, deserves to wear, as it does, a smoky coat in 
consequence. Exterior. — The general form or ground-plan 
is that of a Latin cross, with lateral projections at the W. 
end of the nave, in order to give width and importance to 
the W. front. Length from E. to W., 500 feet ; breadth of 
tho body of the church, 100 feet ; campanile towers at tho 
W. end, each 222 feet in height; and the height of the whole 
structure, from tho pavement in the street to the top of the 
cross, 404 feet. Immense as the building looks and is, it 
could actually stand within St. Peter's at Rome. The outer 
dome is of wood, covered with lead, and does not support 
the lantern on the top. which rests on a cone of brick raised 
between tho inner cupola and outer dome. Tho courso of 
balustrade at the top was forced on "Wren by the com- 
missioners for the building. " I never designed I balustrade." 
he says ; " ladies think nothing well without an edging." 
The sculpturo on the entablature (the Conversion of St. PaxuV 
the statues on the pediment (St. Paul, with St. Peter and 




Statue of Queen Anne. 
GROUND PLAN OF ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 



112 ST. Tail's CATHEDRAL. 

St. James on cither side), and the statue of Queen Anne, in 
front of the building, with the four figures at the angles, are 
all by F. Bird. The Phoenix over the S. door was the work 
of Cibbcr. The iron railing, of more than 2500 palisad. 
cast at Lamberhurst, in Kent, at a cost of 11,202/. Qs. 6(/., 
and encloses upwards of two acres of ground. Observe. — The 
double portico at the W. end : the beautiful semicircular 
porticos, N. and S. ; the use of two orders of architecture 
(Composite and Corinthian); and the general breadth and 
harmony of the whole building. The circular columns at 
the base of the stone gallery are, it is said, too tall for 
the length of the pilasters in the body of the building. 
Interior. — The cupola, with the paintings upon it, is of 
brick, two bricks thick, with stone bandings at every rise 
of 5 feet, and a girdle of Portland stone at the base, con- 
taining a double chain of iron strongly linked together at 
every 10 feet, and weighing 95 cwt. 3 cp-s. 23 lbs. The 
defect of the interior is its nakedness and want of ornament. 
Another defect, the side oratories, was added to the original 
design, by order of the Duke of York (afterwards James II.), 
who was willing to have them ready for the popish service. 
The alteration narrowed the building, and broke in very 
much upon the beauty of the design. Sir Christopher shed 
teai's in speaking of the change ; but it was all in vain. The 
Duke absolutely insisted upon their being inserted and Wren 
was obliged to comply. The paintings, 8 in number (by 
Sir James Thornhill), represent the principal events in the 
life of St. Paul. They arc fast decaying and were 
worth much. It was Wren's intention to have decorated the 
cupola with the more durable ornament of mosaic work, but 
in this he was ovemded. Observe. — In the choir the beautiful 
foliage, carved by Grinling Gibbons, and over the entrance 
to the choir the inscription to Wren (Si monumentum 
requiris, drcumspice), put there by Mylne, architect of 
Blackfriars Bridge. The organ (1694) was constructed by 
Bernard Schmydt, the successful candidate against Harris at 
the Temple. The golden gallery was erected at the expense 
of the Earl of Laaesborough, the "sober Lanesborough dancing 
with the gout" of Pope. Addison, in Spectator No. 50, makes 
the Indian King suppose that St Paul's was carved outofa rock. 
The Monuments may be divided into two classes: — monu- 
ments to illustrious men. made additionally interesting as 
fine works of art, and those only interesting from the illus- 
trious persons they are designed to commemorate. Among 
the Avorks of art, O bs er v e , — Statue of John Eoward, the 
philanthropist, by Bacon, ELA. (cost 1300 guineas, and was 



st. Paul's cathedral. 113 

the first monument erected in St. Paul's) ; statue of Dr. 
Johnson, by Bacon, R.A. ; statue of Sir Joshua Reynolds, by 
Flaxman, R.A. ; kneeling figure of Bishop Heber, by 
Chantrey, R.A.; monument to Nelson, by Flaxman, R.A., 
(the hero's lost arm concealed by the union Jack of England); 
monument to Lord Cornwallis, opposite, by Rossi, R.A., (the 
Indian river gods much admired) ; monument to Sir Ralph 
Abercrombie, by Sir R. Westmacott, R.A. Among the 
monuments interesting from the persons they commemorate, 
Observe. — Monument to Sir John Moore, who fell at Corunna, 
(Marshal Soult stood before this monument and wept) ; 
statue of Lord Heathfield, the gallant defender of Gibraltar; 
monuments to Howe and Rodney, two of our great naval 
heroes ; monument to Nelson's favourite, the brave and pious 
Lord Collingwood ; statue of Earl St. Vincent, the hero of 
the battle of Cape St. Vincent ; monuments to Picton and 
Ponsonby, who fell at Waterloo; statues of Sir William 
Jones, the Oriental scholar, Sir Astley Cooper, the surgeon, 
Dr. Babington, the physician, &c. Iu the Crypt,— Observe. — 
Grave of Sir Christopher Wren (d. 1723, aged 91).' — Grave of 
Lord Nelson (d. 1805). The sarcophagus, which contains 
Nelson's coffin, was made at the expense of Cardinal Wolsey, 
for the burial of Henry VIII. in the tomb-house at Windsor; 
and the coffin, which contains the body (made of part of the 
mainmast of the ship L'Orient), was a present to Nelson after 
the battle of the Nile, from his friend Ben Hallowell, captain 
of the Swiftsure. " I send it," says Hallowell, u that when 
you are tired of this life you may be buried in one of your 
own trophies." Nelson appreciated the present, and for some 
time had it placed upright, with the lid on, against the bulk- 
head of his cabin, behind the chair on which he sat at 
dinner. — Grave of Lord Collingwood (d. 1810), commander 
of the larboard division at the battle of Trafalgar. — Graves of 
the following celebrated English painters : — Sir Joshua 
Reynolds (d. 1792); Sir Thomas Lawrence (d. 1830); James 
Barry (d. 1806); John Opie (d. 1807); Benjamin West 
(d. 1820); Henry Fuseli (d. 1825).— Graves of the following 
eminent engineers : — Robert Mylne, who built Blackfriars 
Bridge (d. 1811); John Rennie, v who built Waterloo Bridge 
(d. 1821). Monuments fvom Old St. Paul's, preserved in the 
crypt of the present building. — Dean Colet, founder of St. 
Paul's School ; Sir Nicholas Bacon, father of the great Lord 
Bacon ; Sir Christopher Hatton, Queen Elizabeth's Lord 
Chancellor ; Dr. Donne, the poet, in his shroud, by Nicholas 
Stone, and described by Izaak Walton in his Life of Donne. 
Ascent. — The ascent to the ball is by 616 steps, of which 

i 



114 st. faul's cathedral. 

the first 260 are easy, aud well-lighted. Here the Whispering 
Gallery will give you breath ; but the rest of the ascent is a 
dirty and somewhat fatiguing task. Clock Room. — In the 
south-western tower is the clock, and the great bell on which 
it strikes. The length of the minute-hand of the clock is 8 
feet, and its weight 75 lbs. ; the length of the hour-hand is 5 
feet 5 inches, and its weight 44 lbs. The diameter of the 
bell is about 10 feet, and its weight is generally stated at 44; 
tons. It is inscribed, "Richard Phelps made me, 1716," and 
is never used except for the striking of the hour, and for 
tolling at the deaths and funerals of any of the royal family, 
the Bishops of London, the Deans of St. Paul's, and, should 
he die in his mayoralty, the Lord Mayor. The larger part of 
the metal of which it is made formed " Great Tom of West- 
minster," once in the Clock Tower at Westminster. The 
Library is not very valuable. TJie Model Room contains, in a 
shamefully dirty mutilated state, Wren's first and favourite 
plan for the rebuilding of the Cathedral. This is quite a 
study, and additionally interesting, as it shows how well 
Wren was aware of the difficulties he had to contend with in 
his art, and how completely he had foreseen the minor ob- 
jections raised to the minute details of particular parts of the 
present building. The dome, however, of the present 
Cathedral is surely finer that any part of the rejected model] 
The Whispering Gallery is so called, because the slightest 
whisper is transmitted from one side of the gallery to the 
other with great rapidity and distinctness. The Stone Gallery 
is an outer gallery, and affords a fine view of London on a 
clear day. The Inner Golden Gallery is at the apex of the 
cupola and base of the lantern. The Outer Golden Gallery is 
at the apex of the dome. Here you may have a noble view 
of London if you will ascend early in the morning, and on a 
clear day. The Ball and Cross stand on a cone between the 
cupola and dome. The construction is very interesting, and 
will well repay attention. The ball is in diameter 6 feet 2 
inches, and will contain 8 persons, "without," it is said, 
" particular inconvenience." This, however, may well be 
doubted. The weight of the ball is stated to be 5600 lbs., 
and that of the cross (to which there is no entrance) 3300 lbs. 
The last public procession to St. Paul's was on a Thursday, 
July 7th, 1814, when the Duke of Wellington carried the 
sword of state before the Prince Regent, on the day of general 
thanksgiving for the peace. 

Haydn said that the most powerful effect he ever felt from 
music was from the singing of the charity children in St. 
Paul's. Endeavour to attend at one of the festivals when 



ST. BARTHOLOMEW THE GREAT ST. SAVIOUR. 115 

the charity children attend. The festival is held on the first 
Thursday in June. [See Calendar.] 

What is called St. Paul's Churchyard is an irregular 
circle of houses enclosing St. Paul's Cathedral and burial- 
ground, of which the side towards the Thames is commonly 
called the bow, and the side towards Paternoster-row the 
string. The statue of Queen Anne, before the W. front of 
the church, was the work of Francis Bird, a poor sculptor, 
whose best work is his monument to Dr. Busby, in West- 
minster. Mr. Newberry's shop at the corner of St. Paul's 
Church-yard is now held by Messrs. Grant and Griffiths, 
who still deal, like their predecessor, in children's books. 

St. BARTHOLOMEW the GREAT, West Smithfield, in 
the ward of Farringdon Without, was the choir and transept 
of the church of the Priory of St. Bartholomew, founded 
in the reign of Henry I. (circ. 1102), by Rahere, " a pleasant- 
witted gentleman, and therefore in his time called the King's 
minstrel." This unquestionably is one of the most inter- 
esting of the old London churches. There is much good 
Norman work about it, and its entrance gate from Smithfield is 
an excellent specimen of Early English with the toothed orna- 
ment in its mouldings. Parts, however, are of the Perp. 
period, and the rebus of Prior Bolton, who died in 1532 (a 
bolt through a tun), fixes the date when the alterations were 
made. The roof is of timber. At the W. end are parts of 
the transepts and nave, in a later style of architecture, and 
worth examination. The clerestory is Early English. On 
the north side of the altar is the canopied tomb, with effigy, 
of Rahere, the first Prior of his foundation. It is of a much 
later date than his decease, and is a fine specimen of the 
Perp. period. Over against the founder's tomb is the 
spacious monument to Sir Walter Mildmay, Under-Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, and 
founder of Emmanuel College, Cambridge (d. 1589). The 
other monuments are of very little importance, unless we 
except the bust (near Mildmay's monument) of James Rivers 
(d. 1641), probably the work of Hubert Le Soeur, who lived in 
Bartholomew-close, hard by. The parish register records the 
baptism (Nov. 28th, 1697) of William Hogarth, the painter. 

St. SAVIOUR, Southwark, was the church of the Priory 
of St. Mary Overy, and was first erected into a parish church 
by Henry VIII. in 1540. After Westminster Abbey, St. 
Saviour's, Southwark, contains the finest specimens of Early 
English in London. Nothing, however, remains of the old 

i 2 



116 ST. SAVIOUR. 

church but the choir and the Lady chapel. The nave was 
taken down about twenty years ago, and the present un- 
sightly structure erected in its stead. The altar-screen in 
the choir (much like that at Winchester) was erected at the 
expense of Fox, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1528). In the 
string-course is Fox's favourite device, the pelican. The 
choir was restored in 1822, and the Lady chapel in 1832. 
In the reign of Mary I. the Lady chapel of St. Saviour's was 
used by Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1555), as a con- 
sistorial court. Monuments. — Effigy of knight cross-legged, 
in north aisle of choir. To John Gower, the poet (d. 1402) ; 
a Perp. monument, originally erected on the N. side of the 
church, in the chapel of St. John, where Gower founded a 
chantry. The monument was removed to its present site, 
and repaired and coloured in 1832, at the expense of Gower, 
first Duke of Sutherland. 

" He [Gower] lieth under a tomb of stone, with his image also of stone 
over him : the hair of his head, auburn, long to his shoulders but curling 
up, and a small forked beard ; on his head a chaplet like a coronet of 
four roses ; a habit of purple, damasked down to his feet ; a collar of 
esses gold about his neck; under his head the likeness of three books 
which he compiled." — Stow, p. 152. 

Lancelot Andrews, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1626); a black 
and white marble monument in the Lady chapel, with his 
effigy at full-length. When St. John's chapel was taken 
down, his leaden coffin was found, with no other inscription 
than L.A. (the initials of his name). John Trehearne, gen- 
tleman porter to James I. ; half-length of himself and wife 
(upright). John Bingham, saddler to Queen Elizabeth and 
James I. (d. 1625). Alderman Humble. Lockyer, the 
famous empiric in Charles II.'s reign (d. 1672) ; a rueful 
full-length figure in N. transept. Eminent Persons buried 
in, and graves unmarked. — Sir Edward Dyer, Sir Philip 
Sydney's friend ; he lived and died (1607) in Winchester 
House, adjoining. Edmund Shakspeare, "player" (the poet's 
youngest brother), buried in the church, 1607. Lawrence 
Fletcher, one of the leading shareholders in the Globe and 
Blackfriars Theatres, and Shakspeare's " fellow ; " buried in 
the church, 1608. Philip Hcnslowe, the manager, so well 
known by his curious Account Book or Diary ; buried in the 
chancel, 1615-16. John Fletcher (Beaumont's associate), 
buried in the church, 1625. Philip Massinger (the dramatic 
poet), buried in the churchyard, March 18th, 1838-9. The 
houses in Doddington-grove, Kcnnington, are built on the 
three-feet surface of earth removed from the " Cross-Bones 
Burial Ground" of St. Saviour's, Southwark. 



THE TEMPLE CHURCH. 117 

The TEMPLE CHURCH, a little south of Temple Bar, 
was the church of the Knights Templar, and is divided into 
two parts, the Round Church and the Choir. The Round 
Church (transition Norman work) was built in the year 1185, 
as an inscription in Saxon characters, formerly on the stone- 
work over the little door next the cloister, recorded, and 
dedicated by Heraclius, Patriarch of Jerusalem ; the Choir 
(pure Early English) was finished in 1210. The restorations 
and alterations, made 1839-42, at a cost of 70.000J., amount- 
ing nearly to the re-constiaiction of the Choir, are in correct 
twelfth and thirteenth century taste. The monuments to 
several distinguished men, architecturally out of place, were 
removed from the arcades and compartments in which they 
were first erected, and are now placed in the Triforium. Off 
the cork-screw stairs leading to the gallery is a so-called 
Penitential Cell. Observe. — Entrance doorway (very fine) ; 
two groups of monumental effigies, in Round Church, of 
Knights Templar, cross-legged (names unknown, at least 
very uncertain) ; the figure between the two columns on the 
S.E. having a foliage-ornament about the head, and the feet 
resting upon a lion, represents, it is said, William Marshall, 
Earl of Pembroke (d. 1119), Earl Marshal and Protector of 
Englaud during the minority of Henry III. ; monument of 
white marble, left of altar, to the learned Selden (d. 1654 ; 
ho is buried beneath) ; and in the Triforium (ascended by a 
narrow staircase), the tombs of Plowden, the jurist; Martin, 
to whom Ben Jonson dedicates his Poetaster; Howell, the 
letter-writer (d. 1666) ; Edmund Gibbon (ancestor of the 
historian, and referred to by him in his Autobiography). In 
the burial-ground east of the choir, lies Oliver Goldsmith. 
The place is undistinguished ; but a tablet recently erected 
in a recess on the north side of the Choir commemorates the 
circumstance. The Round of this church was used as a 
place where lawyers received their clients, each occupying 
his particular post, like a merchant upon 'Change. The 
preacher at the Temple is called Master of the Temple, and 
was once an office of greater dignity and reputation than it 
is now. The learned and judicious Hooker, author of the 
Ecclesiastical Polity, was for six years Master of the Temple 
— " a place," says Izaak Walton, " which he accepted rather 
than desired." Travers, a disciple of Cartwright, the Non- 
conformist, was then lecturer; and Hooker, it was said, 
preached Canterbury in the forenoon, and Travers Geneva in 
the afternoon. The Benchers were divided ; and Travers, 
being first silenced by the Archbishop, Hooker resigned, and 
in his quiet parsonage of Boscombe renewed the contest in 



118 

print, in his Ecclesiastical Polity. In this church Archbishop 
Usher preached the funeral sermon of the learned Selden. 
The organ was made by Father Schmydt, or Smith, in 
honourable competition with a builder of the name of 
Harris. Blow and Purcell, then in their prime, performed 
on Father Smith's organ on appointed days ; and till Harris's 
was heard, every one believed that Smith's must be chosen. 
Harris employed Baptiste Draghi, organist to Queen Cathe- 
rine, " to touch his organ," which brought it into favour ; 
and thus the two continued vieing with each other for near a 
twelvemonth. The decision at length was left to the noto- 
rious Judge Jefferies, who decided in favour of Father Smith. 
Smith excelled in the diapason, or foundation stops ; Harris 
principally in the reed stops. The choral services on a 
Sunday are well performed, and well attended. The Round 
of the church is open to all, but the Choir is reserved for the 
Benchers and students. Strangers are admitted by the 
introduction of a member of either Temple. The keys of the 
church are with the porter, at the top of Inner Temple-lane. 

ST. HELEN'S, Bishopsgate Street, on the E. side of 
Bishopsgate-steet Within, near its j unction with Gracechurch- 
street, the church of the Priory of the Nuns of St. Helen's, 
founded (circ. 1216) by "William, the son of William the 
Goldsmith," otherwise William Basing, Dean of St. Paul's. 
The interior is divided into two aisles, of nearly equal pro- 
portions, with a small transept abutting from the main 
building. There is little in the architecture to attract atten- 
tion, in general design or even in detail. The windows are 
irregular — the roof poor and heavy, but the monuments are 
old, numerous, and interesting. Observe. — Sir John Crosby, 
Alderman (d. 1475), and Ann, his wife, the founder of 
Crosby Hall ; an altar-tomb, with two recumbent figures, the 
male figure with his alderman's mantle over his plate armour. 
- Sir Thomas Gresham (d. 1579), the founder of the Royal 
Exchange ; an altar-tomb, with this short inscription on the 
surmounting slab : — (i Sir Thomas Gresham, Knight, buried 
Dec. loth, 1579." This monument was never completed, nor 
was there any inscription on the slab when Pennant drew up 
his account in 1790. Stow tells us thut it was Gresham's 
intention to have built a new steeple to the church M in re- 
compense of ground filled up with his monument." — John 
Lementhorp (d. 1510), in armour; a brass. — Sir William 
Pickering, and his son, (d. 1542, d. 1574) ; a recumbent figure 
of the father in armour, beneath an enriched marble canopy. 
— Sir Andrew Judd, Lord Mayor (d. 1558); a monument 



ST. rANCRAS-IN-TIIE-FIKLDS. 119 

against the wall, with male and female figures kneeling at a 
desk. This Six- Andrew Judd (who is here represented in 
armour) was founder of the Free Grammar School at Tun- 
bridge, and of the Almshouses in the neighbourhood which 
bear his name. The inscription is curious ; but the name is 
a recent addition. — Sir Julius Caesar (d. 1636), Master of the 
"Rolls, and Under-Chancellor of the Exchequer, in the reign 
of James I. : the same Sir Julius Csesar of whom Lord Claren- 
don tells the amusing story, " Remember Csesar." 

" His epitaph is cut on a black slab, in front of a piece of parchment, 
with a seal appendant, by which he gives his bond to Heaven to resign 
his life willingly whenever it should please God to call him. ' In cujus 
rei testimonium manum meam et sigillum apposui.' " — Pennant. 

This monument was the work of Nicholas Stone, and cost 
1107. — Sir John Spencer, Lord Mayor in 1594, from whom 
the Marquis of Northampton derives the Spencer portion of 
his name, Spencer-Compton. Sir John Spencer bought 
Crosby House, and kept his mayoralty in it in 1594. — Francis 
Bancroft, the founder of the Almshouses which bear his 
name. 

" He is embalmed in a chest made with a lid, having a pair of hinges 
without any fastening, and a piece of square glass on the lid just over 
his face. It is a very plain monument, almost square, and has a door 
for the sexton, on certain occasions, to go in and clear it from dust and 
cobwebs." — NoorthoucKs Hist, of Lond., 4to, 1773, p. 557. 

ST. PANCRAS- in -the- FIELDS, (old church) in the 
northern part of London, is an interesting little church 
recently enlarged by Mr. A. D. Gough. The burial-ground, 
of less than 4 acres, has been used as a place of sepulture for 
at least six centuries, and contains the remains of at least 
20 generations. The monuments deserve examination. 
Observe. — Against S. wall of chancel a tablet, surmounted by 
a palette and pencils, to Samuel Cooper, the miniature painter 
to whom Cromwell sat so often (d. 1672) : the arms are those 
of Sir Edward Turner, Speaker of the House of Commons in 
the reign of Charles II., at whose expense it is probable the 
monument was erected. In the churchyard, near the church 
door, and on your right as you enter, is a headstone to 
William Woollett, the engraver (d. 1785), and his widow 
(d. 1819). At the further end of the churchyard, on the 
N. side, is an altar-tomb to William Godwin, author of Caleb 
Williams (d. 1836), and his two wives ; Mary Wolstonecraft 
Godwin, author of A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 
the mother of Mrs. Shelley (d. 1797) ; and Mary Jane 
(d. 1841). Near the sexton's house is a headstone to John 



120 SAVOY CHURCH. 

Walker, author of the Pronouncing Dictionary of the English 
Language (d. 1807). The several footways in this crowded 
churchyard are laid with fragments of broken tombstones, 
some perhaps of interest ; for here were buried, as the 
register records: — Abraham Woodhead (d. 1678), reputed 
by some to have been the author of The Whole Duty of 
Man. Wood gives a long account of him, and adds, "that ho 
was buried in the churchyard of St. Pancras, about 22 paces 
from the chancel, on the S. side. Afterwards was a raised 
altar-monument, built of brick, covered with a thick plank 
of blue marble, put over his grave." — Jeremy Collier (d. 1726), 
the writer against the immorality of the stage in the time of 
Dryden. — Ned Ward (d. 1731), author of the London Spy. 
His hearse was attended by a single mourning coach, con- 
taining only his wife and daughter, as he had directed it 
should be in his poetical will, written six years before he 
died. — Lewis Theobald (d. 1741), the hero of the early 
editions of the Dunciad, and the editor of Shakspeare. In 
this church (Feb. 13th, 1718-19), Jonathan Wild was married 
to his third wife. 

ST. MARY LE SAVOY lies between the River and the 
Strand, and was the chapel of the Hospital of St. John the 
Baptist, in the Savoy, a palace so called, built in 1245 by 
Peter, Earl of Savoy and Richmond, uncle unto Eleanor, wife 
to King Henry III. It is a Perp. chapel, late and plain, with 
the exception of the ceiling, which is very rich and coloured, 
and is the only remains of the old palace. The E. end has 
been ornamented with tabernacle work, of which one niche 
remains ; but the greater part has been cut away to make 
places for modern monuments. It is now a precinct or 
parish church, and called (but improperly) St. Mary-le-Sav03 r . 
The altar window, recently glazed at the expense of the con- 
gregation, contains the figure of St. John the Baptist. 
Observe. — Recumbent figure (size of life) of the Countess 
Dowager of Nottingham (d. 16S1); but this monument, it is 
thought, is improperly named. Tablet to Mrs. Anne Killi- 
grew (d. 1685) ; Dryden wrote a poem on her death. Brass, 
on floor, about 3 feet S. of the stove in the centre of the 
chapel, marking the grave of Gawain Douglas, Bishop of 
Dunkeld (d. 1522), the translator of Virgil. Monument by 
M. L. Watson, erected 1846, to Dr. Cameron, the last person 
executed on account of the rebellion of 1745. Tablet, erected 
by his widow, to Richard Lander, the African traveller (d. 
1834). Eminent. Pertone interred here without innnuments. — 
George, third Earl of Cumberland, father of Lady Anno 



st. Paul's, covent garden. 121 

Clifford, died in the Duchy House in 1605 ; bowels alone 
buried here. George Wither, the poet (d. 1667), "between 
the E. door and S. end of the church." Lewis de Duras, 
Earl of Faversham (d. 1709); he commanded King James II.'s 
troops at the battle of Sedgemoor. 

The meetings at the Restoration of Charles II. of the com- 
missioners for the revision of the Liturgy took place in the 
Savoy ; twelve bishops appearing for the Established 
Church ; and Calamy, Baxter, Reynolds, and others, for the 
Presbyterians. This was called " The Savoy Conference,' 
and under that name is matter of English history. Fuller, 
author of The Worthies, was at this time lecturer at the 
Savoy, and Cowley, the poet, a candidate at Court for the 
office of master. 

ST. PAUL'S, Coven? Garden, on the W. side of the 
market, was built by Inigo Jones, circ. 1633, at the expense 
of the ground landlord, Francis, Earl of Bedford; repaired, 
in 1727, by the Earl of Burlington ; totally destroyed by fire, 
Sept. 17th, 1795; and rebuilt (John Hard wick, architect) on 
the plan and in the proportions of the original building. 
The parish registers record the baptism of Lady Mary Wortley 
Montague, and the burials of the following Eminent Persons. — 
The notorious Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset (d. 1645). — 
Samuel Butler (d. 1680), author of Hudibras. He died in 
Rose-street. 

"He [Butler] dyed of a consumption, Septemb. 25, (Anno D D >- 1680), 
and buried 27, according to his owne appointment in the church-yard of 
Covent Garden ; sc. in the north part next the church at the east end. 
His feet touch the wall. His grave, 2 yards distant from the pilaster of 
the dore (by his desire), 6 foot deepe. About 25 of his old acquaintance 
at his funerall : I niyself being one." — Aubrey s Lives, ii. 263. 

Sir Peter Lely, the painter (d. 1680). His monument, with 
his bust by Gibbons, and his epitaph by Flatman, shared the 
fate of the church when destroyed by fire in 1795. — Edward 
Kynaston (d. 1712), the celebrated actor of female parts at 
the Restoration ; a complete female stage beauty. William 
Wycherley (d. 1715), the dramatist. He died in Bow-street. 
— Grinling Gibbons (d. 1721), the sculptor and carver in 
wood. — Susannah Centlivre (d. 1723), author of The Busy 
Body and The Wonder. — Dr. Arne, the composer of Rule 
Britannia (d. 1778). — Dr. John Armstrong, author of the Art 
of Preserving Health, a poem (d. 1779). — Sir Robert Strange, 
the engraver (d. 1792.) — Thomas Girtin, the father of the 
school of English water colours (d. 1802). — Charles Macklin, 
the actor (d. 1797), at the age of 107.— John Wolcot (Peter 



12:2 BOW CHURCH. 

Pindar), d. 1819. In front of this church the hustings are 
raised for the general elections of Westminster. Here, 
before the Reform Bill, raged those fierce contests of many 
days' duration in which Fox, Sir Francis Burdett, and others 
were popular candidates. 

ST. MARY LE BOW, in Cheapside, commonly called 
" Bow Church," is one of Wren's masterpieces. " The 
steeple," says Horace Walpole, " is much admired ; for my 
part," he adds, " I never saw a beautiful modern steeple." 
Observe. — The fine old Norman crypt : Wren used the arches 
of the old church to support his own superstructure. It is 
now a vault, and concealed in parts by piles of coffins ; the 
interior is poor. " Bow-bells " have long been and are still 
famous. 

" In the year 1469 it was ordained by a Common Council that the Bow- 
Bell should be nightly rung at nine of the clock. Shortly after, John 
Donne, mercer, by his testament dated 1472, gave to the parson and 
churchwardens two tenements in Hosier Lane to the maintenance of 
Bow Bell, the same to be rung as aforesaid, and other things to be 
observed as by the will appeareth. This Bell being usually rung some- 
what late, as seemed to the young men, prentices, and others in Cheap, 
they made and set up a rhyme against the clerk as followeth : 
' Clerk of the Bow Bell, with the yellow lockes, 
For thy late ringing thy head shall have knocks.' 
"VVhereunto the Clerk replying wrote : 

' Children of Cheape, hold you all still, 
For you shall have the Bow Bell rung at your will." 

Stow, p. 96. 

People bora within the sound of Bow-bells are usually called 
Cockneys. Beaumont and Fletcher speak of " Bow-bell 
suckers," i. e., as Mr. Dyce properly explains it, " children 
born within the sound of Bow-bell." The present set of 
bells, ten in number, were cast and set up in 1762. All 
differ in weight, — the smallest weighing 8 cwt. 3 qrs. 7 lbs., and 
the largest 53 cwt. 22 lbs. Pope has confirmed the reputation 
of these bells in a celebrated line : — 

" Far as loud Bow's stupendous bells resound." 
The dragon on the steeple is 8 feet 10 inches long. The 
Court of Arches (an Ecclesiastical Court so called) derives 
its name from the arched vault under Bow Church, in which 
the court was originally held — the church itself derives its 
name from its being the first church in London built on 
arches of stone. The balcony in the tower overlooking 
Cheapside had its origin in the old Beldam or shed in which 
our kings used to sit to see the jousts and ridings in Cheapside. 

ST. BRIDE, or ST. BRIDGET, Fleet-street, one of Wren's 



ST. STEPHEN, WALBROOK. 123 

architectural glories, was completed in the year 1703, at the 
cost of 11,430/. The steeple, much and deservedly admired, 
was, as left by Wren, 234 feet in height, but in 1764, when it 
was struck with lightning, and otherwise seriously injured, it 
was reduced 8 feet. Wren took the idea of its construction 
from the whorls of a particular species of univalve shell. The 
interior has many admirers — less airy perhaps than St. James's, 
Piccadilly, but still extremely elegant. The stained glass 
window (a copy from Rubens's Descent from the Cross) was 
the work of Mr. Muss. In the old church were buried : — 
Wynkin de Worde, the celebrated printer. — Sir Richard Baker, 
author of the Chronicle whicli bears his name (d. 1644-5, in 
the Fleet Prison). — Richard Lovelace, the poet (d. 1658). In 
the present church were buried : — Ogilby, the translator of 
Homer. — Sandford, author of the Genealogical History which 
bears his name. — The widow of Sir Wilham Davenant, the 
poet ; and her son Dr. Charles Davenant, the political writer 
(d. 1714). — Richardson, author of Clarissa Harlowe, and a 
printer in Salisbury-square (d. 1761); his grave (half hid by 
pew No. 8, on the S. side) is marked by a flat stone, about the 
middle of the centre aisle. — Robert Lloyd, the friend of 
Charles Churchill. 

ST. STEPHEN, Walbrook, immediately behind the Man- 
sion House, is one of Wren's most celebrated churches. The 
exterior is unpromising, but the interior is all elegance and 
even grandeur. The lights are admirably disposed through- 
out. Architects find faults — the public, few or none— 
though the oval openings are, I fear, somewhat ungraceful. 
The walls and columns are of stone, but the dome is formed 
of timber and lead. Sir John Vanbrugh, the architect and 
wit, lies buried in the family vault of the Vanbrughs, in 
this church. The present rector is the Rev. Dr. Croly, 
author of Salathiel, and other works of fancy and imagina- 
tion. 

ST. MAGNUS, London Bridge, is by Wren. The cupola 
and lantern are much admired. The foot-way under the 
steeple was made (circ. 1760) to widen the road to old London 
Bridge. Some difficulty was expected at the time, but Wren 
had foreseen the probability of a change, and the alteration 
was effected with ease and security. On the S. side of the 
communion table is a tablet to the memory of Miles Coverdale, 
rector of St. Magnus and Bishop of Exeter, under whose 
direction, Oct. 4th, 1535, "the first complete printed English 
version of the Bible was published." When the church of 



124 ST. JAMES' PICCADILLY. 

St. Bartholoniew-by-the-Exchange was taken down, his remains 
were reverently taken care of and here interred. 

ST. JAMES, Piccadilly, or St. James's, Westminster. 
Was built (1682-84) by Sir Christopher Wren, and erected at 
the expense of Henry Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, the patron 
of Cowley, and the husband, it is said, of Henrietta Maria, the 
widow of Charles I. The exterior of the church is of red 
brick with stone cpioins, and is mean and ugly in the extreme. 
The interior is a masterpiece, light, airy, elegant, and capacious 
— well worthy the study of an architect. It is Wren's chcf- 
d'ceuvre in this way — and especially adapted to the Protestant 
Church service. 

" I can hardly think it practicahle to make a single room so capacious, 
with pews and galleries, as to hold above 2000 persons, and all to hear 
the service, and both to hear distinctly and see the preacher. I en- 
deavoured to effect this in building the parish church of St. James, 
Westminster, which I presume is the most capacious with these 
qualifications that hath yet been built; and yet at a solemn time when 
the church was much crowded I could not discern from a gallery that 
2000 persons were present in this church I mention, though very broad, 
and the nave arched up. And yet, as there are no walls of a second 
order, nor lantern, nor buttresses, bat the whole roof rests upon the 
pillars, as do also the galleries, I think it may be found beautiful and 
convenient, and as such the cheapest form of any I could invent." — Sir 
Christopher Wren. 

The marble font, a very beautiful one, is the work of Grinling 
Gibbons. The missing cover (represented in Vertue's en- 
graving) was stolen, and, it is said, subsequently hung as a 
kind of sign at a spirit-shop in the immediate neighbourhood 
of the church. The beautiful foliage over the altar is also 
from the hand of Gibbons. The organ, a very fine one, was 
made for James II., and designed for his popish chapel at 
Whitehall. His daughter, Queen Mary, gave it to the church. 
The painted window at the E. end of the chancel, by Wailes 
of Newcastle, was erected in 1840. 

Eminent Persons interred in. — Charles Cotton, Izaak 
Walton's associate in The Complete Angler. — Dr. Sydenham, 
the physician. — The elder and younger Vandervelde. On a 
grave-stone in the church is, or was, this inscription : " Mr. 
William Vandervelde, senior, late painter of sea-fights to 
their Majesties King Charles II. and King James, dyed 1693." 
— Tom d'Urfey, the dramatist (d. 1723). There is a tablet 
to his memory on the outer S. wall of the tower of the 
church. The inscription is simple enough " Tom d'Urfey, 
died February 26th, 1723." — Henry Sydney, Earl of Roinney, 
the handsome Sydney of De Grammont's Memoirs (d. 1704). 
There is a monument to his memory iu the chancel. — Dr. 



ST. MARTIN-IN-THE-F1ELDS. 125 

Arbuthnot (d. 1734-5), the friend of Pope, Swift, and Gay. — 
Mark Akenside, M.D., author of The Pleasures of Imagination. 
— James Gillray, the caricaturist : in the churchyard, beneath 
a flat stone on the W. side of the rectory. — Sir John Malcolm, 
the eminent soldier and diplomatist. — The register records the 
baptisms of the polite Earl of Chesterfield and the great 
Earl of Chatham. The portraits of the rectors in the vestry 
are worth seeing, including those of Tenison and "Wake, 
afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, and of Samuel Clarke, 
author of The Attributes of the Deity. 

ST. MARY WOOLNOTH, Lombard Street, was designed 
by Nicholas Hawksmoor (d. 1736), the "domestic clerk" 
and assistant of Sir Christopher Wren, and built in 1716, on 
the site of an old church of the same name, "the reason 
of which name," says Stow, " I have not yet learnt." This 
is the best of Hawksmoor's churches, and has been much 
admired. The exterior is bold, and at least original ; the 
interior effective and well-proportioned. Observe. — Tablet to 
the Rev. John Newton (Cowper's friend), rector of this church 
for 28 years (d. 1807). It is thus inscribed : — 

" John Newton, clerk, once an infidel and libertine, a servant of slaves 
in Africa, was, by the rich mercy of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ, 
preserved, restored, pardoned, and appointed to preach the faith he had 
long laboured to destroy." 

ST. MARTIN-in-the-FIELDS, (now in Trafalgar-square) 
was built by Gibbs, 1721-26, at a cost of 36,891/. 10s. id., 
including 1500/. for an organ. The portico is one of the finest 
pieces of architecture in London. The interior is so con- 
structed that it is next to impossible to erect a monument. 
The steeple is heavy, but well-proportioned ; its position, 
however, is awkward, since it appears to weigh down the 
portico. In the vaults may be seen the old parish whipping- 
post, and the Tombs of Sir Theodore Mayerne (physician to 
James I. and Charles I.), and of Secretary Coventry, from 
whom Coventry-street derives its name. St. Martin's-in-the- 
Fields originally included the several parishes of St. Paul's, 
Covent-garden ; St. James's, Westminster ; St. Ann's, Soho ; 
and St. George's, Hanover-square ; extending as far as Mary -le- 
bone to the N., Whitehall on the S., the Savoy on the E., 
and Chelsea and Kensington on the W. St. Paul's, Covent- 
garden, was taken out of it in 1638 ; St. James's, Westminster, 
in 1684 ; and St. Ann's, Soho, in 1686. About the year 1680 
it was, what Burnet calls it, " the greatest cure in England." 
with a population, says Richard Baxter, of 40,000 persons 



126 st. George's, hanover square. 

more than could come into the church, and " where neigh- 
bours," he adds, " lived, like Americans, without hearing a 
sermon for many years." Fresh separations only tended to 
lessen the resources of the parish, and nothing was done to 
improve its appearance till 1826, when the churchyard was 
removed and the present Trafalgar-square commenced at the 
expense of government. Eminent 2'> ersons buried in St. 
Martin's. — Hilliard, the miniature painter (d. 1619). — Paul 
Vansomer, the painter (d. 1621). — Sir John Davys, the poet 
(d. 1626). — N. Laniere, the painter and musician (d. 1646). — 
Dobson, called the English Van Dyck (d. 1646). — Stanley, 
the editor of iEschylus (d. 1678). — Nell Gwynne, in the 
church (d. 1687). — Hon. Robert Boyle, the philosopher 
(d. 1691). — Lord Mohun, who fell in a duel with the Duke of 
Hamilton (d. 1712).— Jack Sheppard (d. 1724).— Farquhar, 
the dramatist (d. 1707). — Roubiliac, the sculptor (d. 1762). 
— James Stuart, author of the Antiquities of Athens, &c. 
(d. 1788). — John Hunter, the surgeon (d. 1793). — James 
Smith, one of the authors of the Rejected Addresses (d. 
1839). The register records the baptism of Lord Bacon, who 
was born, in 1561, in York House, in the Strand, on the site 
of Buckingham-street. 

ST. GEORGE'S CHURCH, Hanover Square, was built 
by John James, and consecrated 1724. "Its portico," says 
Pennant, " would be thought handsome, were there space to 
admire it." This was one of the fifty new churches. It con- 
tains 3 good Jesse windows of sixteenth century work, 
brought from Mechlin, and purchased by subscription. In 
this church (the most fashionable church for marriages in 
London, in which the Duke of Wellington has given away so 
many brides) Sir William Hamilton was married, Sept. 6th, 
1791, to the Lady Hamilton, so intimately connected with 
the story of Lord Nelson. Her name in the register is Emma 
Harte. Lola Montes was married in the same church (1849) 
to a Mr. Heald. 

In the burial-ground on the road to Bayswatcr, belonging 
to this parish, and near the W. wall, Laurence Sterne, the 
author of Tristram Shandy and the Sentimental Journey, 
is buried. His grave is distinguished by a plain head- 
stone, set up with an unsuitable inscription, by a tippling 
fraternity of Free-masons. He died in Old Bond-street, in 
this parish. 

In the modern classic style. — The churches of ST. MARY- 
LEBONE and ST. PANCRAS (both in the New Road) aie 
among the best specimens in London. St. Marylebone wr.» 



CHURCHES. 127 

built, 1813-17, by Thomas Hardwick, and cost 60,000£ St. 
Paucras was built, 1819-22, by the Messrs. Inwood, and cost 
76,679Z. 7s. Sd. Wren's beautiful church of St, Mary-le-Bow 
cost infinitely less than even St. Marylebone. 

The New church of ST. GILES, Camberwell, (3 miles 
S. of Westminster Bridge,) was built, 1841-4, by G. G. Scott, 
and is the best specimen in the metropolis of modern Gothic. 
The style is Decorated. 

The church of ST. STEPHEN, Westminster, in Rochester- 
row, Westminster (a London purlieu), is a beautiful specimen 
of modern Gothic, built, 1847-49, by Benjamin Ferrey, archi- 
tect, at the sole expense of Miss Coutts Burdett. The tower 
interferes within with the harmony of the building, but all 
the details throughout are especially excellent. The stained 
glass by Willement is in his best style. The altar-cloth was 
presented by the Duke of Wellington. 

The church and college of ST. BARNABAS, Pimlico, were 
built, 1846-49, by Thomas Cundy, at a cost of 20,000^., exclu- 
sive of gifts, for the Rev. W. J. E. Bennett. The stained glass 
is by Wailes of Newcastle. The seats were entirely free. 
Mr. Bennett resigned his charge during (1850) the popular 
agitation against the Papal aggression brought about by 
the Pope and Cardinal Wiseman. 

The WESLEYAN CHAPEL, in the City Road, over 
against the entrance to Bunhill-fields. Behind the chapel is 
the grave of John Wesley (d. 1791). The tomb which covers 
his grave was erected in 1791, and reconstructed and en- 
larged in 1840 during the centenary of Methodism. In the 
chapel are tablets to Dr. Adam Clarke (d. 1832), and Charles 
Wesley (d. 1788), "the first who received the name of 
Methodist." 

WHITEFIELD'S CHAPEL, on the W. side of Tottenham 
Court Road, was built in 1675, by subscription, under the 
auspices of the Rev. George Whitefield, founder of the 
Methodists. Whitefield preached (Nov. 7th, 1756) the first 
sermon in the chapel to a very crowded audience. Mrs. 
Whitefield (d. 1768) is buried here ; and here, on a monu- 
ment to her memory, is an inscription to her husband, who, 
dying in New England, in 1770, was buried at Newbury 
Port, near Boston. John Bacon, R. A., the celebrated sculptor, 
is buried under the N. gallery. A good specimen of his 
talents as a sculptor may be seen in a bas-relief in this chapel. 



128 ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL. 

ROWLAND HILL'S CHAPEL, or " Surrey Chapel," is in 
the Blackfriars Road. Hill was a distinguished follower of 
Whitefield. The chapel was built for Hill himself in 1782-3, 
and here he preached for nearly 50 years. 

SCOTTISH CHURCHES. 

National Scotch Church, Crown Court, Long Acre. 
Dr. Cumming (minister). 



Swallow St., Piccadilly. 

Cross St., Hatton Garden. This was Irving's first place 
of preaching in London, and here he drew crowded and 
delighted congregations. 

Scottish (Free) Church, Regent-square. Built for Rev. 
Edward Irving, and where the unknown tongues he believed 
in were first heard. 

ROMAN CATHOLIC CATHEDRAL AND CHAPELS. 

The principal Roman Catholic Edifices in London are : — 

St. George's Cathedral, at the angle of the St. George's 
and Westminster Roads, in the so-called Roman Catholic 
diocese of Southwark (the largest Roman Catholic church 
erected in this country since the Reformation), built, 1840-48, 
from the designs of A. W. Pugin. It is without galleries, will 
hold 3000 people, and is said to have cost 30,000/. The style 
is decorated or middle pointed Gothic, and the material 
used hard yellow brick with dressings of Caen stone. The 
Petre Chantry, founded for the repose of the soul of the 
Hon. Edward Petre (d. 1848), the High Altar, the Pulpit, 
and the Font are all excellent in their architectural details. 
The tower is still unfinished. Here is the throne of Cardinal 
Wiseman. 

Roman Catholic Chapel (St. Mary's), in Bloomfield- 
street, Moorfields (East-street, Finsbury-circus). Here Weber 
was buried till the removal of his remains to Dresden, in 
1844. 

Bavarian Chapel, Warwick-street, Regent-street, occupying 
the site of the Roman Catholic chapel, destroyed in the riots 
of 1780. 

Sardinian Chapel, Duke-strcct, Lincoln's-Inn-ficlds. 

Spanish Chapel, Spanish-place, Manchester-square. 

In York-street, St. James's-square, is the Chapel of former 
Embassies, with the arms of Castile still remaining on the 
building. 



FOREIGN CHURCHES. 129 

French Chapel, Little George-street, King-street, Portman- 
square. 

High Mass begins generally at 11 a.m. and Vespers at 6 p.m. 
Extra full Masses are performed on the first Sunday in the 
month, on High Feasts and Festivals, Christmas-day, Easter- 
day, etc. To secure a sitting, it is necessary to pay a shilling 
and attend about an hour before the service begins. In most 
of the Chapels, the music is very grand and impressive, and 
finely performed by eminent professional characters, the 
members of the Italian Opera Company assisting at their grand 
festivals. For further information, see "The Catholic Directory 
and Ecclesiastical Register for 1851," published by Dolman, 
61, New Bond-street, price Is. Cardinal Wiseman (when in 
town) is at home (35, Golden-square) every Tuesday, 
Thursday, and Saturday, between 11 and 2 o'clock : Tuesday 
being specially devoted to the clergy. 

GERMAN LUTHERAN CHURCH is in the Savoy, off 
the Strand. 

GERMAN LUTHERAN CHAPEL, St. James's Palace, 
between it and Marlborough House. 

FRENCH PROTESTANT CHURCH, formerly in the 
Savoy, is now in Bloomsbury-street, Bloomsbury. Built by 
Ambrose Poynter, architect, in 1845. 

FRENCH PROTESTANT CHURCH, founded by Edward 
VI., and formerly in Threadneedle-street, on the site of the 
Hall of Commerce, is now in St. Martin's-le-grand, over 
against the General Post Office. 

The SWEDISH CHURCH, in Prince's Square, Rat- 
cliffe Highway. Here Baron Swedenborg (d. 1772), 
founder of the sect of Swedenborgians, is buried. 

The DANISH CHURCH is in Wellclose Square, White- 
chapel, now the British and Foreign Sailors' Church. It was 
built in 1696, by Caius Gabriel Cibber, the sculptor, at the 
expense of Christian V., king of Denmark, as appears by the 
inscription over the entrance, who gave it for the use of his 
subjects, merchants, and seamen, accustomed to visit the poi't 
of London. Within the church is a tablet, the second on your 
right hand as you enter, to the wife of Caius Gabriel Cibber 
(Jane Colley), the mother of Colley Cibber. The father and 
son are both interred in the vaults of this church. Attached 
to the pulpit is a handsome frame of brass with four sand- 
glasses, and immediately opposite is the " Royal Pew," in 

K 



130 CEMETERIES. 

which Christian VII., King of Denmark, sat, when on a visit 
to this country, in 1768. 

JEWS' SYNAGOGUE, Great St. Helen's, St. Mary Axe, 
Leadenhall Street. Divine service here begins an hour 
before sunset every Friday. The most imposing ceremonies 
take place at the time of the Passover (Easter time). In the 
Jews' Burial Ground, in Whitechapel-road, a continuation of 
Whitechapel High-street, N. M. Rothschild (d. 1836), long 
the leading stock-broker of Europe, and the founder of 
the Rothschild family, was buried. 

For further information, see Low's Handbook to the places 
of Public Worship in London, price Is. 6d. 



CEMETERIES. 



The principal places of sepulture are our churches and 
churchyards. St. George's Chapel, in the Bayswater-road, 
contains as many as 1120 coffins beneath its pavement — and 
the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields a still greater number. 
The sexton at Bayswater admitted, in 1850, that it was 
only by boring in the burial-ground that a spot for a new 
grave could be found, and that for several years prior to 
1848 there had been upwards of 1000 burials a year within 
its precinct. Yet this great nuisance is situated in the very 
heart of the new and expensive houses in Hyde-Park- 
gardens. The Norman vault of St. Mary-le-Bo\v, in Cheap- 
side (the great thoroughfare of London), is literally crammed 
with leaden coffins piled 30 feet high, all on the lean from 
their own immense weight, and covered with cobwebs and 
fungi. The churchyard of St. Paul's, Covent-garden, (another 
central cemetery), is a plague-spot of decayed human flesh 
and human remains ; the narrow place of sepulture of two 
centuries of the inhabitants of this parish. At the burial- 
ground in Bethnal-grecn (a private pauper cemetery of about 
2 j acres, surrounded by small dwellings, opened in 1746, 
and said to contain the remains of 56,000 persons), the 
nuisance, only a year since, was still worse from the putrid 
effluvia, when hot weather followed rain. Corpses were 
constantly detained above-ground as the funeral Bervioe was 
read but three days a week, the clergymen officiating being 
obliged to stand on windward sides of graves. At St. Beimel's, 
Gracechurch-strcct, the only access, in 1850, to a crowded 



KENSAL GREEN CEMETERY. 131 

vault was by lifting the stones in the aisle. At St. Andrew's- 
in-the- Wardrobe (close to St. Paul's), graves as late as 1850 
were actually dug in the vault beneath the church. At 
St. Mary-at-Hill, between London Bridge and the Tower, the 
vaults were, in 1850, in a still worse condition. No one 
dared to enter one of these vaults, unless the large trap- 
door had been opened many hours. Certain of the more 
obnoxious graveyards were closed by order of the General 
Board of Health, pursuant to 12 & 13 Vict., cap. 3, but the 
abolition of the whole of them cannot be effected too 
cmickly. 

KENSAL GREEN CEMETERY is on the Harrow Road, 
about 24 miles from the Paddington Station of the Great 
Western Railway. There is an omnibus to the Cemetery 
Gates, leaving the Oxford and Cambridge Terrace portion of 
the Edgeware-road, three times a day. Remember that the 
cemetery is closed on Sundays till rnorning service is over. 
It was formed by a joint-stock company in 1832, and is the only 
one of the suburban cemeteries yielding a good dividend to the 
proprietors. There is much bad taste in art exhibited in this 
cemetery, and four of the most conspicuous tombs are to 
St. John Long, the quack doctor ; Ducrow, the rider ; Mor- 
rison, the pill-man ; and George Robins, the auctioneer. 
Eminent Persons interred in. — Duke of Sussex, son of 
George III. (d. 1843), and the Princess Sophia, daughter of 
George III. (d. 1848). The whole of the Royal Family had 
been previously interred in the royal vault at Windsor, but 
the Duke of Sussex left particular directions that he should 
be buried in the cemetery at Kensal Green. The duke's 
grave is near the chapel, and is marked by an enormous 
granite tomb. Anne Scott and Sophia Lockhart, daughters 
of the Author of Waverley, and John Hugh Lockhart, the 
'•'Hugh Littlejohn" of the Tales of a Grandfather; monu- 
ment in inner circle. Allan Cunningham (d. 1842), author 
of the Lives of British Painters, Sculptors, &c. ; monument 
in the N.W. comer of the cemetery. John Murray, of 
Albemarle-street, the publisher, and friend of Lord Byron 
(d. 1843) ; monument in inner circle. Rev. Sydney Smith, in 
the public vault, catacomb B. Thomas Barnes (d. 1841), for 
many years editor of "The Times " newspaper ; altar-tomb. 
Tom Hood, the poet and wit (d. 1845), buried near Ducrow's 
monument. John Liston, the actor, the original Paul Pry 
(d. 1846); altar-tomb, surmounted by an urn, on the left of 
the chapel. J. C. Loudon (d. 1843), celebrated for his 
works on gardening : altar-tomb. George Dyer, the historian 

K 2 



132 EUNHILL FIELDS. 

of Cambridge, editor of Valpy's Delpliin Classics, and the 
"G. D." of Charles Lamb (d. 1841). Sir Augustus Callcott, 
the painter (d. 1844); fiat stone. Dr. Birkbeck, the pro- 
moter of Mechanics' Institutions (d. 1841). Sir William 
Beatty (d. 1842), Nelson's surgeon at the battle of Trafalgar; 
tablet in colonnade. Thomas Daniell, R.A., the landscape 
painter (d. 1840); altar-tomb; the inscription was written 
by Allan Cunningham at the request of Sir David Wilkie. 
Sir Mark Isambard Brunei, Engineer of the Thames Tunnel, 
inventor of Block Machines, &c, on left of the main avenue. 

The Government Board of Health has recommended the 
extension of Kensal Green as a great "West-end place of 
burial, and the formation of an enormous Cemetery for the 
whole of London, at Erith on the Thames, near Gravesend. 
The recommendation deserves adoption. 

The other modern Cemeteries are — Highgate, beautifully 
situated : fine view of London. Abney Park, 3£ miles from 
Post-office, containing a statue, by Baily, of Dr. Isaac Watts, 
erected to commemorate the residence of Watts at Abney 
Park, Stoke Newington, the seat of Sir Thomas Abney. The 
site of the house is included in the cemetery. Brompton, 
2 miles from Hyde-Park-corner, on the road to Fulham. 
Victoria Cemetery, in the east of London. Tower Ham- 
lets Cemetbrt, in the east of London. Nunhead Ceme- 
tery, and Norwood Cemetery, both on the Surrey side. 
Of these cemeteries, Highgate and Norwood will alone repay 
a visit. The others are poorly situated, without graves or 
monuments of any interest. 

BUNHILL FIELDS BURIAL GROUND, near Finsbury 
Square, called by Southey " the Campo Santo of the Dis- 
senters," was first made use of as a pest-field or common 
place of interment during the Great Plague of Loudon in 
1665. It then lay open to the fields, and is the '"great pit 
in Finsbury " of De Foe's narrative. When the Plague was 
over, the pit was inclosed with a brick wall, "at the sole 
charges of the City of London," and subsequently leased by 
several of the great Dissenting sects, who conscientiously 
objected to the burial-service in the Book of Common Prayer. 
What stipulation was made with the City is unknown, but 
here all the interments of the Dissenters from this time 
forward took place. Emitu nt Persons interred in. — Dr. Thomas 
Goodwin (d. 1679), (altar-tomb, east end of ground.) the 
Independent preacher who attended Oliver Cromwell on his 
death-bed. Cromwell had then his moments of misgiving, 
and asked of Goodwin, who was standing by, if tho elect could 



BUNHILL FIELDS. 133 

never finally fall. " Nothing could be more true," was Good- 
win's answer. " Then am I safe," said Oomwell : " for I am 
sure that once I was in a state of grace." — Dr. John Owen 
(d. 1683), Dean of Christ Church, and Vice-Chancellor of 
Oxford when Cromwell was Chancellor. He was much in 
favour with his party, and preached the first sermon before 
the Parliament, after the execution of Charles I. — John 
Bunyan, author of The Pilgrim's Progress, died 1688, at the 
house of his friend Mr. Strudwick, a grocer, at the Star on 
Snow-hill, and was buried in that friend's vault in Bunhill 
Fields Burial-ground. Modern curiosity has marked the 
place of his interment with a brief inscription, but his name 
is not recorded in the Register, and there was no inscription 
upon his grave when Curll published his Bunhill Field In- 
scriptions, in 1717, or Strype his edition of Stow, in 1720. 
It is said that many have made it their desire to be interred 
as near as possible to the spot where his remains are deposited. 
— George Fox (d. 1690), the founder of the sect of Quakers; 
there is no memorial to his memory. — Lieut.-Gen. Fleetwood 
(d. 1692), Lord Deputy Fleetwood of the Civil Wars, Oliver 
Cromwell's son-in-law, and husband of the widow of the gloomy 
Ireton ; there was a monument to his memory in Strype's time, 
since obliterated or removed. — John Dunton, bookseller, 
author of his own Life and Errors. — George AVhitehead, author 
of The Christian Progress of George AVhitehead, 1725. — Daniel 
de Foe (d. 1731), author of Robinson Crusoe. He was born 
(1661) in the parish of St. Giles's, Cripplegate, and was buried 
in the great pit of Finsbury, which he has described in his 
" Plague Year " with such terrific reality. His second wife 
was interred in the same grave (spot unknown) in 1732. — 
Susannah Wesley (d. 1742), wife of the Rev. Samuel Wesley, 
and mother of John Wesley, founder of the people called 
Methodists, and of Charles Wesley, the first person who was 
called a Methodist. There is a head-stone to her memory. — 
Dr. Isaac Watts (d. 1748). There is a monument to his 
memory, near the centre of the ground. — Dr. James Foster, 
Pope's ''modest Foster" (d. 1753). There is a monument to 
his memory. — Joseph Ritson, the antiquary (d. 1803), buried 
near his friend Baynes ; the spot unmarked. — William Blake, 
painter and poet (d. 1828); at the distance of about 25 feet 
from the north wall in the grave numbered 80 ; no monu- 
ment. — Thomas Stothard, R.A. (d. 1S34), best known by his 
" Canterbury Pilgrimage," his " Robinson Crusoe," and his 
illustrations to the Italy and smaller poems of Rogers. In 
this cemetery, consisting of less than 4 acres, there have been 
interred from April, 1713, to August, 1832, according to the 



134 WESTMINSTER HALL. 

registry, — iu the earlier years, however, very imperfectly kept, 
— 107,416 dead bodies. And this too is festering in the very 
heart of London. 

[See Places of Burial of Eminent Persons, p. 240.] 



COURTS OF LAW AND JUSTICE. 

WESTMINSTER HALL. The old Hall of the Palace of 
our Kings at Westminster, well and wisely incorporated by 
Mr. Barry into his new Houses of Parliament, to serve as 
their vestibule. It was originally built in the reign of William 
Rufus (Pope calls it " Rufus' roaring Hall"); and during the 
recent refitting of the outer walls, a Norman arcade of the 
time of Rufus was uncovered, but has, I believe, been since 
destroyed. The present Hall was built, or rather repaired, 
1397-99 (in the last three years of Richard II.), when 
the walls were carried up two feet higher ; the windows 
altered ; and a stately porch and new roof constructed ac- 
cording to the design of Master Henry Zenely. The stone 
moulding or string-course that runs round the Hall preserves 
the white hart couchant, the favourite device of Richard II. 
The roof, with its hammer beams (carved with angels), to 
diminish the lateral pressure that falls upon the walls, is of 
chesnut, and very fine ; the finest of its kind in this country. 
Fuller speaks of its "cobwebless beams," alluding to the 
vulgar belief that it was built of a particular kind of wood 
(Irish oak) in Which spiders cannot live. It is more curious, 
because true, that our early Parliaments were held in this 
Hall, and that the first meeting of Parliament in the new 
edifice was for deposing the very King by whom it had been 
built. The Law Courts of England, four in number, and of 
which Sir Edward Coke observed that no man can tell which 
of them is most ancient, were permanently established in 
Westminster Hall in the year 1224 (the 9th of King 
Henry III.); and here, in certain courts abutting from the 
Hall, they are still held. These courts arc called the 
Court of Chancery, in which the Lord Chancellor sits, with 
a salary of 14,0002. a year (hereafter to be 10,0002.) ; the 
Court of Queen's Bench, in which the Lord Chief Justice of 
the King's Bench sits, with a salary of 80002. a year: the 
Court of Common Pleas, presided over by a Chief Justice. 
with a salary of 70002. a year and the Court of Esttktqptr. 
The rourts were original! v within the Hall itself, and the 



WESTMINSTER HALL. 135 

name Westminster Hall is not unfrequently used for the law 
itself. The highest Court of Appeal in the Kingdom is the 
House of Lords, presided over by the Lord Chancellor ; and 
it sometimes happens that the judgments of the Law Courts 
in Westminster Hall are reversed in the Lords. 

That the law is not very rapid in its course, is well illus- 
trated by an anecdote told by the present Lord Chief Justice 
in his Lives of the Lord Chancellors : — " The late Mr. Jekyll 
told me," says his lordship, " that, soon after he was called to 
the bar, a strange solicitor, coming up to him in Westminster 
Hall, begged him to step into the Court of Chancery to make 
a motion of course, and gave him a fee. The young barrister 
looking pleased but a little surprised, the solicitor said to 
him, ' I thought you had a sort of right, sir, to this motion, 
for the bill was drawn by Sir Joseph Jekyll, your great 
grand-uncle, in the reign of Queen Anne.' " Now, however, 
Government has taken up the serious delays occasioned to 
suitors, and the Court of Chancery, with its two Judges of 
Appeal, is likely to become a Pie Powder Court where justice 
is administered as soon as it is sought. 

When Peter the Great was taken into Westminster Hall, 
he inquired who those busy people were in wigs and black 
gowns. He was answered they are lawyers. " Lawyers ! " 
said he, with a face of astonishment : " why I have but two 
in my whole dominions, and I believe I shall hang one of 
them the moment I get home." 

Let the spectator picture to himself the appeai'ance which 
this venerable Hall has presented on many occasions. Here 
were hung the banners taken from Charles I. at the battle of 
Naseby ; from Charles II. at the battle of Worcester ; at 
Preston and Dunbar ; and, somewhat later, those taken at 
the battle of Blenheim. Here, at the upper end of the Hall, 
Oliver Cromwell was inaugurated as Lord Protector, sitting 
in a robe of purple velvet lined with ermine, on a rich cloth 
of state, with the gold sceptre in one hand, the Bible richly 
gilt and bossed in the other, and his sword at his side ; and 
here, four years later, at the top of the Hall fronting Palace- 
yard, his head was set on a pole, with the skull of Ireton on 
one side of it and the skull of Bradshaw on the other. Here 
shameless ruffians sought employment as hired witnesses, 
and walked openly in the Hall with a straw in the shoe to 
denote their quality ; and here the good, the great, the brave, 
the wise, and the abandoned have been brought to trial. 
Here (in the Hall of Rufus) Sir William Wallace was tried 
and condemned ; here, in this very Hall, Sir Thomas More 
and the Protector Somerset were doomed to the scaffold. 



136 WESTMINSTER HALL. 

Hero, in Henry VIII.'s reign (1517), entered the City appren- 
tices, implicated in the murders on " Evil May Day " of the 
aliens settled in London, each with a halter round his neck, 
and crying " Mercy, gracious Lord, mercy," while Wolsey 
stood by, and the" King, beneath his cloth of state, heard 
their defence and pronounced their pardon — the prisoners 
shouting with delight and casting up their halters to the 
Hall roof, " so that the King," as the chroniclers observe, 
" might perceive they were none of the descreetest sort." 
Here the notorious Earl and Countess of Somerset were tried 
in the reign of James I. for the murder of Sir Thomas Over- 
bury. Here the great Earl of Strafford was condemned ; the 
King being present, and the Commons sitting bareheaded all 
the time. Here the High Court of Justice sat which con- 
demned King Charles I., the upper part of the Hall hung 
with scarlet cloth, and the King sitting covered, with the 
Naseby banners above his head; here Lily, the astrologer, who 
was present, saw the silver top fall from the King's staff, and 
others heard Lady Fairfax exclaim, when her husband's name 
was called over, " He has more wit than to be here." Here, 
in the reign of James II., the seven bishops were acquitted. 
Here Dr. Sacheverel was tried and pronounced guilty by a 
majority of 17. Here the rebel Lords of 1745, Kilmarnock, 
Balmerino, and Lovat, were heard and condemned. Here 
Lord Byron was tried for killing Mr. Chaworth; Lord Ferrers 
for murdering his steward ; and the Duchess of Kingston, a 
few years later, for bigamy. Here Warren Hastings was 
tried, and Burke and Sheridan grew eloquent and impas- 
sioned, while senators by birth and election, and the beauty 
and rank of Great Britain, sat earnest spectators and 
listeners of the extraordinary scene. The last public trial 
in the Hall itself was Lord Melville's in 1806; and the 
last coronation dinner in the Hall was that of George IV., 
when, according to the custom maintained for ages, and for 
the last time probably, the King's champion (young Dymocke) 
rode into the Hall in full armour, and threw down the 
gauntlet, challenging the world in a King's behalf. Silver 
plates were laid, on the same occasion, for 334 guests. 

This noble Hall is 290 feet long, by 68 feet wide, and 110 
feet high. It is said to be the largest apartment not supported 
by pillars in the world — save one — the Hall of Justice, at 
Padua. The next largest Hall in London is the Hall at 
Christ's Hospital. The floor has recently been restored to 
something like its original elevation in relation to the height 
of the building ; but a still greater change is contemplated 
by Mr. Barry— the elevation of the roof without disturbing a 



OLD BAILEY — POLICE COURTS. 137 

single joint in its structure, unconnected with the walls it 
rests on. 

THE OLD BAILEY SESSIONS HOUSE, or Central 
Criminal Court, in the Old Bailey, adjoining Newgate, for 
the trial and conviction of prisoners for offences committed 
within 10 miles of St. Paul's, is regulated by Act of Parlia- 
ment, 4 & 5 Will. IV., c. 36. In the " Old Court " sit one or 
more of the judges in Westminster Hall. In the New Court 
the presiding judges are the Recorder and Common Serjeant 
of the Corporation of London. Upwards of 2000 persons, 
annually, are placed at the bar of the Old Bailey for trial ; 
about one third are acquitted, one third are first offences, and 
the remaining portion have been convicted before. The 
stranger is admitted on payment of at least Is. to the officer 
whose perquisite it is, but this perquisite is regulated by 
the officer himself, according to the importance of the trials 
that are on. Over the Court-room is a Dining-room, where 
the judges dine when the Court is over — a practice com- 
memorated by a well-known line — 

" And wretches hang that jurymen may dine." 

The dinners are pleasant, speedy, and well attended. 
Adjoining the Sessions House is the prison called "Newgate? 
[See p. 145.] 

The Metropolitan County Courts, holding a summary 
jurisdiction over debts and demands not exceeding 501., are 
eleven in number. The judges are barristers appointed by 
the Crown. 

CLERKENWELL SESSIONS HOUSE, the next in import- 
ance to the Old Bailey, was originally Hicks's Hall, and was 
removed hither in 1782. A fine James I. chimney-piece from 
the old Hall is one of the interior decorations of the House. 

The City Police Courts are at the Mansion House and 
Guildhall, where the Lord Mayor, or the sitting Alderman, 
are the magistrates who decide cases or send them for trial. 

The Police Courts connected with the Metropolitan Police 
are eleven in number, under the control of the Secretary of 
State for the Home Department, each presided over by a 
Barrister of at least seven years standing at the bar. and who 
sits daily, Sundays excepted. The Metropolitan Courts are — 
Bow-street, Clcrkenwell, Great Marlborough-street, Greenwich 
and Woolwich, Hammersmith and Wandsworth, Lambeth, 
Marylebone, South wark, Thames, Westminster, Worship- 
street ; and the amount of Fees, Penalties, and Forfeitures, 



138 INNs Of COURT AND CHANCERY. 

levied and received by the Metropolitan Police in the year 
1850 amounted to 10,0477. 17s. lid. The expense of the 
Force is defrayed by an assessment limited to &d. in the 
pound on the parish rates, the deficiency being made up by 
the Treasurer. 

The Metropolitan Police Force, on the 1st of January, 1851, 
consisted of 5525 men, viz. : — 1 Inspecting Superintendent, 
18 superintendents, 124 Inspectors, 585 Serjeants, and -1 7 '. • 7 
Constables. The men are paid at various rates, averaging 18s. 
a-week, with clothing and. 40 lbs. of coal weekly to each 
married man all the year ; 40 lbs. weekly to each single man 
during six months, and 20 lbs. weekly during the remainder 
of the year. 

Before 1829, when the present excellent Police Force (for 
which London is wholly indebted to Sir Kobert Peel) was 
first introduced (pursuant to 10 George IV., c. 44), the 
watchmen, familiarly called " Charlies," who guarded the 
streets of London, were often incompetent and feeble old men, 
totally unfitted for their duties. The Police is now com- 
posed of young and active men, and the Force that has proved 
perfectly effective for the metropolis (having saved it more 
than once from Chartist and other rioters, and from calamities 
such as befel Bristol in 1831) has since been introduced with 
equal success nearly throughout the kingdom. The number 
of persons taken into custody by the two Forces, between 
1844 and 1848 inclusive, amounted to 374,710. The gross 
total number of robberies, during the same period, amounted 
to 70,889, the value of the property stolen to 270,945/.. and 
the value of the property recovered to 55,167/., or about a 
fifth of the property stolen. 

Each Policeman is dressed in blue, and has marked on his 
coat-collar the number and letter of his division. The City 
Police marking is in red; the Metropolitan in white. Each 
man is furnished with a baton, a rattle, a lantern, an oil-skin 
cape, and a great-coat. It is estimated that each constable 
walks from 20 to 25 miles a day. During 2 months out of 3, 
each constable is on night duty, from 9 at night till 6 in the 
morning. 



INNS OF COURT AND INNS OF CHANCERY. 

INNS OF COURT, " the noblest nurseries of Humanity 
and Liberty in the kingdom," are four in number— I mo r 
Temple, Middle Temple, Lincoln s Inn, and Gray's Inn. They 



INNS OF COURT — THE TEMPLE. 139 

are called Inns of Court, from being anciently held in the 
" AulaRegia," or Court of the King's Palace. Their government 
is vested in "Benchers," consisting of the most successful 
and distinguished members of the English Bar — a numerous 
body, " composed of above 3080 Barristers, exclusive of the 
28 Serjeants-at-Law." No person can be called to the bar 
at any of the Inns of Court before he is 21 years of age, and 
a standing of 5 years is understood to be required of every 
member before being called. The members of the several 
Universities, &c, may be called after 3 years' standing. Every 
student may, if he choose, dine in the Hall every day dui'ing 
term. A bottle of wine is allowed to each mess of four. 

The TEMPLE is a liberty or district, divided into the 
Inner Temple and Middle Temple. It lies between Fleet- 
street and the Thames, and was so called from the Knights 
Templar, who made their first London habitation in Holborn, 
in 1118, and removed to Fleet-street, or the New Temple. 
in 1184. Spenser alludes to this London locality in his 
beautiful Prothalamion : — 

" those bricky towers 
The Avhich on Thames' broad aged back doe ride, 
Whei"e now the studious lawyers have their bowers, 
There whilom wont the Templar Knights to bide, 
Till they decayed through pride." 

At the downfall of the Templars, in 1313, tho New Temple 
in Fleet-street was given by Edward II. to Aymer de Valence, 
Earl of Pembroke, whose tomb, in Westminster Abbey, has 
called forth the eulogistic criticism of the classic Flaxman. 
At the Earl of Pembroke's death the property passed to 
the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, by whom the Inner 
and Middle Temples were leased to the students of the 
Common Law, and the Outer Temple to Walter Stapleton, 
Bishop of Exeter, and Lord Treasurer, beheaded by the 
citizens of London in 1326. No change took place when the 
Temple property passed to the Crown, at the dissolution 
of religious houses, and the students of the Inns of Court 
remained tenants of the Crown till 1608, when James I. 
conferred the Temple (now so called) on the Benchers of the 
two societies and their successors for ever. There are two 
edifices in the Temple well Avorthy of a visit : the Temple 
Church (serving for both Temples. See p. 117), and the 
Middle Temple Hall. 

Middle Temple Hall, 100 feet long, 42 feet wide, and 47 
feet high, was built in 1572, while Plowden the well-known 
iurist, was Treasurer of the Inn. The roof is the best piece 
of Elizabethan architecture in London, and will well repay 



140 THE TEMPLE. 

inspection. The screen, in the Renaissance style, is said to 
have been formed in exact imitation of the Strand front of 
old Somerset House, but this is a vulgar error, like the 
tradition which relates that it was made of the spoils of the 
Spanish Armada, the records of the Society proving that it 
was set up thirteen years before the Armada put to sea. 
Here are marble busts of Lords Eldon and Stowell,by Behnes. 
The portraits are chiefly copies, and not good. The exterior 
was cased with stone, in wretched taste, in 1757. We first 
hear of Shakspeare's Twelfth Night in connexion with its 
performance in this fine old Hall. 

The principal entrance to the Middle Temple is by a 
heavy red-brick front in Fleet-street with stone dressings, 
built, in 1684, by Sir C. "Wren, in place of the old portal 
which Sir Amias Paulet, while Wolsey's prisoner in the 
gate-house of the Temple, " had re-edified very sumptuously, 
garnishing the same," says Cavendish, "on the outside 
thereof, with cardinal's hats and arms, and divers other 
devices, in so glorious a sort, that he thought thereby to 
have appeased his old unkind displeasure." The New Paper 
Buildings, to the river, built from the designs of Sydney 
Smirke, A.R.A., are in excellent taste, recalling the "bricky 
towers" of Spenser's Prothalamion. Inner Temple Hall was 
refaced and repaired by Sir Robert Smirke while Jekyll, the 
wit, was Treasurer of the Inn, and certainly Sir Robert has 
made a dull joke of the restoration. 

Shakspeare has made the Temple Gardens — a fine open 
space, fronting the Thames — the place in which the dis- 
tinctive badges (the white rose and red rose) of the houses 
of York and Lancaster were first assumed by their respective 
partisans. 

"Suffolk. Within the Temple Hall we were too loud; 
The garden here is more convenient 

• ••••• 

" Rantapenet. Lot him that is a trae-horn gentleman, 
And stands upon the honour of hie birth, 

If he suppose that I have pleaded truth, 
From off this brier pluck a white n>se with me. 

" Somerset. Let him that is no coward, nor no flatterer, 
But dare maintain the party of tin- truth, 
Pluck a red rose from oil" this thorn with me. 

• ••••• 
"Plantar/met. Hath not thy rOM a canker, Somerset? 
"Somerset. Hath not thy rose a thorn, Plantagenet? 

****** 

" Warwick. This brawl to-day, 

Grown to this faction in the Temple Gardens, 
Shall send, between the red rose and the white, 
A thousand souls to death and deadly night." 

S/iaLi]>c<ir>\ Firtt Part <{/' Hairy VI., Act ii., sc.4. 



LINCOLN S INN. 141 

It would now be impossible to revive the scene in the sup- 
posed place of its origin, for such is the smoke and foul air 
of London, that the commonest and hardiest kind of rose 
has long ceased to put forth a bud in the Temple Gardens. 
The Temple is walled in on every side, and protected with 
gates. There is no poor-law within its precinct ; and it is 
said that the Temple Church, though it possesses a font, is the 
only church in which a christening never took place. This, 
however, is only a vulgar error. The Cloisters, adjoining the 
Temple Church, were rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren for 
students to walk in, and put cases in law for the considera- 
tion of one another. In No. 1, Inner-Temple-lane (on the 
first floor), on your right as you descend the lane, Dr. Johnson 
had chambers, and here Boswell paid his first visit after his 
memorable introduction to him at Tom Davis's. In No. 2, 
Brick-court, Middle-Temple-lane, up two pair of stairs, for 
so Mr. Filby, his tailor, describes him, lived and died Oliver 
Goldsmith : his rooms were on the right hand as you ascend 
the staircase. The Earl of Mansfield, when Mr. Murray, had 
chambers in No. 5, King's-Bench-walk. 

" To number 5 direct your doves, 
There spread round Murray all your blooming loves." 

Pope, '' To Venus," from Horace. 

A second compliment by Pope to this great man occasioned 
a famous parody : — 

" Graced as thou art with all the power of words, 
So known, so honoured, at the House of Lords." 

Pope (of Lord Mansfield). 
" Persuasion tips his tongue whene'er he talks, 
And he has chambers in the King's Bench Walks." 

Parody by Cibber. 

LINCOLN'S INN is an Inn of Court, with two Inns of 
Chancery attached, FumivaVs Inn and Thavies' Inn, and so 
called after Henry de Lacy, Earl of Lincoln (d. 1312), whose 
town-house, or inn, occupied a considerable portion of the 
present Inn of Court, which bears both his name and arms, 
and whose monument in old St. Paul's was one of the state- 
liest in the church. The Gatehouse of brick in Chancery-lane 
(the oldest part of the existing building) was built by Sir 
Thomas Lovell, and bears the date upon it of 1518. The 
chambers adjoining are of a somewhat later period, and it is to 
this part perhaps that Fuller alludes when he says that — " He 
[Ben Jonson] helped in the building of the new structure of 
Lincoln's Inn, when, having a trowel in one hand, he had a 
book in his pocket." In No. 24, in the south angle of the 
great court leading out of Chancery-lane, formerly called the 



142 LINCOLN S INN. 

Gatehouse-court, but uow Old-buildings, and in the apart- 
ments on the left hand of the ground floor, Oliver Cromwell's 
secretary, Thurloe, had chambers from 1645 to 1659. Crom- 
well must often have been here ; and here, by the merest 
accident, long after Thurloe's death, the Thurloe Papers 
were accidentally discovered, concealed in a false ceiling. 

Lincoln's Inn Chapel, in the Perpendicular style of 
Gothic architecture, but much defaced, was built by 
Inigo Jones, and consecrated on Ascension Day, 1623, Dr. 
Donne preaching the consecration sermon. The Roman 
Doric pilasters, creeping up the sides of the bastard Gothic 
of the crypt, deserve attention. The stained glass windows 
(very good for the period) were executed "by Mr. Hall, a 
glass-painter, in Fetter-lane, and in point of colour are as 
rich as the richest Decorated glass of the best period." 
Some of the figures will repay attention. The windows 
on the S. side are filled with the Twelve Apostles ; on the 
N. by Moses and the Prophets, St. John the Baptist and 
St. Paul. The St. John the Baptist was executed, as an in- 
scription in the window records, at the expense of William 
Noy (d. 1631), the famous Attorney-General of Charles I. 
The crypt beneath the chapel on open arches, like the cloisters 
in the Temple, was built as a place for the students and 
lawyers "to walk in and talk and confer their learnings." 
The Round part of the Temple Chui-ch was long employed 
for a similar purpose. Butler and Pepys allude to this 
custom. Here were buried Alexander Brome, the Cavalier 
song-writer ; Secretary Thurloe ; and "William Prynne, the 
Puritan, who wrote against the "unloveliness of love locks." 
The inscription on Prynnc's grave was obliterated when 
Wood drew up his Athena) Oxonienses. 

Lincoln's Inn Hall and Library, on the E. side of 
Lincoln's-Inn-fields (Philip Hardwick, R.A., architect), is 
a noble structure in the Tudor style, built, 1843-45, of red 
brick with stone dressings. The Hall is 120 feet long, 
45 feet wide, and 62 feet high, with a roof of carved oak. 
The Library is 80 feet long, 40 feet wide, and 41 feet high. 
The amount of the contract was 55,0002., but the total cost 
has not yet transpired. Observe. — In the Hall, Hogarth's 
picture of Paul before Felix, painted for the Benchers on the 
recommendation of the great Lord Mansfield, as the appro- 
priation of a legacy to the Inn of 200/.; statue of Lord 
Erskine, by Sir R. Wcstmacott, R.A. The Library contains 
the unique fourth volume of Prynnc's Records, for which 
the Society paid 335/. at the Stowe sale in 1849 j and the 
rich collection of Books and MSB., the bequest of Sir 



(iRAY's INN. 143 

Matthew Hale, " a treasure," says Hale, in his will, " that are 
not fit for every man's view." The Court of Chancery sits 
in "Term Time" at Westminster; during the "Vacation" 
in Lincoln's Inn Old Hall, a mean building near the 
Chapel. In the Council Room of the Society is the portrait 
of Sir Matthew Hale, by Wright. The Gardens were famous, 
till the erection of this Hall, by which they were curtailed, 
and in some measure destroyed. 

Lincoln" s Inn New Square (built on Little Lincoln's-Inn- 
fields) forms no part of the Inn of Court called Lincoln's Inn. 
Sir Samuel Romilly had chambers at Nos. 2 and 6, and Sir 
William Grant at No. 3. 

GRAY'S INN is an Inn of Court, with two Inns of 
Chancery attached, Staple Inn and Barnard's Inn, and is 
so called after Edmund, Lord Gray of Wilton, of the time of 
Henry VII. The Hall was built in 1560, and the Gardens 
first planted about 1600. The great Lord Burghley and the 
great Lord Bacon, who dates the dedication of his Essays 
"from my chamber at Graies Inn, this 30 of Januarie, 1597," 
are the chief worthies of the Inn. Bradshaw, who sat as 
president at the trial of Charles I., was a bencher of the Inn. 

Grays Inn Walks, or Gray's Inn Gardens, were in Charles 
II. 's time, and the days of the Tatler and Spectator, a 
fashionable promenade on a summer evening. The great 
Lord Bacon is said to have planted some of the trees, but 
none now exist coeval with his time. The principal entrance 
from Holborn was by Fulwood's-rents, then a fashionable 
locality, now the squalid habitation of the poorest people of 
the Parish of St. Andrew. "Within Gray's Inn Gate, next 
Gray's Inn Lane," Jacob Tonson first kept shop. The first 
turning on the right (as you walk from Holborn up Gray's- 
Inn-lane) is Fox-court, in which, on the 16th of January, 
1696-7, at 6 o'clock in the morning, the Countess of Maccles- 
field was delivered, wearing a mask all the while, of Richard 
Savage, the poet. 

The INNS OF CHANCERY, attached to the four Inns 
of Court, are nine in number. To the Inner Temple belonged 
Clifford's Inn, Clement's Inn, and Lyon's Inn ; to the Middle 
Temple, New Inn and Strand Inn ; to Lincoln" s Inn, Furnival's 
Inn and Thavies' Inn; and to Gray's Inn, Staple Inn and 
Barnard's Inn. They have now little or no connexion with 
the Inns of Court. 

Harrison, the regicide, was a clerk in the office of Thomas 
Houlker, an attorney in Clifford's Inn. 



144 Clement's inn. 

Justice Shallow was a student of Clement's Inn. 

" Shallow. I -was once of Clement's Inn ; where I think they will talk 
of mad Shallow yet. 

" Silence. Yon were called lusty Shallow then, cousin. 

"Shallow. By the mass, I was called anything; and I would have 
done anything indeed, and roundly too. There was I and Little John 
Doit of Staffordshire, and Black George Barnes of Staffordshire, and 
Francis Pickbone and Will Squele. a C'otswold man; you had not four 
such swinge-bucklers in all the Inns of Court again. 

******** 

" Shallow. Nay, she must be old ; she cannot choose but be old ; certain 
she's old, and had Robin Nightwork by old Nightwork, before I came 
to Clement's Inn. 

• •*••••• 

" Shallow. I remember at Mile-end-green (when I lay at Clement's Inn) 
I was then Sir Dagonet in Arthur's show. 

• ••••••• 

"Falstaff. I do remember him at Clement's Inn, like a man made 

after supper of a cheese-paring."— Shakspeare, Second Fart of Henry IV. 

"Withowt St. Clement's Inn back dore, as soon as you 
come up the steps and owt of that house and dore on your 
left hand two payre of stayres, into a little passage right before 
you," lived Winceslaus Hollar, the en graver. The black 
figure kneeling in the garden of Clement's Inn was presented 
to the Inn by Holies, Earl of Clare, but when or by what 
earl no one has told us. It was brought from Italy, and is 
said to be of bronze. 

William Weare, murdered by Thurtell, at Gill's-hill, in 
Hertfordshire, lived at No. 2 in Lyon's Inn. 

" They cut his throat from car to ear, 
His brains they battered in ; 
His name was Mr. William AVeare, 
He dwelt in Lyon's Inn." 

Contemporary Ballad, attributed to Theodore Hook. 

Isaac Reed (d. 1807) had chambers at No. 11, Staple Inn, 
Holborn. Here (in Reed's chambers) Steevens corrected 
the proof sheets of his edition of Shakspeare. He used to 
leave his house at Hampstcad at 1 in the morning, and walk 
to Staple Inn. Reed, who went to bed at the usual hour, 
allowed his facetious fellow-commentator a key to the cham- 
bers, so that Steevens stole quietly to his proof sheets, 
without, it is said, disturbing the repose of his friend. 



NEWGATE — BRIDEWELL. 145 



PRISONS, PENITENTIARIES, AND PLACES OF 
PUBLIC EXECUTION. 

NEWGATE, in the Old Bailey, is a prison appertaining 
to the city of London and county of Middlesex, formerly 
for felons and debtors; since 1815 (when Whitecross-street 
Prison was built) for felons only, and is now used as the gaol 
for the confinement of prisoners from the metropolitan 
counties, preparatory to their trial at the Central Criminal 
Court in the Old Bailey. It is the oldest prison in London, 
was so called because it was the tower of a gate of the same 
name, and has given its name as a common name for all 
prisons, as Bridewell has done for all houses of correction, 
and Bedlam for all houses in which lunatics are confined. 
The present edifice was designed by George Dance, the 
architect of the Mansion House, and the first stone laid by 
Alderman Beckford, 1770. The works advanced but slowly, 
for in 1780, when the old prison was burnt to the ground in 
the Lord George Gordon riots of that year, the new prison 
was only in part completed. More rapid progress was made 
in consequence of this event, and on Dec. 9th, 1783, the first 
execution took place before its walls. This was the "'first 
execution at Newgate, the last at Tyburn occurring on the 
7th of the preceding month. The solitary or separate system 
is not in use in Newgate, and cannot, it is said, be introduced 
without a complete alteration of the design and structure of 
the prison. For the year 1845, the total number of prisoners 
committed to Newgate for trial was 2581 : of that number 
1960 were convicted, and 621 were acquitted. The prison, 
it is said, does not afford proper accommodation for more 
than 400 prisoners, but is often made to contain before the 
meeting of the sessions as many as 1000. Here, in the prison 
he had emptied and set in flames, Lord George Gordon, the 
leader of the riots of 1780, died (1793) of the gaol distemper, 
and in front of this prison Bellingham was executed (1811) 
for the murder of Mr. Perceval, the Prime Minister. Ad- 
mission to inspect the interior is granted by the Secretary of 
State for the Home Department, the Lord Mayor and Sheriffs. 
Observe. — Opposite this prison, No. 68, Old Bailey, the resi- 
dence of Jonathan Wild, the famous thief and thief-taker ; 
immediately behind his house is a good specimen of the old 
wall of London. 

BPtlDEWELL. A city prison, situated in Bridge-street, 
Blackfriars, immediately behind the church of St. Bride, 



146 HORSEMONGER-LANE GAOL. 

Fleet-street. It derives its name from a manor or house, 
presented to the City of London by Edward VI., after a 
sermon by Bishop Ridley, who begged it of the King as a 
Workhouse for the poor, and a House of Correction " for 
the strumpet and idle person, for the x'ioter that consumeth 
all, and for the vagabond that will abide in no place." The 
prison is calculated to accommodate, in single cells, 70 male 
and 30 female prisoners. The sentences vary from three 
days to three months; the average length of confinement 
being thirty days. All prisoners committed are under sum- 
mary convictions of the Lord Mayor and Aldermen, together 
with refractory apprentices committed by the City Chamber- 
lain. The employment of prisoners is as follows : — Male 
prisoners, sentenced to and fit for hard labour, are employed 
on the treadwheel, by which corn is ground for the supply 
of the three branches of the establishment, Bridewell, Beth- 
lehem, and the House of Occupations. Prisoners under 
fourteen years of age, with others who are unfit for the wheel, 
or who have not been sentenced to hard labour, are employed 
in picking coir and in cleaning the wards. A portion of the 
females are employed in washing, mending, and getting up 
the linen and bedding of the prisoners, and the others in 
picking junk and cleaning their side of the prison. The 
punishments for breaches of prison rules are diminution of 
food (with or without solitary confinement, as the case may 
be), and irons in cases of a violent and refractory nature. 
There is no whipping for offences committed within the prison. 
Observe. — Over chimney in Court-room large picture by Hol- 
bein, representing Edward VI. delivering the Charter of 
Endowment to the Mayor. 

" Holbein lias placed his own head in one corner of the picture. 
Vertue has engraved it. This picture it is believed was not completed 
by Holbein, both he and the King dying immediately after the dona- 
tion." — Horace Walpole. 

The scene of the 4 th plate of Hogarth's Harlot's Progress is 
laid in Bridewell. 

HORSEMOXGER LANE GAOL, Horsemonger Lane, 
Southwakk, is the county gaol for Surrey. Here Mr. Leigh 
Hunt was confined for two years (1812-14) for a libel on 
the Prince Regent in the Examiner newspaper, and here 
(Nov. 13th, 1849) Mr. and Mrs. Manning were^huug. The 
place of execution is the top of the prison. " I was a witness," 
says Mr. Charles Dickens, " of the execution of the Mannings 
at Horsemonger-lane. I went there with the intention of 
observing the crowd gathered to behold it, and I had excel- 
lent opportunities of doing so, at intervals all through the 



EXECUTIONS. 147 

night, and continuously from daybreak until after the spectacle 
was over. I believe that a sight so inconceivably awful as 
the wickedness and levity of the immense crowd collected at 
that execution could be imagined by no man, and could be 
presented in no heathen land under the sun. The horrors of 
the gibbet and of the crime which brought the wretched 
murderers to it, faded in my mind before the atrocious 
bearing, looks and language, of the assembled spectators. 
When I came upon the scene at midnight, the shrillness of 
the cries and howls that were raised from time to time, 
denoting that they came from a concourse of boys and girls 
already assembled in the best places, made my blood run 
cold. As the night went on, screeching, and laughing, and 
yelling in strong chorus of parodies on Negro melodies, with 
substitutions of ' Mrs. Manning ' for ' Susannah ' and the like 
were added to these. When the day dawned, thieves, low 
prostitutes, ruffians and vagabonds of every kind, nocked 
on to the ground, with every variety of offensive and foul 
behaviour. Fightings, faintings, whistlings, imitations of 
Punch, brutal jokes, tumultuous demonstrations of indecent 
delight when swooning women were dragged out of the crowd 
by the police with their dresses disordered, gave a new zest 
to the general entertainment. When the sun rose brightly 
—as it did — it gilded thousands upon thousands of upturned 
faces, so inexpressibly odious in their brutal mirth or cal- 
lousness, that a man had cause to feel ashamed of the shape 
he wore, and to shrink from himself, as fashioned in the 
image of the Devil. When the two miserable creatures who 
attracted all this ghastly sight about them were turned 
quivering into the air, there was no more emotion, no more 
pity, no more thought that two immortal souls had gone to 
judgment, no more restraint in any of the previous obsce- 
nities, than if the name of Christ had never been heard in 
this world, and there were no belief among men but that they 
perished like the beasts. I have seen, habitually, some of 
the worst sources of general contamination and corruption 
in this country, and I think there are not many phases of 
London life that could surprise me. I am solemnly con- 
vinced that nothing that ingenuity could devise to be done 
in this city, in the same compass of time, could work such 
rum as one public execution, and I stand astounded and 
appalled by the wickedness it exhibits. I do not believe that 
any community can prosper where such a scene of horror 
and demoralisation as was enacted this morning outside 
Horsemonger-lane Gaol is presented at the very doors of 
good citizens, and is passed by, unknown or forgotten." 



148 PRISONS. 

MILLBANK PRISON is a mass of brickwork equal to a 
fortress, on the left bank of the Thames, close to Vauxhall 
Bridge; erected on ground bought in 1799 of the Marquis of 
Salisbury, and established pursuant to 52 Geo. III., c. 44, 
passed Aug. 20th, 1812. It was designed by Jeremy Bentham, 
to whom the fee-simple of the ground was conveyed, and is 
said to have cost the enormous sum of half a million sterling. 
The external walls form an irregular octagon, and enclose 
upwards of sixteen acres of land. Its ground-plan resembles 
a wheel, the governor's house occupying a circle in the centre, 
from which radiate six piles of building, terminating exter- 
nally in towers. The ground on which it stands is raised but 
little above the river, and was at one time considered 
unhealthy. It was first named " The Penitentiary," or 
" Penitentiary House for London and Middlesex," and was 
called " The Millbank Prison," pursuant to 6 & 7 Victoria, 
c. 26. It is the largest prison in London, and contains 
accommodation for 1120 prisoners; the number of inmates 
averaging about 700. Every male and female convict sen- 
tenced to transportation in Great Britain is sent to Millbank, 
previous to the sentence being executed. Hei-e they remain 
about three months under the close inspection of three 
inspectors, at the end of which time the inspectors report to 
the Home Secretary, and recommend the place of transpor- 
tation. So far as the accommodation of the prison permits, 
the separate system is adopted. The number of persons in 
Great Britain and Ireland condemned to transportation every 
year amounts to about 4000. Admission to inspect — order 
from the Secretary of State for the Home Department, or 
the Directors of Government Prisons, 25, Parliament-street, 
Westminster. 

THE MODEL PRISON, Pentonville, owes its origin to 
Sir James Graham's dispatch of December, 1842; established 
pursuant to 5 & 6 Vict., sess. 2, c. 29, for the detention of 
convicts condemned to and intended for transportation. The 
prison contains 1000 separate cells. The inmates are detained 
for two years, and are taught useful trades before being sent 
abroad; a most merciful and charitable provision, which it 
is to be hoped, may prove successful. The cost of each 
prisoner is about 15s. a week. The first stone was laid, 1840, 
and the building completed in 1842. The total cost was 
S4,16SZ. 12s. 2d, 

THE HOUSE OF CORRECTION, Cold Bath Fields, will 
hold about 1200 prisoners, and is under the direction of the 
Middlesex Magistrates and the Secretary of State for the 



EXHIBITIONS. 149 

Home Department. There is a similar House of Correction 
at Westminster. The principal prisons for debtors are The 
Queen's Bench in the Borough of Lambeth, and Whitecross 
Street Prison. The famous Fleet Prison was abolished 
during the reign of her present Majesty. 

The City of London Prison, Holloway, (Mr. Bunning, 
Architect,) now (1851) nearly completed, will contain the 
class of prisoners committed at present to Giltspur Street 
House of Correction and the House of Correction for women 
at the Borough Compter : while, in the same way, the New 
House of Correction at Wandsworth will relieve the Surrey 
or Horsemonger Lane Gaol. 



PERMANENT FREE EXHIBITIONS. 

BEITISH MUSEUM, in Great Russell Street, Blooms- 
bury; built 1823-51 from the designs of Sir Robert Smirke, 
but completed by his younger brother Sydney Smirke, A.R.A. 
The sculpture in the pediment is by Sir Richard Westmacott. 

The Public are admitted to the Museum on Mondays, Wed- 
nesdays and Fridays, between 10 and 4, from the 7th of Sep- 
tember to 1st of May; and between 10 and 7, from the 7th of 
May to 1st of September, and daily during the weeks of 
Easter, Whitsuntide, and Christmas, except Saturdays. Chil- 
dren under 8 years of age are not admitted. 

The Reading Room is open every day, except on Sundays, 
on Ash- Wednesday, Good-Friday, Christmas-day, and on any 
fast or thanksgiving days, ordered by authority : except also 
between the 1st and 7th of January, the 1st and 7th of May, 
and the 1st and 7th of September, inclusive. The hours are 
from 9 till 7 during May, June, July, and August ; and from 
9 till 4 during the rest of the year. Persons desirous of 
admission are to send in their applications in writing (spe- 
cifying their christian and surnames, rank or profession, and 
places of abode), to the Principal Librarian, or, in his absence, 
to the Secretary, or, in his absence, to the senior Under Libra- 
rian, who will either immediately admit such persons, or lay 
their applications before the next meeting of the trustees. 
Every person applying is to produce a recommendation 
satisfactory to a trustee or an officer of the house. Applica- 
tions defective in this respect will not be attended to. Per- 
mission will in general be granted for six months ; and at the 
expiration of this term fresh application is to be made for a 
renewal. The tickets given to readers are not transferable, 



150 BRITISH MUSEUM. 

and no person can be admitted without a ticket. Persons 
under 18 years of age are not admissible. Artists are ad- 
mitted to study in the Galleries of Sculpture, between the 
hours of 9 and 4, every day, except Saturday. 

The Museum is closed from the 1st to the 7th of January, 
the 1st to the 7th of May, and the 1st to the 7th of 
September, inclusive, on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and 
Christmas Day, and also on any special fast or thanksgiving 
day, ordered by Authority. 

The Print Room is closed on Saturdays. 

The Medal and Print Rooms can be seen only by few 
persons at a time, and by particular permission. 



The British Museum originated in an offer to Parliament, 
found in the will of Sir Hans Sloane (d. 1753), of the 
whole of his collection for 20,000?.— 30,000?. less than it was 
said to have cost him. The offer was at once accepted, and 
an Act passed in 1753, "for the purchase of the Museum or 
Collection of Sir Hans Sloane, Bart., and of the Harleian 
Collection of MBS., and procuring one general repository for 
the better reception and more convenient use of the said 
Collection, and of the Cottonian Library, and additions 
thereto." In pursuance of this Act the sum of 300,000?. 
was raised by a Lottery ; 20,000?. paid for the Sloane 
Museum, 10,000?. for the Harleian Collection of MSS., and 
10,250?. to the Earl of Halifax for Montague House in 
Bloomsbury — a mansion at that time perfectly well adapted 
for all the objects of the Museum. The collections 
increasing, new rooms were added to receive the Egyptian 
Antiquities obtained in 1801. A new British Museum (the 
present) was commenced in 1823, from the designs of Sir 
Robert Smirke ; but the building is not yet finished. The 
government of the Museum is vested in trustees, and the 
chief Gifts and Bequests include the Cotton MSS. ; a col- 
lection of Books, and the interest of 7000?., bequeathed by 
Major Edwardes ; the Royal Library of the Kings of 
England; Garrick's Collection of Old Plays; Dr. Birch's 
Books and MSS. ; Thomas Tyrwhitt's Books ; Rev. C. 
Cracherode's Books, Prints, &c, valued at 40,000?. ; Sir Wil- 
liam Musgravo's Books, MSS., and Prints ; Payne Knight's 
Books, Bronzes, and Drawings; Sir Joseph Banks's Books 
and Botanical Specimens; Library formed by George III. : and 
Mr. Grenvillo's Library. The Additional Purchases include 
Sir William Hamilton's Collection, 8400?. ; Townloy Marbles, 
28,200?. ; Phigalian Marbles, 19,000?. ; Elgin Marbles, 
35,000?. ; Dr. Burney's MSS.,1 3,500?. ; Lansdownc MSS., 




GROUND PLAN OF THE BRITISH MUSEU1 



A 'Waiting Room. 


F' 


North-west Staircase. 


B Principal Staircase. 


G 


Dusting Room. 


C Print Room. 


H 


Sorting Room. 


D D, &c. Officers' Rooms. 


I 


For ATashing Hands. 


E E Lobbies. 


J 


Clerks' Room. 


E' North-east Entrance Lobby. 


K 


Trustees' Room. 


E" Noith-west Entrance Lobby. 


L 


Phigalian Gallery. 


F North-east Staircase. 







152 EGYPTIAN ANTIQUITIES. 

4925?. ; Arundel MSS., 3559?. The reader may purchase a 
synopsis of the contents of the Museum shown to the public, 
in the Hall, as you enter, price one shilling. This synopsis 
has been compiled under the direction of the trustees, and 
follows objects locally. In this work it has been thought 
better to classify the principal objects of interest. 

The Egyptian Antiquities are in two rooms — one on the 
ground floor, called " The Egyptian Saloon ; " the other up- 
stairs, called " The Egyptian Room." The Saloon on the ground 
floor consists of the heavier objects, such as Sarcophagi, 
Columns, Statues, Tablets of the Dead, Sepulchral Urns, &c. 
This collection, the finest in Europe for colossal antiquities, 
comprises about 6000 objects. Observe. — In the Egyptian 
Saloon, two Lions Couchant, in red granite, (1 and 34), 
" perfect models of Architectonic Sculpture." — Waagen. 
Colossal Head, 9 feet high, of Rameses II., but better known 
as the Young Memnon, found in the Memnonium at Thebes, by 
Belzoni, and deservedly regarded as the most celebrated monu- 
ment of Egyptian art in any European collection. Colossal 
Head of a king wearing the pshent, discovered by Belzoni 
in Karnak. Statue in red granite of Menepthah II. Colossal 
Ram's Head. The chest of the Sarcophagus of the monarch 
Her-necht-hebi, (supposed to be either Amyrtseus orNectabes,) 
of the Twenty-eighth Dynasty, found, according to the French, 
who first discovered it, in the court-yard of the Mosque of 
S. Athanasius, at Alexandria. Dr. Clarke, the traveller, 
fancied that this was the identical sarcophagus which once 
contained the body of Alexander the Great. Colossal 
Scaraboeus. The Rosetta Stone, containing three inscriptions 
of the same import, namely, one in hieroglyphics, another 
in a written character called demotic or enchoreal, and a 
third in the Greek language. This celebrated stone fur- 
nished the late Dr. Young with the first clue towards the 
decyphering of the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. It was 
found (1799) by M. Bouchard, a French officer of engineers, 
in digging the foundation of a house, near the Rosetta mouth 
of the Nile, among the remains of an ancient temple dedi- 
cated by Pharaoh Necho to the god Necho, and came into 
the hands of the English by the sixteenth article of the 
capitulation of Alexandria, which required that all objects of 
art collected by the French Institute in Egypt should be 
delivered up to the English. The stone itself is a piece of 
black basalt, much mutilated, about 3 feet long, by 2 feet 
5 inches broad, and from 10 to 12 inches thick, and contains 
a decree set up in the reign of Ptolemams V. (Epiphanes,) 
probably about the year B.C. 196. The principal historical 
facts mentioned arc the birth of the King B.C., 209; the 



NINEVEH MARBLES. 153 

troubles in Egypt, and the decease of his father Philopator ; 
the attack of Antiochus by sea and land ; the siege of Lyco- 
polis ; the inundation of the Nile, B.C., 198 ; the chastisement 
of the revolters ; the coronation of the King at Memphis, 
B.C. 196 ; and the issue of the decree itself the following 
day. — The Egyptian Room contains 102 glass cases. 
Cases 1 to 5 comprise Deities; Cases 8 to 11 contain the 
Sacred Animals; Cases 12 and 13 consist of small Statues; 
Cases 14 to 19 of Household Furniture and other large 
objects; Cases 20 and 21 of objects of Dress and Toilette; 
Cases 22 to 26 of Vases, Lamps, &c. ; Cases 28 and 29 of 
Bowls, Cups, &c. ; Cases 33 to 35 of Vases of Bronze, Agri- 
cultural Implements, Viands, &c. ; Cases 36 and 37 of Frag- 
ments of Tombs, Weapons, &c. ; Case 39 of Inscriptions, 
Instruments of Writing, Painting, &c. ; Cases 42 to 45 of 
Baskets, Tools, Musical Instruments, Play-things, &c. ; Cases 
52 to 58 of Animal Mummies. The remaining cases contain 
Human Mummies, Coffins, Amulets, Sepulchral Ornaments, 
&c, many of the greatest curiosity, and exhibiting the various 
modes of embalming practised by the Egyptians, and the 
various degrees of care and splendour expended on the 
bodies of different ranks. The visitor may spend hours in 
this room with very great advantage. Observe. — Models of 
Egyptian Boats ; Egyptian Wig and Box ; Model of a House, 
&c. ; Stand with Cooked Waterfowl ; Coffin and Body of 
Mycerinus from the 3rd Pyramid. 

Nineveh Marbles. — These very early and interesting 
marbles were acquired for this country chiefly by the inde- 
fatigable exertions of Dr. Layard, and may be classed under 
the following heads : — Sacred Subjects, Bible Scenes, Scenes 
representing a Treaty or Submission, Hunting Scenes, Mis- 
cellaneous Slabs and Fragments. An obelisk covered with 
small highly finished bas-reliefs, with arrow-headed inscrip- 
tions, representing a conquered nation bearing tribute 
animals, &c, to the king of Assyria, is one of the most curious 
historic monuments in the Museum. Two colossal statues 
of a Human-headed Lion and Bull, and eleven Bassi-relievi, 
brought from Nimroud, on the left bank of the Tigris, 
about 25 miles south of Mossul, and the supposed site of 
the ancient Nineveh. Nine of the relievi apparently relate 
to the actions of the same king. One represents a bull- 
hunt, another a lion-hunt. The Nineveh marbles, excepting 
the colossal statues, and the very largest bas-reliefs, are 
placed in a cellar under the building. 

Etruscan Room, containing a collection of vases discovered 
in Italy, and known as Etruscan, Grseco-Italian, or painted 
vases. The collection is arranged chronologically, and 



154 ELGIN MARBLES. 

according to the localities in which the several antiquities 
were found. Cases 1 to 5 contain Vases of heavy black ware, 
some with figures upon them in bas-relief, and principally- 
found at Cervetri or Caere. Cases 6 and 7 contain the 
Nolan-Egyptian or Phoenician Vases, with pale backgrounds 
and figures in a deep reddish maroon colour, chiefly of 
animals. Cases 8 to 19 contain the early Vases from Vulci, 
Canino, and the Ponte della Badia, to the north of Rome, 
with black figures upon red or orange backgrounds, the sub- 
jects of which are generally mythological. The vases in 
Cases 20 to 30, executed with more care and finish, are for 
the most part from Canino and Nola. Those in the centre 
of the room, Cases 31 to 55, are of a later style, and chiefly 
from the province of the Basilicata, to the south of Rome ; 
their subjects are principally relative to Bacchus. Cases 36 
to 51 contain Vases from Apulia, resembling in their colour 
and treatment those of Nola. Cases 56 to 60 are filled with 
terra-cottas, principally of Etruscan workmanship. Over 
the cases are several representations of paintings from the 
walls of Etruscan Tombs at Tarquinii and Corneto. 

Elgin Marbles (in the Elgin Saloon). — So called from the 
Earl of Elgin, Ambassador-Extraordinary to the Porte, who, 
in 1801, obtained two firmans for their removal to Eng- 
land. Nos. 1 to 160, from the Parthenon at Athens. The 
numbers now in use are coloured red. But before proceeding 
to examine these marbles, the visitor will do well to inspect, 
with care, the two models in the Phigalian Saloon — one, the 
restored Model of the Parthenon — the other the Model of 
the Parthenon after the Venetian bombardment, in 1687. 
He will then, on entering the Elgin Saloon, proceed to the 
left, and look at No. 112, (on the floor)— ''The Capital and 
a piece of the Shaft of one of the Doric Columns of the Par- 
thenon." He will by this time have got a pretty complete 
notion of what the Parthenon was like, and may now proceed 
to examine the Marbles, which are of four kinds : — 1. Marbles 
in the East Pediment ; 2. Marbles in the West Pediment ; 

3. The Metopes or groups which occupied the sqxiare inter- 
vals between the raised tablets or triglyphs of the frieze; 

4. The Frieze. The marbles of the two Pediments are on 
stages raised above the floor of the Saloon. 



Eastredimcnt, 
Representing the Birth of Minerva. 

91 . 92 . 93 . 94 . 95 . 96 97 



ELGIN MARBLES. 155 

91. Upper part of the figure of Hyperion rising out of the 
Sea. His arms are stretched forward, in the act of holding 
the reins of his coursers. 92. Heads of two of the Horses 
belonging to the Car of Hyperion. 93. Theseus. 

" The Theseus is a work of the first order ; hut the surface is corroded 
by the weather. The head is in that impaired state that I cannot give 
an opinion upon it; and the limbs are mutilated. I prefer it to the 
Apollo Belvidere, which, I believe, to be only a copy. It has more ideal 
beauty than any male statue I know." — Flaxman. 

94. Group of two Goddesses (Ceres and Proserpine) seated. 

95. Statue of Iris, the messenger of Juno. She is repre- 
sented in quick motion, as if about to communicate to 
distant regions the birth of Minerva. 96. A Torso of Vic- 
tory. 97. A group of the three Fates. 98. Head of a 
Horse (very fine) from the Car of Night. 



West Pediment 

Representing the Contest of Minerva 

and Neptune for the Guardianship of Attica. 

99 . 100 . 101 . 102 . 103 . 104 . 105 . 106 

99. The Ilissus, (statue of a river-god, and, after the Theseus, 
the finest in the collection). 100. The Torso of a male 
figure, supposed to be that of Cecrops, the founder of 
Athens. 101. Upper part of the head of Minerva, and 
originally covered with a bronze helmet, as appears from the 
holes by which it was fastened to the marble. 102. A por- 
tion of the chest of the same statue. 103. Upper part of the 
Torso of Neptune. 104. Another fragment of the statue of 
Minerva. 105. The Torso of Victoria Apteros : the goddess 
was represented driving the Car of Minerva, to receive her 
into it, after her successful contest with Neptune. 106. 
Fragment of a group which originally consisted of Latona, 
with her two children, Apollo and Diana. The Metopes 
(1 — 16, bas-reliefs let into the wall immediately facing you as 
you enter) represent the battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae. 
The originals are fifteen in number : the sixteenth (No. 9) is 
a cast from the original in the Royal Museum at Paris. 
The Frieze (17 — 90, a series of bas-reliefs, composing the 
exterior frieze of the Cella of the Parthenon, and let into 
the four walls of the present Saloon) represents the solemn 
procession called the Panathensoa, which took place at 
Athens, every six years, in honour of Minerva. East End, 
(17—24), Nos. 20 and 23 are casts. The original of 23 is in 



156 phictAlian marbles. 

the Royal Museum at Paris ; parts, also, of 21 and 22 arc 
casts. North End, Nos. 25 — 46; West Eud, Nos. 47 — 61; 
all but 47 are casts; the originals destroyed. South End, 
Nos. 62—90. 

" We possess in England the most precious examples of Grecian 
Art. The horses of the Frieze in the Elgin Collection appear to live and 
move, to roll their eyes, to gallop, prance, and curvet. The veins of 
their faces and legs seem distended with circulation ; in them are 
distinguished the hardness and decision of bony forms, from the elas- 
ticity of tendon and the softness of flesh. The beholder is charmed with 
the deer-like lightness and elegance of their make ; and although the 
relief is not above an inch from the back ground, and they are so much 
smaller than nature, we can scarcely suffer reason to persuade us they 
are not alive." — Flaxman. 

Phigalian Marbles, (in the Phigalian Saloon). — 23 bas-reliefs, 
so called, found in the ruins of the Temple of Apollo Epi 
curius, built on Mount Cotylion, at a little distance from the 
ancient city of Phigalia in Arcadia. 1 to 11 represent the 
Battle of the Centaurs and Lapithae. 12 to 23, the Battle of 
the Greeks and Amazons. The temple from which they 
were taken was built by Ictinus, an architect contemporary 
with Pericles. 24 to 39 are fragments from the same temple. 
JEgina Marbles. — Over the Phigalian frieze are two pediments 
of precisely the same form and dimensions as those which 
decorated the Eastern and Western Ends of the Temple of 
Jupiter Panhellenius, in the island of iEgina. The subject 
of the western pediment (on the N. side of the room) is 
supposed to represent the contest between the Greeks and 
Trojans for the body of Patroclus. Lycian or Xanthian 
Marbles. — A series of tombs, bas-reliefs, and statues from the 
ruined city of Xautlms ; one group formed the ornaments of 
the Nereid monument of Xanthus — an Ionic peristyle on a 
basement surrounded with two bands of friezes, representing 
the conquest of Lycia by the Persians, and the fall of 
Xanthus as related by Herodotus. The Harpy Tomb is a 
curious example of very early art. These marbles, of an 
earlier date than those of the Parthenon, were discovered 
and brought to England by Sir Charles Fellows. Bodroum 
Marbles (in the Phigalian Saloon). — 11 bas-reliefs, brought 
to England, in 1846, from Bodroum, in Asia Minor, the site 
of the ancient Halicarnassus, and presented to the British 
Museum by Sir Stratford Canning. They are supposed to have 
formed part of the Mausoleum or sepulchre, built in the 
4th year of the 106th Olympiad, B.C. 357, by Artemisia, 
Queen of Caria, in honour of her husband, King Mausolus. 
They were found in a fortress at the entrance of the harbour, 
having been built into the faces of the exterior and interior 



TOWNLEY MARBLES. 157 

walls. This fortress was built by the knights of Rhodes, 
circ. 1400. The stoiy represented is a combat of Amazons 
and Greek warriors. 

Toionley Collection, (so called from Charles Townley, Esq., 
d. 1810.) by whom they were principally collected. "The 
! Townley Marbles ' belong to all periods of art except the most 
ancient, but the finest statues are probably those of Greek 
artists during the early times of the Roman empire, and are 
therefore either separate studies, or copies of works by 
celebrated early Greek masters. There is no ground for 
believing, as was formerly imagined, that this or any other 
English collection with the exception of the sculptures in 
the Elgin and Phigalian rooms, contains any fine specimens 
of the best period of pure Greek sculpture. The collections 
in the Elgin and Phigalian rooms are those alone on whose 
date we can rely with undoubting certainty." — W. S. Yaux. 
Observe among the 83 Terra-cottas, Nos. 4, 7, 8, 12, 14, 20, 22, 
27, 31, 41, 53, 54. Venus or Dione, found in the baths of 
Claudius, at Ostia, in 1776 ; the tip of the nose, the left arm, 
and the right hand are new. Two Colossal Busts of Pallas. 
Two Colossal Busts of Hercules. Bust of Minerva (No. 16), 
foimd near Rome ; the helmet, with two owls and the tip 
of the nose, are new. Two Marble Vases (Nos. 7 and 9) 
with Bacchanalian Scenes. Statue of Venus, about 3 feet 
high, found in 1775, near Ostia; the arms are new. Portrait- 
busts of Homer (very fine), Periander, Pindar, Sophocles, 
Hippocrates, Epicurus, and Pericles. Bas-relief (Apotheosis 
of Homer) from the Colonna Palace. Torso of a Venus 
(No. 20). The celebrated Discobulus or Quoit-thrower 
(No. 23), found in 1791 in the grounds belonging to Hadrian's 
villa at Tibur (Tivoli), and supposed to be a copy of the 
famous bronze statue made by the sculptor Myron ; the left 
hand has been restored. Statue of Hadrian addressing his 
army. Female Bust (No. 12), the lower part of which is 
enclosed in a flower : — supposed to be Clytie, metamorphosed 
into a sunflower : — bought at Naples, from the Lorrenzano 
Palace, in 1772. This was Mr. Townley's favourite Marble, 
and is well known by numerous casts. 

Payne Knight's Bronzes are now deposited in the Bronze 
Room, abutting from the Egyptian Room. The collection is 
extremely valuable, but too minute to be detailed in the 
narrow compass of a book like this. The Barberini or Port- 
land Vase (9| inches high, 21| inches in circumference), 
discovered in a sepulchral chamber, about 3 miles from 
Rome, on the road to Frascati, during the pontificate of 
Urban VIII. (1023-44). Sir William Hamilton bought it 



158 MARBLES. — PORTRAITS. 

at the sale of the Barberini Library, and subsequently sold it 
to the Duchess of Portland, at whose sale, in 1786, it was 
bought in, by the family, for 1029?. It is still the property 
of the Duke of Portland, and has been deposited in the 
British Museum since 1810. The ground on which the 
figures arc wrought is of a dark amethystine blue — semi- 
transparent ; but it has not as yet been clearly ascertained 
what the figures represent. This wonderful vase was smashed 
to pieces, 7th of February, 1845, by a madman, as is sup- 
posed, of the name of Lloyd, but has since been wonderfully 
restored, so that the injuries are scarcely visible. 

Modem Marbles. — Statue of Shakspeare, by Eoubiliac 
(executed for Garrick, the actor, by whom it was bequeathed 
to the British Museum) ; statue of Sir Joseph Banks, by Sir F. 
Chantrey ; of Hon. Mrs. Damer, by Ceracchi. Bust of Mr. 
Townley, by Nollekens. Portraits — (suspended on the walls 
of the Eastern Zoological Gallery). — 116 in number, and 
not very good. A few, however, deserve to be mentioned : 
— Vesalius, by Sir Antonio More. Captain William Dampicr, 
by Murray (both from the Sloane Collection). Sir Robert 
Cotton, the founder of the Cottonian Library. Sir William 
Cotton, his son, Robert, Earl of Oxford, and Edward, Earl 
of Oxford (both presented by the Duchess Dowager of 
Portland). Humphrey Wanley. George Vertue (presented 
by his widow). Sir Hans Sloane, half-length, by Slaughter. 
Dr. Birch (bequeathed by himself). Andrew Marvell. 
Alexander Pope. Matthew Prior, by Hudson, from an original 
by Richardson. Oliver Cromwell, by Walker (bequeathed, 
1784, by Sir Robert Rich, Bart., to whose great-grandfather, 
Nathaniel Rich, Esq., then serving as a Colonel of Horse in 
the Parliament Army, it was presented by Cromwell himself). 
Mary Davis, an inhabitant of Great Saughall in Cheshire, 
taken 1668, " cetatis 74:" (at the age of 28 an excrescence 
grew upon her head, like a wen, which continued 30 years, 
and then grew into two horns, one of which the profile 
represents). Thomas Britton, the musical small-coal-man, 
" cetatis 61, 1703," painted by J. Woolaston, and formerly tho 
property of Sir Hans Sloane. Miscellaneous Curiosities. — Tho 
guinea received by Mr. Pulteney, from Sir Robert Walpole, 
in discharge of a wager, laid in the House of Commons, 
respecting the correctness of a quotation from Horace. 
A gold snuff-box set with diamonds, and ornamented with a 
miniature portrait of Napoleon, by whom it was presented, 
in 1815, to the late Hon. Mrs. Damer. Another, loss hand- 
some, presented by Napoleon to Lady Holland. Medal 
Room. — The Greek coins are arranged in geographical order; 



BRITISH MUSEUM LIBRARY. 159 

the Roman in chronological ; and the Anglo-Saxon, English, 
Anglo-Gallic, Scotch, and Irish coins, and likewise the coins 
of foreign nations, according to the respective countries to 
which the coins belong; those of each country being kept 
separate. Romano- British Antiquities. — Mosaic pavement 
found in excavating for the foundations of the new buildings 
at the Bank of England. Mosaic Pavement found in digging 
the foundation of the Hall of Commerce in Threadneedle- 
street. 

The Library of Printed Books is said to consist of upwards 
of 460,000 vofunies*, comprising probably 700,000 works, 
taking each separate pamphlet as a separate work. Compared 
with the great public libraries on the Continent, it ranks with 
those of Vienna, Berlin, and Dresden, but is inferior in num- 
ber of separate works to those of Munich and Paris. Here is 
the library of the Kings of England, presented to the nation by 
George II., containing exquisite examples of books bound in 
embroidered velvet for Queen Elizabeth, James I., Charles I., 
&c. Gtorye III.'s Library, consisting of upwards of 80,000 
volumes, and kept in a separate room, the finest room in 
the building, was given to the nation by George IV., in 1823, 
and is said to have cost 130,000^. It is one of the most 
noble libraries known, remarkable not only for the judicious 
selection of the works, and the discriminating choice of the 
editions, but for the bibliographical peculiarities and rarity 
of the copies. The number of books on large paper is un- 
usually great. Among the rarities may be mentioned; the 
earliest printed Bible and the earliest printed book known, 
commonly called the Mazarine Bible ; supposed to have issued 
from the press of Gutenberg and Fust, at Mentz, about 1455 
— it is in Latin and on vellum ; the first printed Psalter, in 
Latin, on vellum — printed at Mentz, by Fust and Schoeifer, 
in 1457; the first book printed with a date, and the first 
example of printing in colours ; iEsop's Fables — printed at 
Milan, about 1480 ; the first edition of the first Greek classic 
printed : the first edition of Homer — Florence, 1488 ; for- 
merly in the possession of the historian De Thou : Virgil — 
printed at Venice, by Aldus, in 1501; on vellum: the first 
book printed in Italic types ; and the earliest attempt to 
produce cheap books : — it belonged to the Gonzaga family, 

* Panizzi's Short Guide, dated 1-lth of May, 1S51. " On the 25th of 
July, 1S38, the volumes of printed books in the British Museum being 
Counted one by one, as they stood on the shelves, were found to be in 
round numbers 235,000. Counted in the same manner on the 15tb of 
Dec, 1S19, they were found to amount to 435,000. The collectioa now 
consists of upwards of 400,000 vols." p. 33. 



160 READING ROOM. — MANUSCRIPTS. 

and carries the autographs of the two Cardinals Ippolito and 
Ercole, as well as that of Vincenzo Gonzaga, Duke of Mantua.* 
The room by your right on entering the hall contains the col- 
lection of 20.240 volumes, bequeathed to the nation by the 
Eight Hon. Thomas Grenville. It is said to have cost Mr. 
Grenville upwards of 54,000/. Other liberal donors have been 
Rev. C. M. Cracherode, David Garrick, Sir Joseph Banks, &c. 
The entrance to the Reading Rooms is in Montague-place, and 
the number of visitors to the Rooms in one year is about 
70,000. The catalogues of printed books and MSS. are in 
the room to the left as you enter. The books generally in 
use, dictionaries, &c, are on the shelves of the rooms you sit 
in. Having consulted the catalogue and found the title of 
the book you require, you transcribe the title, on a printed 
form given below, to be found near the catalogues, from 
whence you derive your references. 



Press Mark. 


Title of the Work wanted, j Size. 


Place. 


Date. 




i 
1 







(Date) (Signature) 

Please to restore each volume of the Catalogue to its place, as soon as 
done with. 

READERS ARE PARTICULARLY REQUESTED 

1. Not to ask for more than one work on the same ticket. 

2. To transcribe literally from the Catalogues the title of the Work 

wanted. 

3. To write in a plain clear hand, in order to avoid delay aud 

mistakes. 

4. Before leaving the Room, to return the books to an attendant, and 

to obtain the corresponding ticket, the Reader being respon- 
sible for the Books so long as the Ticket remains 
uncancelled. 
K.B. — Readers are, under no circumstances, to take any Book or M8. 
out of the Reading Rooms. 

The tickets for Printed Books are on white paper; for MSS. 
on green paper. (Respecting admission, see p. xliv.) 

Manuscripts. — The manuscripts in the Museum are divided 
under sevei\al heads, of which the following are the chief: — 
the Cotton MSS. (catalogued in 1 vol. folio); the Harleian 
MSS. (catalogued in 4 vols, folio); the Lansdowne MSS. 
(catalogued in 2 vols, folio); the Royal MSS. (catalogued in 
1 vol. quarto, called Casley's Catalogue); the Sloane and 

• Panizzi's Short Guide (1851), p. 10. 



1'UIST ROOM. 101 

Birch MSS. (in 1 vol. quarto); the Arundel MSS.; tlio 
Burney, Hargrave, and 'a large and Miscellaneous collection 
of "Additional MSS." in number about 30,000. The rarest 
MSS. are entitled " Select/' and can only be seen and exa- 
mined in the presence of an attendant. The contents of two 
cases alone are valued at above a quarter of a million. 
Among the more remarkable we may mention : — Copy of the 
Gospels in Latin (Cotton MSS., Tiberius A. II, the only un- 
doubted relic of the ancient regalia of England), sent over to 
Athelstane by his brother-in-law the emperor Otho, between 
936 and 940, given by Athelstane to the metropolitan church 
of Canterbury, and borrowed of Sir Kobert Cotton to be used 
at the coronation of Charles I. The " Book of St. Cuthbert" 
or " Durham Book," a copy of the Gospels in Latin, written 
in the seventh century by Eadfrith, Bishop of Lindisfarne, 
and illuminated by Athelwald, the succeeding bishop. The 
Bible, said to have been written by Alcuin for Charlemagne. 
The identical copy of Guiar des Moulix's version of Pierre le 
Mangeur's Biblical History, which was found in the tent of 
John, King of France, at the battle of Poictiers. MS. of 
Cicero's translation of the Astronomical Poem of Aratus. An 
Anglo-Saxon MS. of the ninth century. Psalter written for 
Henry VI. (Cotton MS., Dom. XVIL). Le Roman de la Rose 
(Hark MS. 4425). Henry VIII.'s Psalter, containing Portraits 
of Himself and Will Somers. Lady Jane Grey's Prayer Book. 
Queen Elizabeth's Prayer Book, written in a print-hand ; the 
cover is her own needle-work. Harl. MS. (7334), supposed 
to be the best MS. of Chaucer's Canterbury Tales. Portrait 
of Chaucer, by Occleve (from which Vertue made his engrav- 
ing). Froissart's Chronicles, with many curious illustrations 
— often engraved. Matthew Paris, illuminated. A volume 
of Hours executed circ. 1490, by a Flemish Artist, (Hemme- 
linck?) for Philip the Fair, of Castile, or for his wife Joanna, 
mother of the Emperor Charles V. Carte Blanche which 
Prince Charles (Charles II.) sent to Parliament to save his 
father's life. Oliver Cromwell's Letter to the Speaker, de- 
scribing the Battle of ISTaseby. Original MS. of Pope's 
Homer, written on the backs of letters. Stow's collections 
for his Annals and his Survey of London. 317 volumes of 
Syriac MSS., obtained from Egyptian monasteries by Mr. Rich 
and Mr. Tattam. 

Print Room. — Drcmings, <L-c. — A small, but interesting, and 
in some respects valuable, collection, containing specimens of 
Fra Beato Angelico, Fra Filippo, Domenico Ghirlandajo, 
Pietro Perugino, Leonardo da Vinci, Fra Bartolommeo, 



162 MINERALOGY. ZOOLOGY. 

Durer, Hans Holbein, Eembrandt, Rubens, Van Dyck, Back- 
huysen,A. Ostade, &c. 25 of the finer specimens are framed 
and hung up. Observe — Impression in sulphur of the famous 
Pax of Maso Finiguerra, cost 250 guineas. Silver Pax by 
the same master. Carving in soap-stone, in high relief, by 
Albert Durer (dated 1510), representing the Birth of John 
the Baptist. Prints. — Mare Antonio's (fine). Lucas van 
Leyden's (fine). Albert Durer's (fine). Rembrandt's (in 
8 volumes, the finest known). Van Dyck etchings (good); 
Early Italian School (numerous and fine). Dutch etchings, 
(the Sheepshanks collection, containing Waterloo, Berghem, 
P. Potter, A. Ostade, &c, the finest known). Sir Joshua 
Reynolds's works (not all proofs). Raphael Morghen's 
works. Faithorne's works (in 5 volumes, very fine). 
Hogarth's works (good). Crowle's collections to illustrate 
Pennant's London (cost 7000Z.). Works of Strange, Woollett 
and Sharp (good). Stothard's works, in 4 volumes (fine). 

Mineralogy and Geology, (in the N. Gallery). — The system 
adopted for the arrangement of the minerals, with occasional 
slight deviations, is that of Berzelius. The detail of this 
arrangement is partly supplied by the running titles at the 
outsides of the glass cases, and by the labels within them. 
Observe (in the Class of Native Iron, one of the largest collec- 
tions known of meteoric stones or substances which have 
fallen from the sky, placed in chronological order). — Large 
fragment of the stone which fell at Ensisheim, in Alsace, 
Nov. 7th, 1492, when the Emperor Maximilian was on the 
point of engaging with the French army: this mass, which 
weighed 270 lbs., was preserved in the cathedral of Ensis- 
heiui till the beginning of the French Revolution, when it 
was conveyed to the public library of Colmar ; — one of the 
many stones which fell (July 3rd, 1753) at Plaun, in the 
circle of Bcchin, Bohemia, and which contain a great propor- 
tion of attractable iron ; — specimens of those that were seen 
to fall at Barbotan, at Roquefort, and at Juliac, July 24th, 
1790 ; — one of a dozen of stones of various weights and 
dimensions that fell at Sienna, Jan. 16th, 1794; — the meteoric 
stone, weighing 5G lbs., which fell near Wold Cottage, in 
the parish of Thwing, Yorkshire, Dec. 13th, 1795; — fragment 
of a stone of 20 lbs., which fell in the commune of Sales, 
near Villefranche, in the department of the Rhone, March 1 2th, 
1 798. Observe, in Case 20, Dr. Dec's Show-stone. 

Zoology. — This collection is superior to that at Berlin, and 
only inferior to that in the Museum at Paris. Mammalia 
Saloon. — In the wall-cases of this saloon are arranged the 
specimens of Rapacious and Hoofed Beasts ; and over the 



ZOOLOGY. 163 

cases, the different kinds of Seals, Manatees, and Porpoises ; 
and on the floor are placed the larger hoofed beasts, too large 
to be arranged in their proper places in the cases. Here, on 
the floor, is the Wild Ox from Chillingham Park, Northum- 
berland. Eastern Zoological Gallery. — The wall-cases contain 
the collection of Birds; the smaller table-cases in each recess 
contain birds' Eggs, arranged in the same series as the birds ; 
the larger table-cases, in the centre of the room, contain the 
collection of Shells of Molluscous Animals ; and on the top 
of the wall-cases is a series of Horns of hoofed quadrupeds. 
Here, among the "Wading Birds (Case 108), is the foot of the 
Dodo, a bird now extinct, only known by a few scanty 
remains, and by a painting here preserved, drawn, it is said, 
from a living bird brought from the Mauritius. The collec- 
tions of Organic Remains are in Rooms I. to VI. Here is a 
very curious collection, formed chiefly by the exertions of 
Mr. Hawkins, Dr. Mantell, and Captain Cautley of the 
Bengal Artillery. On a table in Room I., and in the centre 
of the room, is a Tortoise of nephrite or jade, found on the 
banks of the Jumna, near the city of Allahabad in Hindoo- 
stan: 1000Z. was once offered for it. In and on the wall-cases 
of Room IV. are placed the larger specimens of the various 
species of Ichthyosaurus, or the fish-lizard. The most 
striking specimens are the Platyodon in the central case, and 
various bones of its gigantic variety on the top of the same 
case and in Case 2, such as the head cut transversely to show 
the internal structure of the jaws; the carpal bones of one of 
the extremities, &c. : all from the Has of Lyme Regis in 
Dorsetshire. In the centre of Room V. is a complete 
skeleton of the large extinct Elk, bones of which are so 
frequently met with in the bogs of Ireland, and occasionally 
in some parts of England, and the Isle of Man. The present 
specimen is from Ireland : it is the Cervus megaceros and 
C. giganteus of authors. In Room VI. is the entire skeleton 
of the American Mastodon (Mastodon Ohioticus), and suite of 
separate bones and teeth of the same animal : the jaws, 
tusks, molar teeth and other osseous parts of Elephas 
primigenius, especially those of the Siberian variety (the 
Mammoth of early writers): the crania and other parts of 
extinct Indian Elephants. At the W. end of the same room 
(VI.) is the fossil human skeleton brought from Guadaloupe, 
embedded in a limestone which is in process of formation at 
the present day. Northern Zoological Gallery, Room I. — 
The wall-cases contain a series of the Skulls of the larger 
Mammalia, to illustrate the characters of the families and 
genera ; and of the Nests of birds, and the arbours of the 

H 2 



164 NATIONAL GALLERY. 

two species of Bower Bird ; the one ornamented with fresh 
water shells and bones, and the other with feathers and land 
shells, &c. The table-cases ; — the tubes of Annulose Animals, 
the casts of the interior cavities of Shells, and various speci- 
mens of shells, illustrative of the diseases and malformation 
of those animals. Boom II. — The wall-cases contain the col- 
lection of Beptiles and Batrachian Animals, preserved dry 
and in spirits; and the table-cases the first part of the 
collection of the hard part of Badiated Animals, including 
Sea Eggs, Sea Stars, and Encrinites. Boom III. — The waH 
cases contain the Handed and Glirine Mammalia, and the 
table-cases the different kinds of Corals. Boom IV. — The 
wall-cases contain the collection of Fish, and the table-cases 
a few specimens of Annulose Animals, to exhibit their 
systematic arrangement. The general collection of Insects 
and Crustacea are preserved in cabinets. They may be seen 
by persons wishing to consult them for the purpose of study 
(by application to the Keeper of the Zoological Collection) 
every Tuesday and Thursday. To prevent disappointment, 
it is requested that persons wishing to see those collections 
will apply two days previous to their intended visit. 
Boom V. — The wall-cases contain the Molluscous and Badiated 
Animals in spirits. Over the wall-cases is a very large Wasp's 
Nest from India; and some Neptune's Cups — a kind of 
sponge — from Singapore. Table-cases : — Sponges of different 
kinds, showing their various forms and structure, and some 
preserved in flint of the same character. Botany. — The 
Botanical Collection is very large, and consists principally of 
the collection bequeathed by Sir Joseph Banks. 

The NATIONAL GALLEBY occupies the whole north 
side of Trafalgar-square, and stands on the site of the King's 
Mews. It is divided between the national collection of 
paintings of the old masters, filling the western half; and 
the Boyal Academy, occupying the eastern half, in which 
exhibitions of modern works are held from May to July. The 
Gallery was founded in 1824, and the present building 
erected, 1832-38, from the designs of W. Wilkins, B.A., at a 
cost of 96,000£. The columns of the portico were those of 
Carlton House. 

The National Gallery is open on Monday, Tuesday, Wed- 
nesday, and Thursday, to the public generally ; on Friday 
and Saturday to artists ; from 10 till 5 during the months of 
November, December, January, February, March, and April, 
— and from 10 till G during the months of May, June, July, 
August, and the first two weeks of September. The Gallery 



NATIONAL GALLERY. 165 

is wholly closed during the last two weeks of September and 
the month of October. 

The Gallery originated in the purchase by Government, in 
1824, of Mr. Angerstein's collection of 38 pictures for 57,000£. 
In 1826, Sir George Beaumont made a formal gift of 16 
pictures, valued at the time at 7500 guineas. Important 
bequests by the Rev. W. Holwell Carr, Lord Farnborough and 
others, and other purchases by the Government, have 
brought the collection, in less than a quarter of a century, to 
228 pictures, independently of Mr. Vernon's noble gift of 162 
works of the English school. It is very inferior to the great 
galleries on the continent ; but, in many respects, is a highly 
important collection, containing, as it does, some of the best 
examples of the greatest painters. Cheap catalogues of the 
pictures, from a penny to a shilling, (Mr. Wornum's is by 
far the best), may be had both within and without the Gallery. 
I shall therefore content myself with giving a classed cata- 
logue in schools of the best pictures by the best masters. 

Italian School. 

Francesco Fraxcia : the Virgin and Child with Saints: the Lunette, 
or Arch forming the top of the same altar-piece. These two fine pictures 
were purchased by Parliament from the Lucca Collection for 8500?. — 
Sebastian del Piombo : the Raising of Lazarus. " The most important 
specimen of the Italian School now in England." — Waagen. It was 
painted in competition with Raphael's Transfiguration. The figure of 
Lazarus (veiy fine) attributed on good grounds to Michael Angelo. This 
was an Orleans picture, and cost Mr. Angerstein 3500 guineas. — 
Raphael : St. Catherine of Alexandria ; purchased by Parliament, in 
1838, for 5000?. : the Vision of a Knight (fine) ; purchased by Parliament 
for 1050?. : the Murder of the Innocents ; part of a Cartoon, now painted 
over with oil-colour. — L. da Vinci, or Luixi : Christ disputing with the 
Doctors. — Cokreggio : Mercury teaching Cupid to read in the presence 
of Venus (very fine) : Ecce Homo (very fine). These two fine pictures 
were purchased by Parliament from the Marquis of Londonderry for 
10,000 guineas. The Holy Family: "La Vierge au Panier" (very fine); 
purchased by Parliament, in 1847, for 3800?. — Titian: a Concert; 
originally in Charles I.'s collection ; "Waagen attributes it to Giorgione : 
a Holy Family, from the Borghese Palace (fine) : Bacchus and Ariadne 
(fine). — Caracci (Anxibal) : Christ appearing to St. Peter, from the 
Aldobrandini Collection. "This little picture is admirably executed 
throughout." — Waagen. Pan or Silenus teaching Apollo to play on the 
reed pipe. — Caracci (Ludovico) : Susannah and the Elders ; an Orleans 
picture. — Guido : Venus attired by the Graces : the Magdalen : Susannah 
and the Elders ; purchased by Government, at Mr. Penrice's sale, for 
1260?.— Claude : Landscape, Cephalus and Procris ; painted in 1645: 
Landscape, called the " Chigi Claude " (fine); cost Mr. Carr 2705 guineas : 
a Seaport, called the " Bouillon Claude " (very fine) ; cost Mr. Angerstein 
4000?. ; the figures represent the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba : 
Landscape, with the story of Narcissus : a Seaport ; the figures represent 
the Embarkation of St. Ursula and her attendant Virgins (very fine) : 
a Landscape, Death of Procris: a Group of Trees: Landscape, Hagar 
and her Son in the Desert (fine). — Salvator Rosa : Landscape with 



166 NATIONAL GALLERY. 

the fable of Mercury and the Woodman ; purchased by Parliament, in 
1834, for 1680?. — Canaletti : View in Venice (fine). 

Spanish School. 
Velasquez : Philip IV. of Spain hunting the Wild Boar (very fine) ; 
purchased by Parliament, in 1846, for 2200?. — Murillo : the Holy 
Family ; four figures, life-size ; purchased by Parliament, in 1837, for 
3000?.: the Infant St. John with the Lamb; purchased by Parliament, at 
Sir Simon Clarke's sale, for 2100?. The companion picture, " The Good 
Shepherd," belongs to Baron Lionel Rothschild, and is now at Gunners- 
bury Park, near London, 

Flemish School. 
John Van Eyck : Portraits of a Flemish Gentleman and a Lady 
(very fine); under the mirror is written, "Johannes de Eyck fuit hie 
1434 ; " purchased by Parliament, in 1842, for 600 guineas.— Rubens : the 
Rape of the Sabines : Peace and War (fine), presented by Rubens to 
Charles I.; bought by the Marquis of Stafford for 3000?., and presented 
by him to the National Gallery: the Brazen Serpent: a Landscape; 
Rubens's Chateau (fine) ; cost Sir George Beaumont 1500?. : Apotheosis 
of William the Taciturn ; a sketch for the large design at Osterley, the 
seat of Lord Jersey (fine) ; purchased in 1842, for 200?. : the Judgment 
of Paris (very fine); an Orleans picture; purchased by Parliament, iu 
1847, for 4200?.— Van Dyck : St. Ambrosius refusing to admit the Em- 
peror Theodosius into the church at Milan (fine) ; cost Mr. A ngerstein 
1600?. : a Portrait called Gevartius (one of the finest portraits in the 
world) ; cost Mr. Angerstein 375?. — Rembrandt : the Woman taken in 
Adultery (very fine); Mr. Angerstein bought it at Christie's, in 1807, for 
5250?.: Portrait of a Jew-merchant, life-size, three-quarters: Christ 
taken down from the Cross ; a study in black and white (fine) : the 
Adoration of the Shepherds. — Cuyp: a Landscape, Huntsman on a 
dappled grey horse (fine) ; bought by Mr. Angerstein at Sir Laurence 
Dundas's sale, in 1794, for 204?. 15s. — Arnold Vander Neer : a Land- 
scape, Evening. — Nicholas Maes : a Girl peeling parsnips (fine). — 
David Teniers : the Misers (very fine). 

French School. 
Sebastian Bourdon : the Return of the Ark (belonged to Sir Joshua 
Reynolds, who pi-aises it in his Discourses). — N. Poussin : a Landscape : 
a Dance of Bacchanals in honour of Pan (very fine). — G. Poussin: 
Landscape ; the figures represent Abraham preparing to sacrifice his son 
Isaac : a Land-storm : a classical Landscape, with the story of Dido and 
^neas (fine) : View of Lerici (fine) : an Italian Landscape; cost Lord 
Farnborough 700 guineas. 

Observe. — In the Hall : the colossal Waterloo Vase, by Sir 
Richard Westmacott, weighing 20 tons; in height 16 feet, 
and in diameter between 9 and 10 feet. The three blocks of 
which this vase was composed were intended by Napoleon 
to have been fashioned into a vase to celebrate his victories. 
The Duke of Tuscany presented them to George IV.. Avho 
caused them to be made into the present vase to celebrate 
the downfall of Napoleon. Statue of Sir David Wilkie, by 
S. Joseph; Wilkie's palette is let into the pedestal. Alto- 
relievo, by T. Banks, R.A., Thetis and her Nymphs rising 
from the sea to condole with Achilles on the loss of Patroclus 
(fine). 



VERNON GALLERY. 167 

MARLBOROUGH HOUSE, (temporary place of deposit 
of a portion of the National Gallery, consisting entirely 
of the English school.) Built 1709-10 by Sir C. Wren for 
John Churchill, the great Duke of Marlborough, on ground 
leased to him by Queen Anne. The great duke and his 
duchess both died in this house. The duchess used to 
speak of her neighbour George, meaning the King in St. 
James's Palace, and here she is described as receiving a 
deputation of the Lord Mayor and sheriffs, "sitting up in 
her bed in her usual manner." The Pall-mall entrance to 
the house being, as it still is, extremely bad, the duchess 
designed a new one, and was busy trying to effect the neces- 
sary purchases when Sir Robert Walpole, wishing to vex her, 
stept in and bought the very leases she was looking after. 
The sham archway, facing the principal entrance to the house, 
forms a sort of screen to the parlours in Pall-mall. This 
was turning the tables on the duchess, who had employed 
Wren to vex Vanbrugh. Marlborough House was bought by 
the Crown in 1817 for the Princess Charlotte and Prince 
Leopold. The Princess died before the assignment was 
effected, but the Prince (now the King of the Belgians) lived 
here for several years. The last inhabitant was the widow of 
William IV. It is now the property of the Prince of Wales, 
and is only lent for the purposes of a Gallery. The best 
pictures only are here mentioned. Official catalogues, price 2d., 
may be bought at the door. 

Paintings of the English School. 

Huysman : Original Portrait of Izaak Walton, the angler. — Hogarth . 
Portrait of Himself (the well-known engraved head) ; the Marriage a la 
Mode (a series of six pictures, Hogarth's greatest work ; the character 
inimitable, the colouring excellent). Hogarth received for the six pic- 
tures 110 guineas : Mr. Angerstein paid 1381Z. for them. — R. Wilson ; 
Maecenas' Villa (fine) ; Landscape, with the story of Niobe and her 
children (very fine). — Gainsborough : the Market-cart; the Watering- 
place. — Sir Joshua Reynolds : Portrait of Lord Heathfield with the 
keys of the fortress of Gibraltar (very fine) ; Studies of Angels, five 
heads, life-size (very fine). — Lawrence: John Philip Kemble, as 
Hamlet; Portrait of Benjamin West, the painter. — Wilkte: the Blind 
Fiddler (very fine), painted for 50 guineas for Sir George Beaumont: 
the Village Festival (fine), painted for Mr. Angerstein.— Constable, E.A . : 
the Corn-field.— Gilbert Stuart : Portrait of Woollett, the engraver. 

The Vernon Collection of the English School. 

(162 pictures in all, many very fine, presented to the nation in 1847 by 
Robert Vernon, Esq., who died in 1849, aged 75.) 

{Deceased Artists.) 
Sir Joshua Reynolds: the Age of Innocence (very fine), cost 
Mr. Vernon, at Mr. Harman's sale at Christie's, 1450 guineas. — Gains- 
borough : Landscape, Sunset (fine) ; the Young Cottagers. — Richard 
Wilson : four small pictures (fine). — Loutherbourgh : small Landscape. 



168 DULWICH GALLERY. 

—Sir A. W. Callcott, R A. : Littlehampton Pier (fine) ; Coast Scene ; 
Crossing the Brook. — Wilkie : the Newsmongers (fine) ; the Bagpiper 
(fine); the First Ear-ring; the Whiteboy ? s Cabin.— E. Bird, E. A. : the 
Raffle for the "Watch. — Coxstable, R.A. : His Father's Mill. — Collixs, 
R.A.: Happy as a King; Prawn Fishers. — Gr. S. Newton, E.A. : Sterne 
and the Grisette. — P. Nasmytii: small Landscape in the manner of 
Hobbema. — W. Etty, R.A. : Youth at the Prow and Pleasure at the 
Helm (fine); the Bathers (fine). — Turner, R.A. : William III. landing 
at Torbay; Composition Landscape (fine); Two Yiews in Venice (fine). — 
Staxfield, R.A. : the Entrance to the Zuyder Zee (fine). — David 
Roberts, R.A. : Interior of St. Paul's at Antwerp (fine). — T. Uwins, 
R.A.: Claret Vintage. — F.E.Lee, R.A.: two Landscapes. — T. Cres- 
wick, R.A. : Landscape'; (fine). — Edwin Landseer, R.A.: Peace and 
War, companion pictures (Peace very fine) ; Highland Piper and Dogs ; 
Spaniels of King Charles's breed; the Dying Stag; High Life and Low 
Life Dogs. — W. Mulready, R.A. : the Last In ; the Ford. — T.Webster, 
R.A. : the Dame's School (fine).— D. Maclise, R.A. : the Play Scene in 
Hamlet; Malvolio and the Countess. — Sir C. L. Eastlake, P.R.A.: 
Christ weeping over Jerusalem. — C. R. Leslie, R.A. : Sancho and the 
Duchess (Mr. Leslie's greatest work) ; Uncle Toby looking into the eye 
of Widow Wadman. Mr. Sheepshanks has a fine duplicate of the same 
subject. — E. M. Ward, A.R.A. : the Disgrace of Clarendon ; 'Change 
Alley during the South Sea Bubble. — J. Linnell: Landscape. — E. W. 
Cooke : two Sea pieces. — Sidney Cooper, A.R.A. : a Cattle piece. — 
F. Danby, A.R.A. : Landscape — Augustus Egg, A.R.A. : Scene from 
Gil Bias. — F. Goodall : the Village Festival. 

The 7 Vernon marbles in the Hall, as you enter, include 6 
busts, chiefly copies, and " Hylas surprised by the Naiads," 
a fine work by John Gibson, R.A. 

DULWICH GALLERY, at Dulwich, 5 m. from Waterloo 
Bridge, is open every day of the week except Fridays and 
Sundays. Without a ticket no person can be admitted, and no 
tickets are given in Dulwich. Tickets are to be obtained gratis 
of Henry Graves and Co., 6, Pall-mall ; Alderman Moon, Thread- 
needle-street ; Messrs. Colnaghi and Co., Pall-mall East ; Mr. 
Lloyd, 23, Harley-street ; H. Leggatt and Co., Cornhill ; and 
Mr. Markby, Croydon, Surrey. Schools, and children under 
the age of 14, are not admitted. Hours of admission, from 
April to November, 10 to 5 ; from November to April, 11 to 
3. You can reach it by omnibus from the Elephant and 
Castle in Lambeth, and the Elephant and Castle is easily 
reached by omnibuses from all parts of London. This 
Gallery, containing the only collection, freely accessible to 
the public, which affords an opportunity of studying the 
Dutch masters, was founded by Sir Francis Bourgeois, R.A. 
(d. 1811), who left 354 pictures to the College, 10,000Z. to 
erect and keep in repair a building for their reception, and 
2000?. to provide for the care of the pictures. Bourgeois 
asked John Philip Kemblc where he should build a gallery for 
his pictures, and Kemble, an actor, recommended God's 
Gift College, at Dulwich, erected in the reign of James I. 



DULWICH GALLERY. 169 

by Edward Alleyn, the keeper of the bears to James I., actor 
and rival of Richard Burbadge. The hint was taken, and the 
present Gallery attached to the College built in 1812, from 
the designs of Sir John Soane. The Murillos and Cuyps are 
especially fine. Observe. — 

Murillo : the Flower Girl, No. 248 ; Spanish Boys, Nos. '283 and 284 ; 
the Madonna del Rosario, No. 341 ; Meeting of Jacob and Rachel, No. 
294. — Cuyp (in all 19) : a Landscape, No. 68 ; Banks of a Canal, No. 76 ; 
a Landscape, No..l69, the finest of the 19 ; Ditto, No. 192 ; Ditto, No. 239 ; 
Ditto, No. 163. — Tenieks (in all 21) : a Landscape, No. 139; a Land- 
scape, with Gipsies, No. 155 ; the Chaff Cutter, No. 185 (fine). — Hobbema : 
the Mill. No. 131. — Rembrandt : Jacob's Dream, No. 179 ; a Girl leaning 
out of a Window, No. 206. — Rubens : Sampson and Dalilah, No. 168 ; 
Mars, Venus, and Cupid, No. 351 (the Mars a portrait of Rubens himself 
when young); Maria Pypeling, the Mother of Rubens, No, 355. — Van 
Dtck : Charity, No. 124; Virgin and Child, No. 135; Philip, 5th Earl of 
Pembroke (half-length), No. 214 ; " The head is very delicate ; the hand 
effaced by cleaning." — Waagen ; Susan, Countess of Pembroke, No 134; 
" quite ruined by cleaning." — Waagen. — Wouversians : View on the Sea 
Shore, No. 93; a Landscape, No. 173 ; Ditto, No. 228. — Bergheji : a Land- 
scape, No. 200 ; Ditto, No. 209. — Both : a Landscape, No. 36. — Velas- 
quez : Prince of Spain on Horseback, No. 194 ; Philip IV. of Spain 
(three-quarters), No. 309; Head of a Boy, No. 222. — Adrian Brouwer : 
Interior of a Cabaret, No. 54.— A. Ostade : Boors Merry-making, No. 
190 ; " of astonishing depth, clearness, and warmth of colour." — Waagen. 
— Karel du Jardin : the Farrier's Shop, No. 229. — Vander Werff : 
the Judgment of Paris, No. 191. — Van Huysum : Flowers in a Vase, 
No. 121 ; Flowers, No. 140. — Pynaker : a Landscape, No. 150. — Wat- 
teau : le Bal Champetre, No. 210. — Titian : Europa, a Study, No .230. 
— P. Veronese : St. Catherine of Alexandria, No. 26S; a Cardinal, No. 
333. — Guercino: the "Woman taken in Adultery, No. 348. — Annibal 
Caracci : the Adoration of the Shepherds, No. 349. — Guido : Europa, 
No. 259; Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, No. 339; St. John the Baptist 
Preaching in the Wilderness, No. 331 (fine). — Caravaggio : the Lock- 
smith, No. 299. — Claude : Embarkation of Sa. Paula from the Port 
of Ostia, No. 270. — S. Rosa: a Landscape, No. 220; Soldiers Gambling, 
No. 271. — G. Poussin : a Landscape, No. 257. — N. Poussin : the Inspi- 
ration of the Poet, No. 295; the Nursing of Jupiter, No. 300; the 
Triumph of David, No. 305 ; the Adoration of the Magi, No. 291 ; 
Rinaldo and Armida, No. 315 (fine). — Francesco Mola : St. Sebastian, 
No. 261. — Gainsborough : Mrs. Sheridan and Mrs. Tickell (full-lengths, 
very fine). Mrs. Sheridan was Maria Linley, the first wife of R. B. She- 
ridan, the dramatist, No. 1. — Opie : Portrait of Himself, No. 3. — Sir T. 
Lawrence : Portrait of William Linley (near No. 222). 

The Mrs. Siddons and his own Portrait, by Sir Joshua, are indifferent 
duplicates of the well-known originals in the Grosvenor Gallery and the 
Queen's Gallery at Windsor. 

In the College and Master's apartments at Dulwich, are 
the following interesting portraits : — 

Edward Alleyn, the founder, full-length, black dress, but much injured. 
Richard Burbadge, master, " a small closet-piece ; " bequeathed by Cart- 
wright, the actor, in 1687. Nat Field, the poet and actor, " in his shirt 
on a board, in a black frame, filleted with gold ; " bequeathed by Cartwright 
in 1687. Tom Bond, the actor ; bequeathed by Cartwright, 1687. Richard 
Perkins, the actor, three-quarters, long white hair ; bequeathed by Cart- 
wright, 1687. Cartwright (senior), one of the Prince Palatine's players, 



170 COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. 

bequeathed by his son in 1687. Cartwright (junior), an actor (My 
picture in a black dress, with a great dog). Michael Drayton, the poet, 
" in a black frame ; " bequeathed by Cartwright in 1687. Lovelace, the 
poet, by Dobson (fine). Lovelace's Althea, with her hair dishevelled. 
John Greenhill, "the most promising of Lely's scholars" {Walpole), by 
himself. 

In the College is preserved Philip Henslowe's Diary and 
Account-book, recently printed by the Shakspeare Society, 
one of the most valuable documents we possess in illustration 
of the drama and stage in the time of Queen Elizabeth. 

The ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, in London, 
on the S. side of Lincoln' s-Inn-fields, was built, 1835, from the 
designs of Charles Barry, R A., and is said to have cost 40,000?. 
' The Museum is open to the Fellows and Members of the 
College, and to visitors introduced by them personally, or 
by written orders stating their names (which orders are not 
transferable), on Mondays, Tuesdays, Wednesdays, and 
Thursdays, from 12 to 4 o'clock ; except during the month of 
September, when the Museum is closed. 

The museum of the College, at present (1851) under the 
direction of Richard Owen, the Cuvier of England, originated 
in the purchase for 15,000Z., made by parliament, of the Hun- 
terian Collection. John Hunter (the founder) was born in 1728 
at Long Calderwood, near Glasgow, and died suddenly in 
St. George's Hospital, London, in 1793. The Collection is 
arranged in two apartments — one called the " Physiological 
Department, or Normal Structures;" the other the "Patho- 
logical Department, or Abnormal Structures;" — the number 
of specimens is upwards of 23,000. Observe. — Skeleton (8 
feet in height) of Charles Byrne or O'Brian, the Irish giant, 
who died in Cockspur-street, in 1783, at the age of 22. 
He measured, when dead, 8 feet 4 inches. — Skeleton (20 
inches in height) of Caroline Crachami, the Sicilian dwarf, 
who died in Bond-street, in 1824, in the 10th year of her 
age. — Plaster-cast of the right hand of Patrick Cotter, an 
Irish giant, whose height, in 1802, was 8 feet 7 inches and a 
half. — Plaster-cast of the left hand of M. Louis, the French 
giant, whose height was 7 feet 4 inches. — Skeleton of Cbunee, 
the famous elephant brought to England in 1810 — exhibited 
for a time on the stage of Covent-garden Theatre, and sub- 
sequently bought by Mr. Cross, the proprietor of the menagerie 
at Exeter 'Change. After a return of an annual paroxysm, 
aggravated, as subsequently appeared, by inflammation of the 
large pulp of one of the tusks, Chunee, in 1826, became so 
ungovernably violent that it was found necessary to kill him. 
Amid the shower of balls, he knelt down at the well-known 



COLLEGE OF SURGEONS. 171 

voice of his keeper, to present a more vulnerable point to 
the soldiers employed to shoot him, and did not die until 
he had received upwards of 100 musket and rifle bullets. 
On the platform is preserved the base of the inflamed tusk, 
showing a spicula of ivory which projected into the pulp. — 
Skeleton of the gigantic extinct deer (Megaceros Hibemicus, 
commonly but erroneously called the "Irish elk"), exhumed 
from a bed of shell marl beneath a peat-bog near Limerick. 
The span of the antlers, measured in a straight line between 
the extreme tips, is 8 feet : the length of a single antler, 
following the curve, 7 feet 3 inches : height of the skeleton 
to the top of the skull, 7 feet 6 inches ; to the highest point 
of the antlers, 10 feet 4 inches : weight of the skull and 
antlers, 76 pounds.— Female monstrous foetus, found in the 
abdomen of Thomas Lane, a lad between 15 and 16 years of 
age, at Sherborne, in Dorsetshire, June 6th, 1814. — Imper- 
fectly formed male fcetus, found in the abdomen of John Hare, 
an infant between 9 and 10 months old, born May 8th, 1807. 
— Human female twin monster, the bodies of which are 
united crosswise, sacrum to sacrum ; the mother was between 
16 and 17 years of age, and was delivered, in 1815, without 
any particular difficulty. — Intestines of Napoleon, showing 
the progress of the disease which carried him off. —Cast in 
wax of the band uniting the bodies of the Siamese twins. — 
Iron pivot of a try-sail mast, and two views of John Toylor, 
a seaman, through whose chest the blunt end of the pivot 
was driven. "While guiding the pivot of the try-sail mast 
into the main-boom, on board a brig in the London Docks, 
the tackle gave way, and the pivot passed obliquely through 
his body and penetrated the deck. He was carried to the 
London Hospital, where it was found that he had sustained 
various other injuries, but in five months he was enabled to 
walk from the hospital to the College of Surgeons, and back 
again. He returned to his duty as a seaman, and twice, at 
intervals of about a year, revisited the College in a robust 
state of health. The try-sail mast was 39 feet long, and 
about 600 pounds in weight. — Portions of a skeleton of a 
rhinoceros, discovered in a limestone cavern at Oreston, near 
Plymouth, during the formation of the Plymouth breakwater. 
—Embalmed body of the first wife of the late Martin Van 
Butchell, prepared at his request in January, 1775, by Dr. 
William Hunter and Mr. Cruikshank. The method pursued 
in its preparation was, principally, that of injecting the 
vascular system with oil of turpentine and camphorated 
spirit of wine, and the introduction of powdered nitre and 
oamphor into the cavity of the abdomen, &c. 



172 SOANE MUSEUM. 

Works of Art. — Portrait of Jolm Hunter, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds ; the well-known picture so finely engraved by 
Sharp : it has sadly faded. Posthumous bust of John Hunter, 
by Flaxman. Bust of Cline, by Chantrey (fine). 

SOANE MUSEUM, 13, Lincoln's Inn Fields, north side; 
formed and founded in his own house by Sir John Soane, 
son of a bricklayer at Reading, and architect of the Bank of 
England (d. 1837). 

The Soane Museum is open to general visitors on Mondays, 
Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays during the months of 
April, May, and June, in each year, and likewise on Tues- 
days, from the first in February to the last in August, for the 
accommodation of foreigners ; persons making but a short 
stay in London ; artists ; and those who, from particular 
circumstances, may be prevented from visiting the Museum 
in the months first specified, and to whom it may be con- 
sidered proper that such favour should be conceded. 
Foreigners are admitted when the Museum is open on pro- 
ducing a card, to be obtained at the several embassies. 

Persons desirous of obtaining Admission to the Museum 
can apply either to a Trustee, by letter to the Curator, or 
personally at the Museum a day or two before they desire to 
visit it ; in the latter case, the applicant is expected to leave 
a card, containing the name and address of the party 
desiring admission, and the number of persons proposed to 
be introduced, or the same can be entered in a book kept 
for the purpose in the Hall, when, unless there appears to 
the Curator any satisfactory reason to the contrary, a Card 
of Admission for the nest open day is forwarded by post to 
the given address. 

Access to the Books, Drawings, MSS., or permission to 
copy Pictures or other Works of Art, is to be obtained by 
special application to the Trustees or the Curator. 

The house was built in 1812, and the collection is dis- 
tributed over 21 rooms. There is much that is valuable, 
and a good deal not worth much. Every corner and passage 
is turned to account. On the north and west sides of the 
Picture-room are Cabinets, and on the south arc Moveable 
Shutters, with sufficient space between for pictures. By this 
arrangement, the small space of 13 feet 8 inches in length, 
12 feet 4 inches in breadth, and 19 feet 6 inches high, is 
rendered capable of containing as many pictures as a gallery 
of the same height, 45 feet long and 20 feet broad. Observe. 
— The Egyptian Sarcophagus, discovered by Belzoni, Oct. 
19 th, 181 1>, in a tomb in the valley of Beban el Malook, near 



SOANE MUSEUM. 173 

Gouruou. It is formed of one single piece of alabaster, or 
arragonite, measuring 9 feet 4 inches in length by 3 feet 8 
inches in width, and 2 feet 8 inches in depth, and covered 
internally and externally with elaborate hieroglyphics. 
When a lamp is placed within it, the light shines through, 
though it is 1\ inches in thickness. On the interior of the 
bottom is a full-length figure, representing the Egyptian Isis, 
the guardian of the dead. It was pvirchased by Soane, from 
Mr. Salt, in 1824, for 2000Z. The raised lid or cover, broken 
into nineteen fragments, lies beneath it. Sir Gardner 
Wilkinson considers that it is a cenotaph rather than a 
sarcophagus, and the name inscribed to be that of Osirei, 
father of Ramases the Great. — Sixteen original sketches and 
models, by Flaxman, including one of the few casts in 
plaster of the Shield of Achilles. — Six original sketches and 
models by T. Banks, R.A., including the Boothby Monument, 
one of his finest works. — A large collection of ancient gems, 
entaglios, &c, under glass, and in a very good light. Set of 
the Napoleon medals, selected by the Baron Denon for the 
Empress Josephine, and once in her possession. — Sir Chris- 
topher Wren's watch. — Carved and gilt ivory table and four 
ivory chairs, formerly in Tippoo Saib's palace at Seringapatam. 
— Richly mounted pistol, said to have been taken by Peter 
the Great from the Bey, Commander of the Turkish army at 
Azof, 1696, and presented by the Emperor Alexander to 
Napoleon, at the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807 : Napoleon took it 
to St. Helena, from whence it was brought by a French 
officer, to whom he had presented it. — The original copy of 
the Gerusalemme Liberata, in the handwriting of Tasso. 
— First four folio editions of Shakspeare (J. P. Kemble's 
copies). — A folio of designs for Elizabethan and James I. 
houses by John Thorpe, an architect of those reigns. — Faunt- 
leroy's Illustrated copy of Pennant's London ; purchased by 
Soane for 650 guineas. — Commentary on St. Paul's Epistles, 
illuminated by Giulio Clovio for Cardinal Grimani. — Three 
Canalctti's — one A View on the Grand Canal of Venice, 
extremely fine. — The Snake in the Grass, or Love unloosing 
the Zone of Beauty, by Sir Joshua Reynolds ; purchased at 
the sale of the Marchioness of Thomond's pictures, for 5001. 
— The Rake's Progress, by Hogarth, a series of 8 pictures ; 
purchased by Soane in 1802 for 598/. — 1. The Rake comes to 
his Fortune ; 2. The Rake as a Fine Gentleman ; 3. The 
Rake in a Bagnio ; 4. The Rake Arrested ; 5. The Rake's 
Marriage : 6. The Rake at the Gaming Table ; 7. The Rake in 
Prison ; 8. The Rake in Bedlam. — The Election, by Hogarth, 
a series of four pictures ; purchased by Soane, at Mrs. 



174 MUSEUM OF PRACTICAL GEOLOGY. 

Garrick's sale in 1823, for 1732?. 105.— Van Tromp's Barge 
entering the Texel, by J". M. W. Turner, R.A. — Portrait of 
Napoleon in 1797, by Francesco Goma. — Miniature of Napoleon, 
painted at Elba in 1814, by Isabcy. — In the Dining-room is a 
portrait of Soane, by Sir T. Lawrence ; and in the Gallery 
under the dome, a bust of him by Sir F. Chant rcy. 

UNITED SERVICE MUSEUM, United Service Insti- 
tution, Whitehall Yard. Founded 1830, as a central 
repository for objects of professional arts, science, natural 
history, books and documents relating to those objects, and 
for the delivery of lectures on appropriate subjects. Hours 
of Admission for Visitors. — Summer months, April to Sep- 
tember, from 11 to 5; winter months, from 11 to 4. Mode 
of Admission. — Member's order, easily procurable. The 
members are above 4000 in number. Entrance-fee, 11. ; 
annual subscription, 105. ; life subscription, 6/. The Museum 
of the Institution contains much that will repay a visit. 
Observe. — Basket-hilted cut-and-thrust sword, used by Oliver 
Cromwell at the siege of Drogheda (1649), — the blade bears 
the marks of two musket-balls ; sword worn by General 
Wolfe when he fell at Quebec (1659) ; sash used in carrying 
Sir John Moore from the field, and lowering him into his 
grave on the ramparts at Corunna ; part of the deck of the 
Victory on which Nelson fell ; rudder of the Royal George 
sunk at Spithead ; skeleton of Marengo, the barb-horse which 
Napoleon rode at Waterloo ; Captain Siborne's elaborate and 
faithful model of the field and battle of Waterloo. 

MUSEUM op PRACTICAL GEOLOGY, No. 28, to 32, 
Jermyn Street, established 1835, in consequence of a repre- 
sentation to the Government by Sir Henry de la Beche, C.B. 
(Honorary Director), that the geological survey, then under 
the Ordnance, and in progress in Cornwall, possessed great 
opportunities of illustrating the application of geology to the 
useful purposes of life. The collections were at first placed 
in Craig's-court, Charing-cross, but they augmented so 
rapidly, chiefly from donations, that a larger building became 
necessary for them, and the present handsome and well- 
contrived Museum (Mr. Pcnncthorne, architect,) was opened 
in 1851. The best use has been made of the space, and a 
building better fitted for its purposes could not have been 
devised. It cost 30,000/. The Museum is a School of Minos, 
similar, as far as circumstances permit, to the Ecole de3 
Mines and other institutions of the like kind on the Con- 
tinent. Already a very valuable collection of mining records 



OPERAS AND THEATRES. 175 

has been formed. The collections, gratuitously open to 
public inspection, are large and rapidly increasing, chiefly, as 
at first, from donations. They comprise illustrations of the 
geology of the United Kingdom and its colonies, and of the 
application of geology to the useful purposes of life; nu- 
merous models of mining works, mining machinery, metal- 
lurgical processes, and other operations, with needful maps, 
sections, and drawings, aiding a proper and comprehensive 
view of the general subject. 

The MISSIONARIES' MUSEUM, Bloomfield Street, 
Moorfields, comprises a collection of objects of Natural 
History, and the original idols of the natives of the South 
Seas, prior to the introduction of Christianity : also other 
curiosities from the various regions to which the influence of 
the Missionary Society extends. The Museum is open for 
public inspection free, on Tuesdays, Thursdays, and Satur- 
days, from 10 to 4, from March 25th to September 29th ; the 
rest of the year from 10 to 3. 



THEATRES AND PLACES OF AMUSEMENT. 

HER MAJESTY'S THEATRE, or the Opera House, 
in the Haymarket. This, the largest theatre in Europe, 
except that of La Scala at Milan, and the second theatre on 
the same site, was built (1790) from the designs of Michael 
Novosielski, and altered and enlarged by Nash and Repton 
in 1816-18. The -first theatre on the site was built and 
established (1705) by Sir John Vanbrugh, and burnt down in 
1789. Many of the double boxes on the grand tier have sold 
for as much as 7000£. and 8000Z. ; a box on the pit tier has 
sold for 4000Z. The leading attractions of this house are 
(1851) the Countess Rossi (Sontag) Mademoiselle Duprez, 
Carlotta Grisi, &c. The leader of the band is Mr. Balfe. 
Boxes let at prices averaging 21s. a seat, but on special occa- 
sions prices are raised. Most of the boxes hold 1 persons, 
some on the lower tiers contain 8 or even 10 persons ; Stalls 
at 15s. to 25s./ Pit at 8s. Those who resort to the pit must 
go early, and prepare for a squeeze. It was here that Jenny 
Lind sang. The Crush Room at the Opera, so called from 
its crowded character, abuts from the avenue leading to the 
pit. 



17(J THE OPERA. 

The ROYAL ITALIAN OPERA, at Coyent Garden 
Theatre, on the west side of Bow-street, Coveut-garden, 
is the second theatre on the same spot. The first stone 
of the present edifice was laid (1808) by the Prince of 
Wales, and the theatre opened (1809) at "new prices:" 
hence the 0. P. (Old Prices) Row. The architect was 
Sir Robert Srnirke, R.A., and the statues of Tragedy and 
Comedy, and the two bas-reliefs on the Bow-street front, are 
by Flaxman. The expenses of Covent-garden Theatre are so 
very great that it has long been unlet for the purposes of 
the legitimate drama. M. Jullien held his Promenade 
Concerts in it for some time, and in 1843-45, it was leased 
by the members of the Anti-Corn-Law League. Great altera- 
tions were made in the spring of 1847, under the direction 
of Mr. Albano, and on Tuesday, April 6th, 1847, it was pub- 
licly opened as an Italian Opera, but with such an extrava- 
gance of expenditure, that in 1S48 there was a loss of 
34,756?., and in 1849 of 25,455?. In one year (1S4S), the 
Vocal Department cost 33,349?. * the Ballet, *8105?. ; and the 
Orchestra, 10,048?. Some further notion of the cost of the 
Italian Opera in this country may be obtained from Mr. 
Delafield's expenses : — Mdlle. Alboni received 4000?. ; the 
artists' engagements for the season amounted to 26,000?. ; the 
rent, 6000?. ; band, 7000?. ; weekly expenses, gas, chorusses, 
&c, 13,800?. ; incidental expenses, 3000? ; being an expendi- 
ture of 55,800?. for 66 nights, or 845?. per night. Madame 
Sontag is stated to have entered into an engagement with 
Mr. Lumley for a period of eight months, at the round sum 
of 12,500?. The chief artistes at this house are (1851) 
Madame Grisi, Madame Viardot, Ronconi, &c. The lessee is 
Frederick Gye, Esq. ; and the leader of the band, M. Costa. 

DRURY LANE THEATRE, is the oldest in London. The 
present edifice, the fourth on the same site, was erected and 
opened 1812, with a prologue by Lord Byron. Mr. B. Wyatt, 
son of James Wyatt, was the architect. The portico towards 
Brydges-street was added during the lesseeship of Elliston 
(1819-26), and the colonnade in Little Russell-street a few 
years after. Since the close of Mr. Macready's season, June 
14th, 1843, the (jlories of old Drury may be said to have alto- 
gether departed. Mr. Anderson is at present the lessee, and 
is making a struggle to fill his house with English Operas, 
and other ingenious attractions. Within the vestibule is a 
marble statue of Edmund Kean as Hamlet, by Carew. It is 
like — but the attraction of Kean in Hamlet was the witchery 
of his voice. 



HAYMARKET THEATRE. 177 

The HAYMARKET THEATRE (over against the Opera 
House in the Haymarket) was built by Nash, and publicly 
opened July 4th, 1821. It stands on a piece of ground 
immediately adjoining a former theatre of the same name, 
and is still distinguished in the play-bills as the " Little 
Theatre." The lessee is Mr. Benjamin Webster, who has 
done, and is still doing, more towards upholding the English 
Drama than any other person (Mr. Phelps not excepted) now 
connected with the stage. Prices of admission : — Stalls, 
Dress Circle and Boxes, 5s. ; Pit, 3s. The half-price at this 
theatre commences at 9. 

The ADELPHI THEATRE, over against Adam Street, 
in the Strand, was built (1806) on speculation by Mr. John 
Scott, a colour-maker. The entertainments consisted of a 
mechanical and optical exhibition, with songs, recitations, 
and imitations ; and the talents of Miss Scott, the daughter 
of the proprietor, gave a profitable turn to the undertaking. 
The old front towards the Strand was a mere house-front : 
the present gin-palace facade was built in 1841. When 
'•' Tom and Jerry," by Pierce Egan, appeared for the first 
time (Nov. 26th, 1821), Wrench as " Tom," and Reeve as 
"Jerry," the little Adelphi, as it was then called, became a 
favourite with the public. Its fortunes varied under different 
managements. Terry and Yates became (1825) the joint 
lessees and managers. Terry was backed by Sir Walter Scott 
and his friend Ballantyne, the printer, but Scott, in the 
sequel, had to pay for both Ballantyne and himself. Charles 
Mathews, in conjunction with Yates, leased the theatre, and 
gave here (1828-31) his series of inimitable "At Homes.' 
Here John Reeve drew large houses, and obtained his reputa- 
tion ; and here Wright and Paul Bedford maintain the former 
character of the establishment. Prices of admission : — 
Boxes, ; Pit, 

The ROYAL LYCEUM THEATRE, or English Opera 
House, is in the Strand, at the corner of Upper Wellington- 
street ; it was built, in 1834, by Mr. S. Beazley. The 
interior decorations were made in Madame Vestris's time 
(1847), and are very beautiful. The theatre derives its name 
from an academy or exhibition room, built in 1765, for 
the Society of Arts, by Mr. James Payne, the architect. It 
was first converted into a theatre in 1790, and into an 
English Opera House by Mr. Arnold in 1809. The preceding 
theatre (also the work of Mr. Beazley) was destroyed by fire, 
Feb. 16th, 1830. This theatre is under the management of 

N 



178 ASTLEY S. 

Madame Vestris and Mr. Charles Mathews, and during the 
season never fails to produce attractive pieces. Prices of 
admission : — Dress Circle and Boxes, 5s. ; Upper Boxes, ; 

Pit, 2s. There is no half-price. 

The ST. JAMES'S THEATRE is a small neat edifice, on 
the south side of King Street. St. James's, built by Beazley 
for Braham, the singer. During the summer it is usually 
appropriated to the performances of a French company of 
actors, and in the height of the London season is well fre- 
quented. The prices of admission vary every season. 

SADLER'S WELLS THEATRE, long a well-known place 
of public amusement : first a music-house, and so called from 
a spring of mineral water, discovered by one Sadler, in 1683, 
in the garden of a house which he had newly opened as a 
public music-room, and called by his own name as " Sadler's 
Music House." The New River flows past the theatre, and 
on great occasions has been earned under the stage, and the 
flooring removed, for the exhibition of aquatic performances. 
Here Grimaldi, the famous clown, achieved his greatest 
triumphs. This admirable little theatre (for such it now is, 
under the able management of Mr. Phelps, the actor,) has for 
some years maintained a well-deserved celebrity for the per- 
formance of the plays of Shakspeare, Beaumont and Fletcher, 
Massinger, &c, in a way worthy of a larger theatre, and a 
richer, but not a more crowded or enthusiastic, audience. 
Prices of admission : — Boxes, ; Pit, . 

ASTLEY'S AMPHITHEATRE, Westminster Bridge 
Road, a theatre and circus, under the management of Mr. 
Batty, well conducted and well patronised, and the fourth 
building of the same nature on the same site. The first 
amphitheatre on this spot was a mere temporary erection of 
deal boards, built (1774) by Philip Astley, a light-horseman 
in the 15th or General Elliot's regiment. It stood on what 
was then an open piece of ground in St. George's Fields, 
through which the New Cut ran, and to which a halfpenny 
hatch led. The price of admission to the space without the 
railing of the ride was 6rf., and Astley himself, said to have 
been the handsomest man in England, was the chief performer, 
assisted by a drum, two fifes, and a clown of the name of 
Porter. At first it was an open area. In 1780, it was con- 
verted into a covered amphitheatre, and divided into pit, 
boxes, and gallery. In 1786, it was newly fitted up, and 
called "The Royal Grove," and in 1702, "The Royal Saloon, 



THE SURREY. 179 

or Astley's Amphitheatre." The entertainment, at first, was 
only a day exhibition of horsemanship. Transparent fire- 
works, slack-rope vaulting, Egyptian Pyramids, tricks on 
chairs, tumbling, &c, were subsequently added, the ride 
enlarged, and the house opened in the evening. It is now 
both theatre and amphitheatre. Astley's amphitheatre has 
been thrice destroyed by fire — in 1794, in 1803, and in 1841. 

" Base Buonaparte, fill'd with deadly ire, 
Sets, one by one, our playhouses on fire. 
Some years ago he pounced with deadly glee on 
The Opera House, then burnt down the Pantheon ; 
Thy hatch, O Halfpenny ! pass'd in a trice, 
Boil'd some black pitch, and burnt down Astley's twice." 

Rejected Addresses. 

Mr. Ducrow, who had been one of Astley's riders and became 
manager, died insane soon after the fire in 1841. Old Astley, 
who was born at Newcastle-under-Line in 1742, died in Paris, 
Oct. 20th, 1814. For the equestrian performances in the 
circus (the leading attraction) you need not go before 9 at 
night. 

The VICTORIA THEATRE is in Waterloo Bridge 
Road, Lambeth. It was originally The Coburg, and called 
The Victoria for the first time soon after the accession of 
William IV., when her present Majesty was only heir pre- 
sumptive to the crown. The gallery at the " Vic " (for such 
is its brief cognomen about Lambeth) is one of the largest in 
London. It will hold from 1500 to 2000 people, and runs 
back to so great a distance, that the end of it is lost in shadow, 
excepting where the little gas-jets, against the wall, light up 
the two or three faces around them. When the gallery is 
well packed, it is usual to see piles of boys on each others' 
shoulders at the back, while on the partition-boards, dividing 
off the slips, lads will pitch themselves despite the spikes. 

The SURREY or CIRCUS THEATRE, in Blackfriars 
Road, was built (1805-6) on the site of a former edifice 
destroyed by fire in 1805. Elliston leased it for a time ; and, 
subsequently, the late Mr. Davidge acquired a handsome 
fortune by his management. John Palmer, the actor (d. 
1798), played here while a prisoner within the Rules of the 
King's Bench. The large sums he received, and the way in 
which he squandered his money, is said to have suggested 
the clause in the then Debtors' Act, which made all public- 
houses and place of amusement out of the Rules. This house 
is chiefly supported by the inhabitants of Southwark and 
of Lambeth. 

N 2 



180 ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS. 

The PRINCESS'S THEATRE is in Oxford Street, 
nearly opposite the Pantheon. It was built and is the 

best theatre in London for the purposes of a manager and 
the interests of the public. The present lessees are 
Mr. Charles Kean and Mr. Robert Keeley. 

The SOHO THEATRE (late Miss Kelly's) is in Dean 
Street, Soho, and is let to private parties for amateur 
theatricals. The house will hold 700 people. 

EXETER HALL, in the Strand. A large proprietary 
building on the N. side of the Strand, built (1831) from the 
designs of J. P. Deering, but altered in the ceiling and 
lengthened about 40 feet, in 1850, by Mr. S. W. Dawkes. 
The Hall is 131 feet long, 76 feet wide (i.e. 8 feet wider than 
"Westminster Hall), and 45 feet high; and will contain, in 
comfort, more than 3000 persons. It is let for the annual 
"■May Meetings "of the several religious societies, and for the 
concerts of the Sacred Harmonic Society, in which the un- 
rivalled music of Handel is at times performed, with a chorus 
of 700 voices accompanying it. Tickets may be had at the 
principal music-sellers, and at offices adjoining the Hall. 

ST. MARTIN'S HALL, Long Acre. A place for monthly 
concerts, &c. Erected in 1850 for Mr. John Hullah. 

ALMACK'S is a suite of Assembly-rooms in King Street, 
St. James's, built (1765) by Robert Mylne, architect, and 
called Almack's after the original proprietor, and occasionally 
" "Willis's Rooms," after the present proprietor. The balls 
called " Almack's," for which these rooms are famous, are 
managed by a Committee of Ladies of high rank, and the 
only mode of admission is by vouchers or personal intro- 
duction. Almack kept the Thatched House Tavern, St. 
James's-street, on the site of which stands the Conservative 
Club. The rooms are let for concerts, general meetings, and 
public balls. 

The ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, in Regent's Park, be- 
long to the Zoological Society of London, a Society instituted 
in 3 826, for the advancement of Zoology, and the introduction 
and exhibition of the Animal Kingdom alive or properly 
preserved. The principal founders wore Sir Humphry Davy, 
and Sir Stamford Raffles. Visitors are admitted to theGardens 
of the Society without orders on Monday in every week, at 
6d. each ; on the following days at 1*. each : children ;it '}(/. 



ROYAL SOCIETY. 181 

The Gardens are open from 9 in the morning till sunset. The 
rooms of the Society are at No. 11, Hanover-square. A mem- 
ber's fee on admission is 51., and his annual subscription 3Z. 
These Gardens are among the best of our London sights, and 
should be seen by every stranger in London. The giraffes 
and rattle-snakes are very rare and fine, but the attractions of 
the Gardens for the last year and a half have been the Hippo- 
potamus, presented by the Viceroy of Egypt, and the first ever 
brought to this country, the Elephant Calf, and the Uran 
Utan from Singapore. The collection of living snakes is the 
largest ever formed in Europe. The recent attraction is a 
collection of stuffed humming birds, the property of Mr. 
Gould, author of the " Birds of Europe," " Birds of Aus- 
tralia," &c, allowed by ornithologists to be the finest in 
the world. The collection consists of about 2000 specimens 
of 300 species, arranged in upwards of 40 glass-cases, each of 
which contains a genus, and every pane or compartment a 
species in different states of age and colour. The band of the 
First Life Guards plays in the gardens every Saturday at 4. 
The pelicans are fed at half-past 2 ; the otters at 3 ; the 
eagles at half-past 3 (Wednesdays excepted) ; and the lions 
and tigers at 4. 

The SURREY ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS, two miles 
from Waterloo Bridge, contain the menagerie of Mr. Cross, 
by whom the grounds were laid out (1831-2), after the demo- 
lition of Exeter 'Change and the Mews at Charing Cross. 
The collection in some respects is superior to the Zoological 
Gardens in the Regent's Park. The fetes and exhibitions in 
the summer months in these gardens are among the attrac- 
tions of the Surrey side of London. The grounds are about 
15 acres in extent, with a sheet of water of nearly 3 acres. 
Admission Is. 



LEARNED INSTITUTIONS. 

The ROYAL SOCIETY, in Somerset House, (on your left 
as you enter the vestibule,) was incorporated by royal charter 
in 1663, King Charles II. and the Duke of York (James II.) 
entering their names as members of the Society. Like the 
Society of Antiquaries, and perhaps all other institutions, this 
celebrated Society (boasting of the names of Newton, Wren, 
Halley, Herschell, Davy, and Watt, among its members) 



182 ROYAL SOCIETY. 

originated in a small attendance of men engaged in the same 
pursuits, and dates its beginning from certain weekly meet- 
ings held in London, as early as the year 1645. The merit 
of suggesting such meetings is assigned by Wallis (himself a 
foundation member) to Theodore Haak, a German of the 
Palatinate, then resident in London. The Civil War inter- 
rupted their pursuits for a time ; but with the Restoration of 
the King, a fresh accession of strength was obtained, new 
members enlisted, and the charter of incorporation granted. 
The Society consists at present of about 766 "Fellows," and 
the letters F.R.S. are generally appended to the name of a 
member. The present entrance money is 101., and the annual 
subscription Al. ; members are elected by ballot, upon the 
nomination of 6 or more fellows. The patron saint of the 
Society is St. Andrew, and the anniversary meeting is held 
every 30th of November, being St. Andrew's Day. The pre- 
sent President is the Earl of Rosse, distinguished for the 
discoveries he is making with his great telescope. The 
Society possesses some interesting portraits. Observe. — 
Three portraits of Sir Isaac Newton — one by O. Jew as, pre- 
sented by Newton himself, and properly suspended over the 
President's chair — a second in the Library, by D. C. Mar- 
chand — and a third in the Assistant Secretary's Office, by 
Vanderbank; two portraits of Halley, by Thomas Murray and 
Dahl; two of Hobbes — one taken in 1663 by, says Aubrey, 
" a good hand " — and the other by Gaspars, presented by 
Aubrey; Sir Christopher Wren, by Kneller; Wallis, by Soest ; 
Flamstead, by Gibson; Robert Boyle, by F. Kerseboom, 
(Evelyn says it is like) ; Pepys, by Kneller, presented by Pepys; 
Lord Somers, by Kneller; Sir R. Southwell, by Kneller; Sir 
H. Spelman, the antiquary, by Mytens (how it came here I 
know not) ; Sir Hans Sloane, by Kneller; Dr. Birch, by Wills, 
the original of the mezzotint done by Faber in 1741, be- 
queathed by Birch ; Martin Folkes, by Hogarth; Dr. Wollas- 
ton, by Jackson; Sir Humphry Davy, by Sir. T. Lawrence. 
Observe also. — The mace of silver gilt (similar to the maces 
of the Lord Chancellor, the Speaker, and President of the 
College of Physicians) presented to the Society by Charles IT. 
in 1662. The belief so long entertained, that it was the 
mace or "bauble," as Cromwell called it, of the Long Parlia- 
ment, has been completely refuted by Mr. Weld producing 
the original warrant of the year 1662, for the special making 
of this very mace. — A solar dial, made by Sir Isaac Newton 
when a boy; a reflecting telescope, made in 1671, by Newton's 
own hands; MS. of the Principia, in Newton's own hand- 
writing; lock of Newton's hair, silver white; MS. of the 



ROYAL ACADEMY. 183 

Parentalia, by young Wren; Charter Book of the Society, 
bound in crimson velvet, containing the signatures of the 
Founder and Fellows ; a Rumford fire-place, one of the first 
set up ; original model of Sir Humphry Davy's Safety Lamp, 
made by his own hands ; marble bust of Mrs. Somerville, by 
Chantrey. The Society possesses a Donation Fund, estab- 
lished to aid men of science in their researches, and distributes 
four medals : a Rumford gold medal, two Royal medals, and 
a Copley gold medal, called by Davy "the ancient olive crown 
of the Royal Society." 

ROYAL ACADEMY OF ARTS, Trafalgar Square, 
located E. wing of the National Gallery, constituted 1768. 
Its principal objects are — 1. The establishment of a well- 
regulated " School, or Academy of Design," for the use of 
students in the arts ; and, 2. An " annual exhibition," open 
to all artists of distinguished merit, where they might offer 
their performances to public inspection, and acquire that 
degree of reputation and encouragement which they should 
be deemed to deserve. It is called by its members "a 
private society, supporting a school that is open to the 
public." The members are under the superintendence and 
control of the Queen only, who confirms all appointments ; 
and the society itself consists of 40 Royal Academicians ; 
(including a President), 20 Associates, and 6 Associate 
Engravers. The Royal Academy derives the whole of its 
funds from the produce of its annual exhibition, to which the 
price of admission is Is., and the catalogue Is. The average 
annual receipts are about 6000Z. The annual exhibition opens 
the first Monday in May, and works intended for exhibition 
must be sent in at least three weeks or a month before — but 
of this due notice is given in all the public papers. No 
works which have been already exhibited ; no copies of any 
kind (excepting paintings on enamel) ; no mere transcripts of 
the objects of natural history ; no vignette portraits, nor any 
drawings without backgrounds (excepting architectural de- 
signs), can be received. No artist is allowed to exhibit more 
than 8 different works. Honorary exhibitors (or unprofes- 
sional artists) are limited to one. All works sent for exhibi- 
tion are submitted to the approval or rejection of the council, 
whose decision is final, and may be ascertained by application 
at the Academy in the week after they have been left there. 

Mode of obtaining A dmission. — Any person desiring to be- 
come a student of the Royal Academy, presents a drawing or 
model of his own performance to the keeper, which, if con- 
sidered by him a proof of sufficient ability, is laid before the 



184 ROYAL ACADEMY. 

Council, together with a testimony of his moral character, 
from an Academician, or other known person of respectability. 
If these are approved by the Council, the candidate is per- 
mitted to make a drawing or model from one of the antique 
figures in the Academy, and the space of three months from 
the time of receiving such permission is allowed for that 
purpose; the time of his attendance is from 10 o'clock in the 
morning until 3 in the afternoon. This drawing or model, 
when finished, is laid before the Council, accompanied with 
outline drawings of an anatomical figure and skeleton, not less 
than two feet high, with lists and references, on each drawing, 
of the several muscles, tendons, and bones contained therein, 
together with the drawing or model originally presented for 
his admission as a probationer : if approved, the candidate is 
accepted as a student of the Royal Academy, and receives in 
form the ticket of his admission from the hand of the keeper 
in the Antique School. If the specimen presented be rejected 
by the Council, he is not allowed to continue drawing in the 
Academy. Tho rule for Architectural Students is of a like 
character. 

The first president was Sir Joshua Reynolds — the present 
president is Sir Charles Lock Eastlake. The 10th of 
February is the day on which the vacancies in the list of 
Royal Academicians are filled up ; November the month for 
electing Associates, and the 10th of December the day for the 
annual distribution of prizes. The Royal Academy possesses 
a fine library of books of prints, and a large collection of casts 
from the antique, and several interesting pictures by old 
masters. The library is open to the students. Each mem- 
ber on his election presents a picture, or a work of art, of his 
own design and execution, to the collection of the Academy. 
The series thus obtained is interesting in the history of 
British art. Observe among the Diploma, pictures. — Portrait 
of Sir William Chambers, the architect, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds (very fine) ; Portrait of Reynolds in his Doctor's 
Robes, by himself (very fine); Boys digging for a rat, by 
Sir David Wilkie. Works of Art in the possession of the 
Academy. — 1. Cartoon of the Holy Family, in black chalk, 
by L. Da Vinci; executed with extreme care, and engraved 
by Anker Smith (very fine) ; the Holy Virgin is repre- 
sented on the lap of St. Anna, her mother ; she bends 
down tenderly to the infant Christ, who plays with a iamb. 
2. Bas-relief, in marble, of the Holy Family, by Mi chad 
Angelo; presented by Sir George Beaumont. St. John is 
presenting a dove to the child Jesus, who shrinks from 
it and shelters himself in the arms of his mother, who 



COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS. 185 

.seems gently reproving St. John for his hastiness, and 
putting him back with her hand. The child is finished 
and the mother in great part : the St. John is only sketched, 
but in a most masterly style. 3. Copy, in oil, of Da 
Vmci's Last Supper (size of the original), by Marco dOggione, 
a scholar of Leonardo, and is very valuable, perhaps 
representing more exactly Leonardo's grand design than 
the original itself in its present mutilated state at Milan. 
This was formerly in the Certosa at Pavia. 4. Marble bust 
of Wilton, the sculptor, by Roubiliac. The mode of obtain- 
ing admission to view these pictures, &c, is by a written 
application to the keeper, addressed " Charles Landseer, Esq., 
R.A., Royal Academy of Arts, Trafalgar Square." 

ROYAL ACADEMY OF MUSIC, 4, Texterdex Street, 
Hanover Square. Founded (1822) by the present Earl of 
"Westmoreland, who confided its organisation and general 
direction to Bochsa, the composer and harpist, at that time 
director to the Italian Opera in London. This is an academy, 
with in-door and out-door students, the in-door paying 50 
guineas a-year and 10 guineas entrance fee, and the out-door 
30 guineas a-year and 5 guineas entrance fee. Some previous 
knowledge is required, and the students must provide them- 
selves with the instruments they propose or are appointed to 
learn. There is a large Musical Library. Four scholarships, 
called King's Scholarships, have been founded by the 
Academy, two of which, one male and one female, are con- 
tended for annually at Christmas. 

ROYAL COLLEGE OF PHYSICIANS, in Pall Mall 
East, corner of Trafalgar Square, was built by Sir Robert 
Smirke, for 30,000?., and opened (1825) with a Latin oration 
by Sir Henry Halford. The College was founded by Linacre, 
physician to Henry VIII. The members, at its first institu- 
tion, met in the founder's house in Knightrider-street on the 
site of No. 5, still (by Linacre's bequest) in the possession of 
the College. From the founder's house they moved to 
Amen-corner (where Harvey read his lectures on the discovery 
of the circulation of the blood); from thence (1674), after 
the Great Fire, to Warwick-lane (where Wren built them a 
college which still remains), and from Warwick-lane and 
the stalls about Newgate Market to their present College 
in Pall-mall East. Observe. — In the gallery above the 
library seven preparations by Harvey, discoverer of the 
circulation of the blood, and a very large number by Dr. 
Matthew Baillie. — The engraved portrait of Harvey, by 



186 heralds' college. 

Jansen, three-quarter, seated ; head of Sir Thomas Browne, 
author of Religio Medici ; three-quarter of Sir Theodore 
Mayerne, physician to James I. ; three-quarter of Sir Edmund 
King, the physician who bled Bang Charles II. in a fit, on 
his own responsibility ; head of Dr. Sydenham, by Mary 
Beale ; three-quarter of Dr. Radcliffe, by Kneller; Sir Hans 
Sloane, by Richardson; Sir Samuel Garth, by Kneller; 
Dr. Freind, three-quarter, seated ; Dr. Mead, three-quarter, 
seated ; Dr. Warren, by Gainsborough ; William Hunter, 
three-quarter, seated ; Dr. Heberden. Busts. — George IV., 
by Chantrcy (one of his finest) ; Dr. Mead, by Rotibiliac ; 
Dr. Sydenham, by Wilton (from the picture) ; Harvey, 
by Scheemakers (from the picture) ; Dr. Baillie, by Chantrcy 
(from a model by Nollekens) ; Dr. Babington, by Bchnes. 
— Dr. Radcliffe's gold-headed cane, successively carried by 
Drs. Radcliffe, Mead, Askew, Pitcairn, and Matthew Baillie 
(presented to the College by Mrs. Baillie); and a clever 
little picture, by Z off any, of Hunter delivering a lecture on 
anatomy before the members of the Royal Academy — all 
portraits. Mode of Admission. — Order from a fellow. Almost 
every physician of eminence in London is a fellow. 

ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS, Lincoln's Inn 
Fields. See Public Exhibitions, p. 170. 

The HERALDS' COLLEGE, or College of Arms, is in 
Doctors' Commons. The apartments of Garter King at Arms, 
at the N.E. corner, were built at the expense of Sir William 
Dugdale, Garter in the reign of Charles II. Here is the Earl 
Marshal's Office, once an important court, but now of little con- 
sequence. It was sometime called the Court of Honour, and 
took cognizance of words supposed to reflect upon the nobility. 
The appointment of Heralds is in the gift of the Duke of 
Norfolk, as hereditary Earl Marshal. The College consists of 
3 Kings — Garter, Clarencieux, and Norroy ; of 6 Heralds — 
Lancaster, Somerset, Richmond, Windsor, York, and Chester ; 
and of 4 Pursuivants — Rouge Croix, Blue Mantle, Portcullis, 
and Rouge Dragon. The several appointments are in the 
gift of the Duke of Norfolk, as hereditary Earl Marshal. 
Celebrated Officers of the College. — William Camden, Claren- 
cieux; Sir William Dugdale, Garter ; Elias Ashmole, founder 
of the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, Windsor Jh raid; 
Francis Sandford, author of the Genealogical History of 
England, Lancaster Herald; John Anstis, Garter; Sir John 
Vanbrugb, the poet, Clarencieux ; Francis Grose, author of 
Grose's Antiquities, Richmond Herald ; William Oldys, Norroy 



SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES. 187 

King at Arms; Lodge ("Lodge's Portraits"), Clarencieux. 
Two escutcheons, oue bearing the arms (and legs) of the Isle 
of Man, and the other the eagle's claw, ensigns of the house 
of Stanley, still to be seen on the S. side of the quadrangle, 
denote the site of old Derby House, in which the Heralds were 
located before the Great Fire of London. Observe. — Sword, 
dagger, and turquoise ring, belonging to James IV. of Scotland, 
who fell at Flodden-field, presented to the college by the 
Duke of Norfolk, temp. Charles II. 

" They produce a better evidence of James's death than the iron-belt 
— the monarch's sword and dagger, which are still preserved in the 
Heralds' College in London." — Sir Walter Scott {Note to Marmiori). 

Portrait of Talbot, Earl of Shrewsbury (the great warrior), 
from his tomb in old St. Paul's. Roll of the Tournament 
holden at Westminster, in honour of Queen Katherine, upon 
the birth of Prince Henry (1510) : a most curious roll, 
engraved in the Monumenta Vetusta, Vol. I. — The Rous or 
Warwick roll : a series of figures of all the Earls of Warwick, 
from the Conquest to the reign of Richard III., executed by 
Rous, the antiquary of Warwick, at the close of the fifteenth 
century. — Pedigree of the Saxon Kings, from Adam, illus- 
trated with many beautiful drawings in pen-and-ink (temp. 
Henry VIII.) of the Creation, Adam and Eve in Paradise, the 
Building of Babel, Rebuilding of the Temple, &c. — MSS., con- 
sisting chiefly of Heralds' visitations ; records of grants of 
arms and royal licenses ; records of modern pedigrees (i. e. 
since the discontinuance of the visitations in 1687); a most 
valuable collection of official funeral certificates ; a portion of 
the Arundel MSS. ; the Shrewsbury or Cecil papers, from 
which Lodge derived his Illustrations of British History; 
notes, &c, made by Glover, Vincent, Philipot, and Dugdale ; 
a volume in the handwriting of the venerable Camden ; the 
collections of Sir Edward Walker, Secretary at War (temp. 
Charles I.). 

SOCIETY OF ANTIQUARIES has apartments in Somer- 
set House, first door on your left as you enter the vestibule. 
The Society was founded in 1707, by Wanley, Bagford, and 
a Mr. Talman. George II., in 1751, granted them a charter ; 
and in 1777, George III. set aside the apartments they still 
occupy. The terms at present are, 8 guineas admission, and 
4 guineas annually. Members are elected by ballot on the 
recommendation of at least three Fellows. The letters F.S.A. 
are generally appended to the names of members. Their 
Transactions, called the Archaeologia, commence in 1770, and 
contain much minute, but too often irrelevant, information. 



188 INSTITUTION OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 

Days of meeting, every Thursday at 8, from November to 
June. Anniversary meeting, April 23rd. The Society pos- 
sesses a Library and Museum. Observe. — Household Book 
of Jocky of Norfolk. — A large and interesting Collection of 
Early Proclamations, interspersed with Early Ballads, many 
unique. — T. Porter's Map of London (temp. Charles I.), once 
thought to be unique. — A folding Picture on Panel of the 
Preaching at Old St. Paul's in 1616.— Early Portraits of 
Edward IV. and Eichard III., engraved for the Third Series 
of Ellis's Letters. — Three-quarter Portrait of Mary I., with 
the monogram of Lucas de Heere, and the date 1544. — 
Portrait of Marquis of Winchester (d. 1571), (curious). — 
Portrait by Sir Antonio More of John Schoreel, a Flemish 
painter (More was the scholar of Schoreel). — Portraits of 
Antiquaries : Burton, the Leicestershire antiquary ; Peter le 
Neve ; Humphrey Wanley ; Baker, of St. John's College ; 
William Stukeley ; George Vertue ; Edward, Earl of Oxford, 
presented by Vertue. — A Bohemian Astronomical Clock of 
Gilt Brass, made by Jacob Zech in 1525, for Sigismund, King 
of Poland, and bought at the sale of the effects of James 
Ferguson, the astronomer. — Spur of Brass Gilt, found on 
Towton Field, the scene of the conflict between Edward IV. 
and the Lancastrian Forces. Upon the shanks is engraved 
the following posy:— "til lOtal amobl* tout lUOU tatV." 
For admission to the Museum apply by letter to " J. Y. Aker- 
man, Esq., F.S.A., Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, 
Somerset House." 

INSTITUTION OF CIVIL ENGINEERS, 25, Great 
George Street, Westminster. Established 1818 ; incor- 
porated 1828. The Institution consists of Members resident 
in London, paying 4 guineas annually, and Members not 
resident, 3 guineas annually ; of Associates resident in London 
paying, 3 guineas annually, and Associates not resident, 2\ 
guineas; of Graduates resident in London paying 2-g guineas 
annually, and Graduates not resident, 2 guineas ; and of 
Honorary Members. The ordinary General Meetings are 
held every Tuesday at 8 p.m., from the second Tuesday in 
January to the end of June. The first president was Thomas 
Telford (1820-34) ; the second, James Walker (1835-45) ; 
the third, Sir John Rennie ; and the present one, Joshua 
Field, Esq. Observe. — Portrait of Thomas Telford, engineer of 
the Menai Bridge, and President of the Institution for 14 years. 

ROYAL INSTITUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 16. 

Lower Grosvenor Street, Grosvenor Square. Founded 



ROYAL INSTITUTION. 189 

1834, for the advancement of architecture, and incorporated 
1 S37. There are three classes of Members : — 1. Fellows : archi- 
tects engaged as principals for at least seven years in the 
practice of civil architecture. 2. Associates : persons engaged 
in the study of civil architecture, or in practice less than seven 
years, and who have attained the age of 21. 3. Honorary 
Fellows. The Meetings are held every alternate Monday at 
8 p.m., from the first Monday in November till the end of 
June inclusive. Associate's admission fee, 1 guinea ; Fellow's 
admission fee, 5 guineas. There is a good library of books 
on architecture. 

ROYAL INSTITUTION OF GREAT BRITAIN, a 
Library, Reading, and Lecture Room, 21, Albemarle 
Street, Piccadilly. Established 1799, at a meeting held 
at the house of Sir Joseph Banks, for diffusing the knowledge 
and facilitating the general introduction of useful mechanical 
inventions and improvements, &c. Count Rumford was its 
earliest promoter. The front — a row of Corinthian columns 
half-engaged — was designed by Mr. Vulliamy, architect, from 
the Custom House at Rome ; and what before was little better 
than a perforated brick-wall, was thus converted into an 
ornamental facade. Here is an excellent library of general 
reference, and a good reading room, with weekly courses of 
lectures, throughout the season, on Chemical Philosophy, 
Physiology, Chemical Science, &c. The principal lecturers 
are Professors Faraday and Brande. Members (candidates to 
be proposed by four members) are elected by ballot, and a 
majority of two-thirds is necessary for election. The admission 
fee is 5 guineas, and the annual subscription 5 guineas. Sub- 
scribers to the Theatre Lectures only, or to the Laboratory 
Lectures only, pay 2 guineas; subscribers to both pay 3 
guineas for the season ; subscribers to a single course of the 
Theatre Lectures pay 1 guinea. A syllabus of each course 
may be obtained of the Secretary at the Institution. The 
Friday Evening Meetings, at which some eminent person is 
invited to deliver a popular lecture on some subject connected 
with science, art, or literature, are generally well attended. 
Non-subscribers may be admitted to them by a ticket signed 
by a member. Mr. Harris's printed catalogue of the Library is 
methodically digested and very useful. In the Laboratory, 
Davy made his great discoveries on the metallic bases of the 
earths, aided by the large galvanic apparatus of the establish- 
ment. 

ROYAL SOCIETY OF LITERATURE, 4, St. Martin's 
Place, Charing Cross. Founded in 1S23, "for the advance- 



190 ASIATIC SOCIETY. 

ment of literature," and incorporated 1826. George IV. gave 
1100 guineas a year to this Society, which has the merit of 
rescuing the last years of Coleridge's life from complete 
dependence on a friend, and of placing the learned Dr. 
Jamieson above the wants and necessities of a man fast 
sinking to the grave. The annual grant of 1100 guineas was 
discontinued by William IV., and the Society has since sank 
into a Transaction Society, with a small but increasing 
library. The opposition of Sir Walter Scott to the formation 
of a literary society of this kind was highly injurious to its 
success. " The immediate and direct favour of the sove- 
reign," says Scott, "is worth the patronage of ten thousand 
societies." 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON, Somerset 
House. Established 1807. The Museum of geological speci- 
mens, fossils, &c, not only British, but from all quarters of 
the globe, is extensive, though not perfectly arranged. It 
may be seen by the introduction of a member. The museum 
and library are open every day from 11 till 5. The number 
of fellows is about 875, and the time of meeting half-past 8 
o'clock in the evening of alternate AVednesdays, from Novem- 
ber to June inclusive. The Society has published its Trans- 
actions, which now adopt the form of a quarterly journal. 
Entrance money, 6 guineas ; annual subscription, 3 guineas. 

ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY, 3, Waterloo 
Place, Pall Mall, established 1830, for the improvement 
and diffusion of geographical knowledge. Elections by 
ballot. Entrance fee, 31. ; annual subscription, 21. There is 
a small but good geographical library. 

ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY, 5, New Burlington Street, 
(founded 1823,) contains an interesting collection of Oriental 
arms and armour. Observe. — The Malay spears mounted 
with gold ; the pair of Ceylonese jingals, or grasshoppers, 
mounted with silver, taken in the Khandyan war of 1815 ; a 
complete suit of Persian armour, inlaid with gold ; a Bengal 
sabre, termed a kharg ; Ceylonese hog-spears, and Lahore 
arrows ; a sculptured column of great beauty, from the 
gateway of a temple in Mahore ; and statues of Durga, Surga, 
and Buddha, that deserve attention. The Society usually 
meets on the first and third Saturdays in every month, from 
November to June inclusive. Admission fee, 5 guineas : 
annual subscription, 3 guineas. 



UNIVERSITY OF LONDON. 191 

A large City like London, the centre as it may be called of 
human intelligence, contains Institutions for the advance- 
ment of every species of knowledge. Besides those already 
mentioned, we must add : — the Horticultural Society, No. 21, 
Eegent Street ; the Linncean Society, 32, Soho Square ; Royal 
Astronomical Society in Somerset House ; and the Statistical 
Society, No. 12, St. James's Square. There are also Societies 
for printing books connected with particular subjects, such as 
the Camden, Shakespeare, Percy, Hakluyt, &c. At No. 12, 
St. James's Square, is the admirably managed London Library, 
a public subscription circulating library, possessing 60,000 
volumes — entrance fee, 61. ; annual subscription, 21. 



COLLEGES AND SCHOOLS. 

UNIVERSITY OF LONDON, Somerset House, on your 
right as you enter the vestibule, is a government institution, 
or Board of Examiners, established 1837, for conferring de- 
grees, after careful examinations, on the graduates of Univer- 
sity College, London ; King's College, London ; Stepney 
College, Highbury College, Homerton College, &c. ; in other 
words, " for the advancement of religion and morality, and 
the promotion of useful knowledge without distinction of 
rank, sect, or party." There are several scholarships attached, 
each with 501. a year. The salary of the Registrar and Trea- 
surer is 500?. a year. The institute has nothing to do with 
the business of education, being constituted for the sole 
purpose of ascertaining the proficiency of candidates for 
academical distinctions. The examinations are half-yearly. 

UNIVERSITY COLLEGE, London, on the east side of 
Upper Gower Street. A proprietary institution, " for the 
general advancement of literature and science, by affording 
to young men adequate opportunities for obtaining literary 
and scientific education at a moderate expense ; " founded 
(1828) by the exertions of Lord Brougham, Thomas Campbell, 
the poet, and others, and built from the designs of W. 
Wilkins, R.A., architect of the National Gallery and of St. 
George's Hospital at Hyde-Park-corner. Graduates of the 
University of London from University College are entitled 
Doctors of Laws, Masters of Arts, Bachelors of Law, Bachelors 
of Medicine, and Bachelors of Art. Everything is taught in 
the College but divinity. The school of medicine is de- 
servedly distinguished. The Junior School, under the 



192 ktxg's college. 

government of the Council of the College, is entered by a 
separate entrance in Upper Gower-street. The school session 
is divided into three terms : viz., from the 26th of September 
to Christmas, from Christmas to Easter, from Easter to the 
4th of August. The vacations are three weeks at Christmas, 
ten days at Easter, and seven weeks in the summer. The 
hours of attendance are from a quarter past 9 to three- 
quarters past 3 ; in which time one horn- and a quarter is 
allowed for recreation. The yearly payment for each pupil 
is l&l., of which 61. are paid in advance in each term, on the 
first day after the vacation on which the pupil begins to 
attend the school. The payments are made at the office of 
the College. A fixed charge of 3s. 6d. a term is made for 
stationery. Books and drawing materials are provided for 
the pupils as required, and a charge is made accordingly. 
Boys are admitted to the school at any age under fifteen, if 
they are competent to enter the lowest class. When a boy 
has attained his sixteenth year, he will not be allowed to 
remain in the school beyond the end of the current session. 
The subjects taught are reading, writing ; the English, 
Latin, Greek, French, and German languages ; Ancient and 
English history ; geography, both physical and political ; 
arithmetic and book-keeping, the elements of mathematics 
and of natural philosophy, drawing, dancing, &c. The disci- 
pline of the school is maintained without corporal punish- 
ment. The extreme punishment for misconduct is the 
removal of the pupil from the school. Several of the pro- 
fessors, and some of the masters of the Junior School, receive 
students to reside with them ; and in the office of the College 
there is kept a register of parties unconnected with the 
College who receive boarders into their families : among 
these are several medical gentlemen. The Registrar will 
afford information as to terms, and other particulars. 

The Flaxman Museum. — In the hall under the cupola of 
the College the original models are preserved of the prin- 
cipal plaster works, statues, bas-reliefs, &c, of John Flaxman, 
R.A., the greatest of our English sculptors. The Pastoral 
Apollo, the St. Michael, and some of the bas-reliefs, are 
amazingly fine. The clever portrait statue in marble of Flax- 
man, by the late M. L. Watson, and now in the Crystal Palace, 
has been purchased by public subscription, and will be placed 
on the stairs as you enter the Flaxman Gallery. 

KING'S COLLEGE AND SCHOOL. A proprietary in- 
stitution, occupying the east wing of Somerset House, which 
was built up to receive it, having been before left incomplete. 



. ST. Paul's school. 193 

The College was founded in 1828, upon the following funda- 
mental principle : — " That every system of general education 
for the youth of a Christian community ought to comprise 
instruction in the Christian religion as an indispensable part, 
without which the acquisition of other branches of knowledge 
will be conducive neither to the happiness of the individual 
nor the welfare of the state." The general education of the 
College is carried on in five departments : — 1. Theological 
Department ; 2. Department of General Literature and 
Science ; 3. Department of the Applied Sciences ; 4. Medical 
Department ; 5. The School. Every person wishing to place 
a pupil in the school must produce, to the head-master, a cer- 
tificate of good conduct, signed by his last instructor. The 
general age for admission is from 9 to 16 years of age. 
Rooms are provided within the walls of the College for the 
residence of a limited number of matriculated students. 
Each proprietor has the privilege of nominating two pupils 
to the School, or one to the School and one to the College at 
the same time. The Museum contains the Calculating 
Machine of Mr. Babbage, deposited by the Commissioners of 
the Woods and Forests ; and the collection of Mechanical 
Models and Philosophical Instruments formed by George III., 
presented by Queen Victoria. 

ST. PAUL'S SCHOOL. A celebrated school in St. Paul's 
Churchyard (on the east side), founded in 1512, for 153 poor 
men's children, by Dr. John Colet, Dean of St. Paul's, the 
friend of Erasmus, and son of Sir Henry Colet, mercer, and 
Mayor of London in 1486 and 1495. The boys were to be 
taught, free of expense, by a master, sur-master, and chaplain, 
and the oversight of the school was committed by the 
founder to the Mercers' Company. The number (153) was 
chosen in allusion to the number of fishes taken by St. Peter. 
The school was dedicated by Colet to the Child Jesus, but 
the saint, as Strype remarks, has robbed his master of his 
title. The lands left by Colet to support his school were 
estimated, in 1598, at the yearly value of about 120Z. Their 
present value is upwards of 5000Z. The education is entirely 
classical, and the presentations to the school are in the gift 
of the Master of the Mercers' Company for the time being. 
Scholars are admitted at the age of 15, but at present none 
are eligible to an exhibition if entered after 12 ; and none 
are expected to remain in the school after their nineteenth 
birthday, though no time for superannuation is fixed by the 
statutes. The head-master's salary is 618?. per annum ; the 
sur-master's, 307?. ; the under-master's, 2721. ; and the 

o 



194 WESTMINSTER SCHOOL. 

assistant-master's, 2571. Lilly, the grammarian, and friend 
of Erasmus, was the first master, and the grammar which ho 
compiled, Lilly's Grammar, is still used in the school. 
Eminent Scholars. — John Leland, our earliest English anti- 
quary : John Milton, the great epic poet of our nation ; the 
great Duke of Marlborough ; Nelson, author of Fasts and 
Festivals ; Edmund Halley, the astronomer ; Samuel Pepys, 
the diarist ; John Strype, the ecclesiastical historian. The 
present school was built in 1823, from a design by Mr. George 
Smith, and is the third building erected on the same site. 
Colet's school was destroyed in the Great Fire, " but built 
lip again," says Strype, "much after the same manner and 
proportion it was before." 

WESTMINSTER SCHOOL, or St. Peter's College, Dean's 
Yard, Westminster, founded as "a publique schoole for 
Grammar, Rethoricke, Poetrie, and for the Latin and Greek 
languages," by Queen Elizabeth, 1560, and attached to the 
collegiate church of St. Peter at Westminster. The College 
consists of a dean, 12 prebendaries, 12 almsmen, and 40 
scholars ; with a master and an usher. This is the founda- 
tion, but the school consists of a larger number of masters, 
and of a much larger number of boys. The 40 are called 
Queen's scholars, and after an examination, which takes 
place on the first Tuesday after Rogation Sunday, 4 are 
elected to Trinity College, Cambridge, and 4 to Christ Church, 
Oxford. A parent wishing to place a boy at this school will 
get every necessary information from the head master ; boys 
are not placed on the foundation under 12 or above 18 yean, 
of age. Eminent Masters. — Camden, the antiquary ; Dr. 
Busby ; Vin Bourne ; Jordan (Cowley has a copy of verses 
on his death). Eminent Men educated at. — Poets: Ben Jonsenj 
George Herbert ; Giles Fletcher ; Jasper Mayne ; William 
Cartwright ; Cowley; Dryden ; Nat Lee; Rowe ; Prior j 
Churchill ; Dyer, author of Grongar Hill ; Cowper : Souther. 
Cowley published a volume of poems while a scholar at 
Westminster. Other great Men. — Sir Harry Vane, the 
younger; Hakluyt, the collector of the Voyages which bear 
his name; Sir Christopher Wren ; Locke; South; Atterburyj 
Warren Bastings; Gibbon, the historian; Cumberland; the 
elder Colman; Lord John Russell, The boys on the 
foundation wore formerly separated from the tows boy* 
when in school by a bar <>r curtain. The Schoolroom was 
a dormitory belonging to the Abbey, and retains certain 
traces of its former ornaments. The College Hall, originally 
the Abbot's Refectory, was built by Abbot Litlington, In 



CHARTER HOUSE. 195 

the reign of Edward III., and the old louvre is still used for 
the escape of the smoke. The Dormitory was built by the 
Earl of Burlington, in 1722. In conformity with the old 
custom, the Queen's scholars perform a play of Terence every 
year at Christmas, with a Latin prologue and epilogue re- 
lating to current political events, and therefore new on each 
occasion. 

CHARTER HOUSE, (a corruption of Chartreuse,) upper 
end of Aldersgate Street. "An hospital, chapel, and 
school-house," instituted, 1611, by Thomas Sutton, of Camps 
Castle, in the county of Cambridge, and so called from a 
monastery of Carthusian monks (the prior and convent of 
the Carthusian order), founded in 1371 on a Pest-house field 
by Sir Walter Manny, knight, a stranger born, Lord of the 
town of Manny, in the diocese of Cambray, and knight of the 
garter in the reign of Edward III. The last prior was exe- 
cuted at Tyburn, May 4th, 1535 — his head set on London 
Bridge, and one of his limbs over the gateway of his own 
convent — the same gateway, it is said, a Perpendicular arch, 
surmounted by a kind of dripstone and supported by lions, 
which is still the entrance from Charter-House-square. The 
priory founded by Sir Walter Manny, and thus sternly 
dissolved, was sold by Thomas Howard, Earl of Suffolk, to 
Thomas Sutton for 13,0007., and endowed as a charity by the 
name of "the Hospital of King James." Sutton died before 
his work was complete, and was buried in the chapel of the 
hospital beneath a sumptuous monument, the work of 
Nicholas Stone and Mr. Jansen of Southwark. This (( triple 
good," as Lord Bacon calls it — this "masterpiece of Pro- 
testant English charity," as it is called by Fuller — is under 
the direction of the Queen, Prince Albert, 15 governors, 
selected from the great officers of state, and the master of 
the hospital, whose income is 800Z. a year, besides a capital 
residence within the walls. The most eminent master of the 
house was Dr. Thomas Buniet, author of the Theory of the 
Earth, master between 1685 and 1715 ; and the most eminent 
school-master, the Rev. Andrew Tooke (Tooke's Pantheon). 
Eminent Scholars. — Richard Crashaw, the poet, author of 
Steps to the Temple. — Isaac Barrow, the divine; he was 
cleleb rated at school for his love of fighting. — Sir William 
Blackstone, author of the Commentaries. — Joseph Addison. 
Sir Richard Steele. Addison and Steele were scholars at 
the same time. — John Wesley, the founder of the West 
leyans. Wesley imputed his after-health and long life to 
the strict obedience with which he performed an injunction 

o 2 



196 Christ's hospital. 

of his father's, that he should run round the Charter 
House playing-green three times every morning. The first 
Lord Ellenborough (Lord Chief Justice). — Lord Liverpool 
(the Prime Minister). — Bishop Monk. — W. M. Thackeray. — 
Sir C. L. Eastlake, R.A. — The two eminent historians of 
Greece, Bishop Thirlwall and George Grote, Esq., were both 
together in the same form under Dr. Raine. Poor Brethren. 
— Elkanah Settle, the rival and antagonist of Dryden ; he 
died here in 1723-4. — John Bagford, the antiquary (d. 1716); 
he was originally a shoemaker in Turnstile, afterwards a 
bookseller, and left behind him a large collection of materials 
for the history of printing, subsequently bought by the Earl 
of Oxford, and now a part of the Harleian collection in the 
British Museum. — Isaac de Groot, by several descents the 
nephew of Hugo Gx-otius ; he was admitted at the earnest in- 
tercession of Dr. Johnson. — Alexander Macbean (d. 1781), 
Johnson's assistant in his Dictionary. Observe. — The ante- 
chapel, the S. wall of the chapel (repaired in 1842 under the 
direction of Blore), and the W. wall of the great hall ; parts 
of old Howard House (for such it was once called); the 
great staircase ; the governor's room, with its panelled chim- 
ney-piece, ceiling, and ornamental tapestry ; that part of the 
great hall with the initials T. N. (Thomas, Duke of Norfolk) ; 
Sutton's tomb in the chapel. On opening the vault in 1842, 
the body of the founder was discovered in a coffin of lead, 
adapted to the shape of the body, like an Egyptian mummy- 
case. In the Master's lodge are several excellent portraits ; 
the founder, engraved by Vertue for Bearcroft's book ; Isaac 
Walton's good old Bishop Morley ; Charles II. ; Villiers, 
second Duke of Buckingham ; Duke of Monmouth ; Lord 
Chancellor Shaftesbury ; William, Earl of Craven (the Queen 
of Bohemia's Earl); Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury; 
Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham ; Talbot, Duke of Shrewsbury ; 
Lord Chancellor Somers ; and one of Kncller's finest works, 
the portrait of Dr. Thomas Burnet. 

CHRIST'S HOSPITAL, Newgate Street, marked by its 
great hall, visible through a double railing from Newgate-street. 
This noble charity was founded on the site of the Grey Friars 
Monastery, by Edward VI., June 26th, 1553, ten days before his 
death, as an hospital for poor fatherless children and found- 
lings. It is commonly called "The Blue Coat School," from 
the dress worn by the boys, which is of the same ago as the 
foundation of the hospital. The dress is a blue coat or gown, 
a yellow petticoat ("yellow" as it is called), a red leather 
girdle round the waist, yellow stockings, a clergyman's band 



chrtst's hospital. 197 

round the neck, and a flat black cap of woollen yarn, about 
the size of a saucer. Blue was a colour originally confined to 
servant-men and bo3 T s, nor, till its recognition as part of the 
uniform of the British Navy, was blue ever looked upon as a 
colour to be worn by gentlemen. The Whigs next took it 
up, and now it is a colour for a nobleman to wear. The first 
stone of the New Hall was laid by the Duke of York, 
April 28th, 1825, and the Hall publicly opened May 29th, 
1829. The architect was James Shaw, who built the church 
of St. Dunstan's in Fleet-street. It is better in its proportions 
than in its details. Observe. — At the upper end of the Hall, 
a large picture of Edward VI. granting the charter of incor- 
poration to the Hospital. It is commonly assigned to 
Holbein, but upon no good authority. — Large picture, by 
Verrio, of James II. on his throne (surrounded by his 
courtiers, all curious portraits), receiving the mathematical 
pupils at their annual presentation : a custom still kept up at 
Court. The painter presented it to the Hospital. — Full- 
length of Charles II., by Verrio. — Full-length of Sir Francis 
Child (d. 1713), from whom Child's Banking-house derives 
its name. — Full-lengths of the Queen and Prince Albert, by 
F. Grant, A.R.A. — Brook Watson, when a boy, attacked by a 
shark, by J. S. Copley, R.A., the father of Lord Lyndhurst. — 
The stone inserted in the wall behind the steward's chair ; 
when a monitor wishes to report the misconduct of a boy, he 
tells him to " go to the stone." In this Hall, every year on 
St. Matthew's Day (Sept. 21st), the Grecians, or head-boys, 
deliver a series of orations before the Mayor, Corporation, and 
Governors, and here every Sunday, from Quinquagesima 
Sunday to Easter Sunday inclusive, the "Suppings in Public," 
as they are called, are held ; a picturesque sight, and always 
well attended. Each governor has a certain number of 
tickets to give away. The bowing to the governors, and pro- 
cession of the trades, is extremely curious. 

The Grammar-school was built by the son of Mr. Shaw, 
and answers all the purposes for which it was erected. The 
two chief classes in the school are called " Grecians " and 
"Deputy-Grecians." Eminent Grecians. — Joshua Barnes (d. 
1712,) editor of Anacreon and Euripides. Jeremiah Mark- 
land (d. 1776), an eminent critic, particularly in Greek 
literature. S. T. Coleridge, the poet (d. 1834). Thomas 
Mitchell, the translator of Aristophanes. Thomas Barnes, 
for many years, and till his death, editor of the Times news- 
paper. Eminent Deputy-Grecians. — Charles Lamb (Elia), 
whose delightful papers, "Kecollections of Christ's Hospital," 
and " Christ's Hospital Five-and-thirty Years Ago," have done 



198 Christ's hospital. 

so much to uphold the dignity of the school (d. 1834). 
Leigh Hunt.* Eminent Scholars ivhose standing in the School is 
unknown. — William Camden, author of the "Britannia." 
Bishop Stillingfieet. Samuel Richardson, author of Clarissa 
Harlowe. 

The Mathematical-school was founded by Charles II., in 
1672, for forty boys, called " King's boys," distinguished by 
a badge on the right shotilder. The school was afterwards 
enlarged, at the expense of a Mr. Stone. The boys on the 
new foundation wear a badge on the left shoulder, and are 
called " The Twelves," on account of their number. To 
* The Twelves " was afterwards added " The Twos/' on 
another foundation. 

"As I ventured to call the Grecians the muftis of the school, the King's 
boys, as their character then was, may well pass for the janissaries. 
They were the constant terror to the younger part ; and some who may 
read this, I doubt not, will remember the consternation into which the 
juvenile fry of us were thrown, when the cry was raised in the cloister 
that ' the First Order ' was coming, for so they termed the first form or 
class of those boys." — Charles Lamb. 

Peter the Great took two of the mathematical boys with him 
to St. Petersburg. One was murdered in the streets, shortly 
after his arrival ; and of the other nothing is known. 

The Writing-school was founded in 1694, and furnished at 
the sole charge of Sir John Moore, Lord Mayor in 1681. The 
school has always been famous for its penmen. The Wards 
or Dormitories in which the boys sleep are seventeen in num- 
ber. Each boy makes his own bed; and each ward is 
governed by a nurse and two or more monitors. ' 

The Counting-house contains a good portrait of Edward VI., 
after Holbein — very probably by him. The dress of the 
boys is not the only remnant of byegone times, peculiar to 
the school. Old names still haunt the precinct of the Grey- 
friars : the place where is stored the bread and butter is still 
the "buttery; " and the open ground in front of the Q ram- 
mar-school is still distinguished as " the Ditch," because the 
ditch of the City ran through the precinct. The boys still 
take their milk from wooden bowls, their meat from wooden 
trenchers, and their beer is poured from leathern black jacks 
into wooden piggins. They have also a currency and almost, 
a language of their own. The Spital sermons are still 
preached before them. Every Easter Monday they visit the 
Koyal Exchange, and every Easter Tuesday the Lord Mayor, 
at the Mansion-house. But the customs which distinguished 

* May the author be excused for adding, in a note (gratefully), that 
he, too, was a Deputy Grecian at Christ's Hospital under Dr. Orceinvoud ? 



MERCHANT TAILORS SCHOOL. 199 

the school are fast dying away : the saints' days are no longer 
holidays ; the money-boxes for the poor have disappeared 
from the cloisters j the dungeons for the unruly have been 
done away with ; and the governors are too lax in allowing 
the boys to wear caps and hats, and even at a distance to 
change the dress. When the dress is once done away with, 
the Hospital will sink into a common charity school. Some 
changes, however, have been effected for the better : the 
boys no longer perform the commonest menial occupations ; 
and the bread and beer for breakfast has been discontinued 
since 1824. Mode of Admission. — Boys whose parents may 
not be free of the City of London are admissible on Free 
Presentations, as they are called, as also are the sons of 
clergymen of the Chiirch of England. The Lord Mayor has 
two presentations annually, and the Court of Aldermen one 
each. The rest of the governors have presentations once in 
three years. A list of the governors who have presentations 
for the year is printed every Easter, and may be had at the 
counting-house of the Hospital. No boy is admitted before 
he is seven years old, or after he is nine : and no boy can 
remain in the school after he is fifteen — King's Boys and 
Grecians alone excepted. Qualification for Governor. — Pay- 
ment of 500?. An Alderman has the power of nominating a 
governor for election at half-price. The branch-school at 
Hertford was founded in 1683. Here girls are educated as 
well as boys ; that this was the case once in London, Pepys 
confirms by a curious story. 

MERCHANT TAILORS' SCHOOL, in Suffolk Lane, in 
the ward of Dowgate, founded in 1561, by the master, wardens, 
and assistants of the Merchant Tailors' Company. Sir Thomas 
White, who had recently founded St. John's College, Oxford, 
was then a member of the Co\u*t ; and Richard Hills, some- 
time master of the Company, gave 500?. towards the purchase 
of a portion of a house, called the " Manor of the Rose," 
sometime belonging to the Duke of Buckingham, and men- 
tioned by Shakspeare : — 

" The Duke being at the Rose, within the Parish 
St. Lawrence Poultney, did of me demand 
"What was the speech among the Londoners 
Concerning the French journey." 

Henry VIII., Acti., sc. 1. 

"The Rose" had been formerly in the possession of the 
De la Pole or Suffolk family, and was originally built by Sir 
John Poultney, knt., five times Lord Mayor of London, in 
the reign of Edward HI. Traces of its successive owners are 



200 MERCHANT TAILORS* SCHOOL. 

still found ill the name of the parish of " St. Laurence Pount- 
ney," in which the school is situate ; in " Duck's-foot-lane" 
(the Duke's foot-lane, or private road from his garden to the 
river), which is close at hand ; and in " Suffolk-lane," by 
which it is approached. The Great Fire destroyed this 
ancient pile. The present school (a brick building with 
pilasters), and the head-master's residence adjoining, were 
erected in 1675. The former consists of the large upper 
school-room, two writing-rooms, formed, in 1829, out of part 
of the cloister ; a class-room, and a library (standing in the 
situation of the ducal chapel), stored with a fair collection of 
theological and classical works. The school consists of 260 
boys. The charge for education has varied at different 
periods, but it is now 10/. per annum for each boy. Boys are 
admitted at any age, and may remain until the Monday after 
St. John the Baptist's Day preceding their 19th birthday. 
Presentations are in the gift of the members of the Court of 
the Company in rotation. Boys who have been entered on 
or below the third form are eligible to all the school prefer- 
ments at the Universities ; those who have been entered 
higher, only to the exhibitions. The course of education 
since the foundation of the school has embraced Hebrew and 
classical literature ; writing, arithmetic, and mathematics 
were introduced in 1829, and French and modern history in 
1846. There is no property belonging to the school, with 
the exception of the buildings above described ; and it is 
supported by the Merchant Tailors' Company out of their 
several "funds, without any specific fund being set apart for 
that object;" it was, therefore, exempt from the inquiry of 
the Charity Commissioners ; but like Winchester, Eton, and 
"Westminster, it has a college almost appropriated to its 
scholars. Thirty-seven out of the fifty fellowships at St. John's, 
Oxford, founded by Sir Thomas White, belong to Merchant 
Tailors'; 8 exhibitions at Oxford, 6 at Cambridge, and 4 to 
either University, averaging from 30/. to 70/. per annum, 
besides a multitude of smaller exhibitions, are also attached 
to it. The election to these preferments takes place annually, 
on St. Barnabas' Day, June 11th, with the sanction of the 
President or two senior Fellows of St. John's. This is the 
chief speech-day, and on it the school prizes are distributed : 
but there is another, called " the doctors' day," in December. 
Plays were formerly acted by the buys of this school, as at 
Westminster. The earliest instance known was in 1666. 
Garrick, who was a persona] friend of the then Head-Master 
of his time, was frequently present, and took great interest 
in the performances. Emmeni Men educated Rl Murhant 



CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL. 201 

Tailors' School. — Bishop Andrewes, Bishop Dove, and Bishop 
Tomson (three of the translators of the Bible) ; Edwin 
Sandys, the traveller, the friend of Hooker ; Bulstrode 
Whitelocke, author of the Memorials which bear his name ; 
James Shirley, the dramatic poet ; the infamous Titus Oates ; 
Charles Wheatley, the ritualist ; Neale, the author of the 
History of the Puritans ; Edmund Calamy, the nonconformist, 
and his grandson of the same name ; Edmund Gayton, author 
of the Festivous Notes on Don Quixote ; John Byrom, author 
of the Pastoral, in the Spectator, 

" My time, O ye Muses, -was happily spent ; " 

Luke Milbourne, Dryden's antagonist ; Eobert, the celebrated 
Lord Clive ; Charles Mathews, the comedian ; and Lieut.-Col. 
Dixon Denham, the African traveller. 

CITY OF LONDON SCHOOL, Milk Street, Cheapside, 
established 1835, for the sons of respectable persons engaged 
in professional, commercial, or trading pursuits : and partly 
founded on an income of 900?. a-year, derived from certain 
tenements bequeathed by John Carpenter, town-clerk of 
London, in the reign of Henry V., "for the finding and 
bringing up of four poor men's children with meat, drink, 
apparel, learning at the schools, in the universities, &c, until 
they be preferred, and then others in their places for ever." 
This was the same John Carpenter who " caused, with great 
expense, to be curiously painted upon board, about the N. 
cloister of Paul's, a monument of Death leading all Estates, 
with the speeches of Death and answers of every State." 
The school year is divided into three terms : Easter to July ; 
August to Christmas ; January to Easter ; and the charge for 
each pupil is 21. 5s. a term. The printed form of application 
for admission may be had of the secretary, and must be filled 
up by the parent or guardian, and signed by a member of the 
Corporation of London. The general course of instruction 
includes the English, French, German, Latin, and Greek 
languages, writing, arithmetic, mathematics, book-keeping, 
geography, and history. Besides 8 free scholarships on the 
foundation, equivalent to 35Z. per annum each, and available 
as exhibitions to the Universities, there are the following 
exhibitions belonging to the school : — The " Times " Scholar- 
ship, value 30/. per annum ; 3 Beaufoy Scholarships, the 
Salomons Scholarship, and the Travers Scholarship, 501. per 
annum each ; the Tegg Scholarship, nearly 20/. per annum ; 
and several other valuable prizes. The first stone of the 
School was laid by Lord Brougham, Oct. 21st, 1835. 



202 MIIOOL OF DESIGN. 

GOVERNMENT SCHOOL OF DESIGN is in Somerset 
House, on your right as you enter the vestibule, and -was 
established (1837) by, and under the superintendence of, the 
Board of Trade for the Improvement of Ornamental Art, 
with regard especialty to the staple manufactures of this 
country. The school is maintained by an annual grant from 
Parliament of 1500/. Mode of A dmission. — The recommenda- 
tion of a householder. There is a morning school for females, 
open daily, from 11 to 2 o'clock, Saturdays excepted. The 
school for males is open to the inspection of the public every 
Monday, between 11 and 3. There is also a class for ladies 
to learn wood-engraving. The course of instruction com- 
prehends the following classes : Elementary drawing, in 
outline with pencil ; shading with chalk after engraved 
examples ; shading from casts ; chiaroscuro painting ; colour- 
ing ; drawing the figure after engraved copies ; drawing the 
figure from casts : painting the figure from casts ; geometrical 
drawing applied to ornament ; perspective ; modelling from 
engraved copies, design, &c. Every student in the school is 
required to draw the human figure, and to pass through at 
least the elementary classes, as indispensable to the general 
course of instruction. The number of students that can be 
accommodated at one time is 200. The greatest number of 
students of the same calling are the ornamental painters and 
house-decorators ; the next most numerous are draughtsmen 
and designers for various manufactures and trades. In con- 
nection with the head-school at Somerset House, schools 
have been formed in many of the principal manufacturing 
districts throughout the country. There is also a branch 
school at Spitalfields. 

Besides these, the visitor curious about modes of education 
should visit the " Wesleyan Normal College," Horseforry- 
road, Westminster, established 1850 (.hum < Wilson* archi- 
tect), forthe training of school-masters and mistresses, and the 
education of the children residing in the locality ; the "Ragged 
School," in South Lambeth, founded by the late Mr. .Moaufoy 
(d. 1851) ; the Normal School, in the Fulham-road j and the 
Kneller Training Sohoolj for masters of workhouse schools, 
&c, near Twickenham. Should he wish to pursue his in- 
quiries further, he must leave London for the l* Diversities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, for the Eaat India Company's Colleges 
at Addlacombe and Baileybury, and the Ordnance School and 
College at Chiselhurst and Woolwich. 



ST. BARTHOLOMEW S HOSPITAL. 203 



HOSPITALS AND CHARITABLE INSTITUTIONS. 

Taking the Avhole of London, and extending the circuit 
line as far as Greenwich, there are no less than 491 Charitable 
Institutions (or parent societies) thus divided : — 

12 General Medical Hospitals. 

50 Medical Charities for special purposes ; such as Small Pox, 

Consumption, Cancer, &c. 
35 General Dispensaries. 
12 Societies and Institutions for the preservation of life and 

public morals. 
18 Societies for reclaiming the fallen and staying the progress 

of crime. 
14 Societies for the relief of general destitution and distress. 
12 Societies for relief of specific description. 
14 Societies for aiding the resources of the industrious (ex- 
clusive of loan funds and savings' banks). 
11 Societies for the deaf and dumb and the blind. 
103 Colleges, Hospitals, and Institutions of Almshouses for the 

aged. 
1G Charitable Pension Societies. 
74 Charitable and Provident Societies chiefly for specified 

classes. 
31 Asylums for orphan and other necessitous children. 
10 Educational Foundations. 
4 Charitable Modern Ditto. 
40 School Societies, Religious Books, Church-aiding, and 

Christian Visiting Societies. 
35 Bible and Missionary Societies. 

In all 491 parent societies disbursing annually in aid of 
their respective objects 1,764,733?., of which upwards of 
1,000,000?. is raised by voluntary contributions. 

Of these institutions five are Royal Hospitals. One for 
the education of youth (Christ's Hospital, p. 196) ; three for 
the cure of disease (St. Bartholomew's, St. Thomas's, and 
Bethlehem); and one Bridewell, for the punishment of the idle 
and the dissolute. Bedlam and Bridewell, with arental between 
25,000?. and 30,000?. a year, are under the same direction. 

The leading institutions which the stranger or resident in 
London will find best worth visiting are : — 

ST. BARTHOLOMEW'S HOSPITAL, in Smithfield, the 
earliest institution of the kind in London, occupying part of 
the Priory of St. Bartholomew, founded a.d. 1102, by Rahere, 
the first Prior ; repaired and enlarged by the executors of 
Richard Whittington, the celebrated Mayor; and founded 
anew, at the dissolution of religious houses, by Henry VIII., 
" for the continual relief and help of an hundred sore and 
diseased ; " the immediate superintendence of the Hospital 



204 st. Bartholomew's hospital. 

being committed by the king to Thomas Yieary, Serjeant- 
Surgeon to Hemy VIIL, Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth, 
and author of "The Englishman's Treasure," the first work 
on anatomy published in the English language. The great 
quadrangle of the present edifice was built (1730-33) by James 
Gibbs, architect of the church of St. Martin-in-the-Fields. 
The gate towards Smithfield was built in 1702, and the New 
Surgery in 1842. This Hospital gives relief to all poor per- 
sons suffering from accident or diseases, either as in-patients 
or out-patients. Cases of all kinds are received into the 
Hospital, including diseases of the eyes, distortions of the 
limbs, and all other infirmities which can be relieved by 
medicine or surgery. Accidents, or cases of urgent disease, 
may be brought without any letter or recommendation or 
other formality at all hours of the day or night to the Sur- 
gery, where there is a person in constant attendance, and the 
aid of the Resident Medical Officers can be instantly obtained. 
General admission-day, Thursday, at 11 o'clock. Petitions 
for admission to be obtained at the Steward's Office, any day, 
between 10 and 2. Any other information may be obtained 
from the porter at the gate. The Hospital contains 580 beds, 
and relief is afforded to 70,000 patients annually. The 
in-patients are visited daily by the Physicians and Surgeons : 
and, during the summer session, four Clinical Lectures are 
delivered weekly. The out-patients are attended daily by 
the Assistant-Physicians and Assistant-Surgeons. Students 
can reside within the Hospital walls, subject to the rules of 
the Collegiate system, established under the direction of the 
Treasurer and a Committee of Governors of the Hospital. 
Some of the teachers and other gentlemen connected with 
the Hospital also receive Students to reside with them. 
Further information may be obtained from the Medical or 
Surgical Officers or Lecturers, or at the Anatomical Museum 
or Library. Between 200/. and 300?. are spent every year for 
strong sound port wine, for the sick poor in Bartholomew's 
Hospital. It is bought in pipes, and drawn off as needed. 
Nearly 2000 lbs. weight of castor oil ; 200 gallons of spirits 
of wine, at 17s. a gallon; 12 tons of linseed meal ; 1000 lbs. 
weight of senna ; 27 cwt. of salts, are items in the annual 
account for drugs ; the grand total spent upon physio, 
in a twelvemonth, being 2,600?. 5000 yards of ealieo 
are wanted for rollers for bandaging ; to say nothing of the 
stouter and stiffer fabric used for plaisters. More than half 
a hundred weight of sarsaparilla is used every week, a Blga 
how much the constitution of the patients requires improve- 
ment. In a year, 29,700 leeches were bought for the use of 



st. Bartholomew's hospital. 205 

the establishment. A ton and a half of treacle is annually 
xised in syrup. Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of 
the blood, was Physician to the Hospital for 34 years, 
(1609-43), and the rules which he laid down for the duties 
of the medical officers of the Hospital were adhered to 
for nearly a century after his retirement. The date of the 
actual commencement of a Medical School is unknown ; but 
in 1662, students were in the habit of attending the medical 
and surgical practice; and in 1667, their studies were 
assisted by the formation of a Library " for the use of the 
Governors and young University scholars." A building for a 
Museum of Anatomical and Chirurgical Preparations was 
provided in 1724, and, in 1734, leave was granted for any of 
the Surgeons or Assistant-Surgeons "to read Lectures in 
Anatomy in the dissecting-room of the Hospital." The first 
Surgeon who availed himself of this permission was 
Mr. Edward Nourse, whose anatomical lectures, delivered for 
many years in or near the Hospital, were followed, in 1765, 
and for many years after, by courses of Lectures on Surgery 
from his former pupil and prosector, Percival Pott : and. 
about the same time, Dr. William Pitcairn, and subse- 
quently Dr. David Pitcairn, successively Physicians to the 
Hospital, delivered lectures, probably occasional ones, on 
Medicine. Further additions to the course of instruction 
were made by Mr. Abernethy, who was elected Assistant- 
Surgeon in 1787, and by whom, w 7 ith the assistance of 
Drs. William and David Pitcairn, the principal lectures of 
the present day were established. Abernethy lectured on 
Anatomy, Physiology, and Surgery, in a theatre erected for 
him by the Governors in 1791, and his high reputation 
attracting so great a body of students it was found necessary, 
in 1822, to erect a new and larger Anatomical Theatre. The 
progress of science and the extension of medical education in 
the last twenty years have led to the institution of additional 
lectureships on subjects auxiliary to Medicine, and on new 
and important applications of it ; and further facilities have 
been afforded for instruction. In 1835, the Anatomical 
Museum was considerably enlarged, a new Medical Theatre 
was built, and Museums of Materia Medica and Botany were 
founded ; and, at the same time, the Library was removed 
to the present building, and enriched by liberal contributions. 
In 1834, the Medical Officers and Lecturers commenced the 
practice of offering Prizes and Honorary Distinctions for 
superior knowledge displayed at the annual examinations 
of their classes ; and in 1845, four scholarships were founded, 
each tenable for three years, and of the annual value of 45?. 



206 BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL. 

and 50?., with the design not only of encouraging learning, 
but of assisting Students to prolong their attendance, beyond 
the usual period, on the medical and surgical practice of the 
Hospital. In 1843, the Governors founded a Collegiate 
Establishment, to afford the Pupils the moral advantages, 
together with the comfort and convenience, of a residence 
within the walls of the Hospital, and to supply them with 
ready guidance and sssistanee in their studies. The chief 
officer of the College is called the Warden. The President 
of the Hospital must have served the office of Lord Mayor. 
The cmalification of a Governor is a donation of 100 guineas. 
The greatest individual benefactor to St. Bartholomew's was 
the celebrated Dr. Radcliffe, who left the yearly sum of 500?. 
for ever, towards mending the diet of the Hospital, and the 
further sum of 100?. for ever, for the purchase of linen. 
Observe. — Portrait of Henry VIII. in the Court-room, esteemed 
an original, though not by Holbein; Portrait of Dr. Radcliffe, 
by Kncllcr; good Portrait of Perceval Pott, by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds; fine Portrait of Abernethy, by Sir T. Lawrence. 
The Good Samaritan, and The Pool of Bethesda, on the 
grand staircase, were painted gratuitously by Hogarth; for 
which he was made a governor for life. 

BETHLEHEM HOSPITAL (vulg. Bedlam), in St. George's 
Fields. An hospital for insane people, founded (1246) as a 
priory of canons, in Bishopsgate Without, by Simon Fitz- 
Mary, one of the Sheriffs of London. Henry VIII., at the 
Dissolution, gave it to the City of London, when it was first 
converted into an hospital for lunatics. Fits-Mai y's Hospital 
was taken down in 1075, and the Hospital removed to 
Moorfields, "at the cost of nigh 17,000?." Of this second 
Bedlam (Robert Hooke, architect) there is a view in Strype. 
Bedlam, in Moorfields, was taken down in 1814, and the 
first stone of the present Hospital (James Lewis, architect) 
laid April 18th, 181*2. The cupola, a recent addition, was 
designed by Sydney Smirkc. The first Hospital could 
accommodate only 50 or 00, and the second 150. The 
building in St. < ieorgr's-iields was originally constructed 

for 108 patients, but this being found too limited for the 

purposes and resources of the Hospital, a new wing was 
commenced for 166 additional patients, of which the fust 
stone was laid July 96th, 1838. The whole building (the 

House of Occupations Included) covers, it is said, an area of 
U acres. Jn I :•-!;» bhs Governors admitted Blfl Durables 

(110 males and 20.") females) j 7 Incurables (fi males and 

2 females); 11 Criminals (7 I i females)] and 180 



st. thomas's hospital. 207 

Discharged Cured (62 males and 118 females). The ex- 
penses in 1837 amounted to 19,7617. 15s. 7d. The way in 
which the comfort of the patients is studied by every one 
connected with the Hospital cannot be too highly com- 
mended. The women have pianos, and the men billiard and 
bagatelle-tables. There are, indeed, few things to remind you 
that you are in a mad-house beyond the bone knives in use, 
and a few cells lined and floored with cork and india-rubber, 
and against which the insanest patient may knock his head 
without the possibility of hurting it. Among the unfortu- 
nate inmates have been — Peg Nicholson, for attempting to 
stab George III. ; she died here in 1828, after a confinement 
of 42 years. — Hatfield, for attempting to shoot the same 
king in Drury-lane Theatre. — Oxford, for firing at Queen 
Victoria in St. James's Park. — M'Naghten, for shooting Mr. 
Edward Drummond at Charing-cross ; he mistook Mr. Drum- 
mond, the private secretary of Sir Robert Peel, for Sir R. Peel 
himself. Visitors, interested in cases of lunacy, should see 
Hanicell Asylum, on the Great Western Railway (7^ miles from 
London), and the Colney Hatch Asylum on the Great Northern 
Railway (6f miles from London), the latter covering 119 
acres, and erected at a cost of 200,000?. 

ST. THOMAS'S HOSPITAL, High Street, Southward 
An Hospital for sick and diseased poor persons, under the 
management of the Corporation of the City of London, 
founded (1213) by Richard, Prior of Bermondsey, as an 
Almonry, or house of alms; founded again more fully (1215) 
for canons regular, by Peter de Rupibus, Bishop of Win- 
chester; bought at the dissolution of religious houses by 
the citizens of London, and opened by them as an Hospital 
for poor, impotent, and diseased people, Nov. 1552. The 
building having fallen into decay, the governors, in 1699, 
solicited the benevolence of the public for its support, 
and with such success that the whole hospital was (1701-6) 
built anew. As thus restored, the building consisted of 
three courts, with colonnades between each. Three wards 
were built at the sole cost of Thomas Frederick, Esq. ; and 
three (on the north side of the outer court) by Thomas Guy, 
the munificent founder of the hospital which bears his name. 
Day of admission, Tuesday morning, at 10. Patients stating 
their complaints may receive a petition at the steward's 
office, to be signed by a housekeeper, who must engage to 
remove the patient on discharge or death, or pay 11. Is. for 
funeral. The qualification of a governor is a donation of 501. 
Of the 46,733 people under the care of the governors of this 



208 guy's nosriTAL. 

Hospital iu the year 1845, 3552 in-patients and 41,815 out- 
patients were cored and discharged, leaving 1232 in and 
out-patients remaining under cure. 

GUY'S HOSPITAL, in SOUTHWABK, for the sick and 
lame, situated near London Bridge, built by Dance (d. 1768), 
and endowed by Thomas Gray, a bookseller in Lombard- 
street, who is said to have made his fortune ostensibly by the 
sale of Bibles, but more, it is thought, by purchasing seamen's 
tickets, and by his great success in the sale and transfer 
of stock in the memorable South Sea year of 1720. Guy 
v. a- ;i native of Tamworth, in Staffordshire, and died 
(1724) at the age of 80. The building of the Hospital 
cost 18,793Z. 16s. Id., and the endowment amounted to 
219,499/. 0s. Ad. The founder, though 76 when the work 
began, lived to see his Hospital covered with the roof In 
the first court is his statue in brass, dressed in his livery 
gown, and in the chapel (" shouldering God's altar") another 
statue of him in marble, by the elder Bacon. Sir Astky 
Cooper, the eminent surgeon (d. 1841), is buried in the 
chapel of this Hospital. 

Gentlemen who desire to become Students must give 
satisfactory testimony as to their education and conduct. 
They are required to pay 40/. for the first year, AQl. for the 
second year, and 10/. for every succeeding year of attendance. 

The payment for the year admits to the Lectures. Practice, 
and all the privileges of a Student. 

Dressers, Clinical Clerks, Assistants, and Resident Obste- 
tric Clerks are selected according to merit from those 
Students who have attended a second year. 

The Apothecary to the Hospital is authorised to enter the 
Names of Students, and to give further particulars if required, 

ST. GEORGE'S HOSPITAL, Hyde Tark Corner, at the 
top of Qrosvenor-place. An hospital for sick and lame 
people, supported by voluntary contributions; built by 
William Wilkins, K.A.. architect of the National Gallery, on 
the site of Lanesborough Bouse, the London residence of 

•• Bobex Laneibro' dancing with the gout;" 
convert.- 1 into an Infirmary in 1788. John Hunter, the 
physician, died (17'.':'.> in this Hospital. He had long suf- 
fered from an affection of the heart; and in an altercation 
with one of bis colleagues, about a matter of right, which 
had been, by the governora of the Hospital, as he thought, 
improperly refused turn, he suddenly stopped, retired to an 
ante room, aud immediately expired, 



CHELSEA HOSPITAL. 200 

CHELSEA HOSPITAL. A Royal Hospital for old and 
disabled soldici's ; erected on the site of Chelsea College. 
The first stone was laid by Charles II. in person, March, 
I'M -2. It has a centre, with two wings of red brick, with 
stone dressings, faces the Thames, and shows more effect 
with less means than any other of Wren's buildings. The 
history of its erection is contained on the frieze of the great 
quadrangle : — 

" In subsidium et levamen emeritorum senio, belloque fractorum, 
condidit Carolus Secimdus, auxit Jacobus Secundus, perfecere Guliclmus 
et Maria Rex et Regina, MDCXC." 

The total cost is said to have been 150,000?. Observe. — 
Portrait of Charles II. on horseback (in hall), by Verrio and 
Henry Cooke; altar-piece (in chapel) by Sebastian Riceij 
bronze statue of Charles II. in centre of the great quadrangle, 
executed by Grinling Gibbons for Tobias Iiustat. In the Hall, 
in which Whitelocke was tried, and in which the Court of 
Enquiry into the Convention of Cintra sat, are 46 colours ; 
and in the Chapel 55 (all captured by the British army in 
different campaigns in various parts of the world), viz. : — 
34 French; 13 American; 4 Dutch; 13 eagles taken from 
the French ; 2 at Waterloo ; 2 Salamanca ; 2 Madrid ; 
4 Martinique; 1 Barossa ; and a few staves of the 171 colours 
taken at Blenheim. At St. Paul's, where the Blenheim 
colours were suspended, not a rag nor a staff remains. 
Eminent Persons interred in the Chapel. — William Cheselden, 
the famous surgeon (d. 1752) ; Rev. William Young (d. 1757), 
the original Parson Adams in Fielding's Joseph Andrews. 
Dr. Arbuthnot filled the office of physician, and the Rev. 
Philip Francis (the translator of Horace) the office of chaplain 
to the Hospital. The number of in-pensioners is from 400 
to 430 (as many as the Hospital will accommodate), main- 
tained at a cost of 36Z. a year for each pensioner. The 
out-pensioners, about 76,000 in number, arc paid at rates 
varying from 2ld. a day to 3s. 6d. a day ; the majority at (hi., 
9d., and Is. By Lord Hardinge's warrant of 1829, foot- 
soldiers to be entitled to a Chelsea pension must have served 
twenty-one years, horse-soldiers twenty-four. By Sir John 
Hobhouse's warrant of 1833, the period war, unnecessarily 
lengthened, and the pay unnecessarily lessened. Few invalids, 
it is said, apply to become in-pensioners, who have an cut- 
pension amounting to lOd. or Is. per day. There ifl a 
pleasant tradition that Nell Gwynne materially assisted in 
the foundation of Chelsea Hospital. Her head, and one of 
some standing, is the sign of a neighbouring public-house. 
The Hospital is managed by a Governor, Commissioners, &c. 

r 



210 '.KKENWKII HOSPITAL. 

The Governor is appointed by the Sovereign, acting on the 
advice of the Commander-in-Chief. 

QREErtWICH HOSPITAL. A Hospital ft* old and dis- 
Ibled Bailors of fthe Royal Navy, founded by King William 
aii-l Queen Mary, and erected on the site of the old Manor 
rlouse of our kings, in Which Henry VIII. and hie 
Mary and Elisabeth vrere born. Kin.: Charles II.. intending 
to erect a new |>alaoe "n the -it'', tin- west wing was com- 
menced in 1664, from tin- designs of Webb, the kinsman ami 
executor of [nigo Jones. All that Webb erected, all indeed 
of tin- present building, erected by Charles tL or hit 

was this -. The first stone of the Hospital 

works, in continuation <»f the unfinished palace, was laid 
3rd June, 1606: and in January, 1705, the building was 
first opened for the reception of pensioners. The river front 
is doubtL as Webb's design, though only the wot win- was 
of his erection. The colonnades, the cupolas, and th( 

hall, are by Wren. The chapel was built by Athenian Btuart, 
in place of the original chapel, built by Ripley, and destroyed 
by fii<' 2nd January, 177!'. The brick buildings to the west 

ate by VanbrUgh. The hoUSe seen in the centre of the 

■ [iiare, and disfiguring this part of the structure, was 

built l>y Inigo Jones, for Henrietta Maria, and is now the 

Etoyal Naval BchooL The statue l>y l!\>hraek. in the centre 

of the quadrangle, represents King George tL, and wall cut 

from a Mock of marble taken from the Prench by sir (Jcorge 
Efooka 

The //-,//. a well-proporttotled edifice. 106 feet lon& 56 feet 
wide, and 50 feet high, is the work of Wren. The emblemati- 

cal ceiling and side walls were executeil l>y Sir .lame- Thorn- 
hill, between 1708-27, and cost 6685J., or 3/. per yard for 
the wiling, and i/. for the sidea Among the portraits, oojeres, 
foil-length of the Earl of Nottingham, Admiral of England 
againsl the Spanish Armada. Vantomerj half-lengths, pamted 
for the Duke of York (James EL), of Monk, Duke of Albe- 
marle; Montague, Earl of Sandwich; Admirals Ayacue, Law- 
ion, Tyddeman, Mings, Penn, Barman, and Vice-Admirals 
Berkeley, Smith, ami Jordan, by Sit Peter f^iu, all cele- 
brated commanders at sea againsl the Dutch in the n 
Charles II.; Etussell, Earl of Orford, victor at La H 
Bookman ; sir Gtaorge Etooke, who took Gibraltar, /><»/'/; Sir 
Cloudesley Shovel, DcJd; aevera] Admirals, Knetter ; Captain 

Minted for Sir Joseph Hanks^ ; Sir Thomas 

Hardy, /.'runs. The other portraits are principally 06] 

inferior artists. Among the subject pictun heath 



0RBBNWICH HOSPITAL. 21 1 

of Captain Cook, Zoffany ; Lord Howe's Victory of the 1st ,,f 
June, Loutherbourg j Battle of Trafalgar, ./. J/. IT. 7 
The statues, erected by vote of Parliament, represent Bir 
Sydney Smith, Lord Exiiumth, and Lord De Saumares, and 
cost 1500/. each ; the Smith by Kirh of Dublin, the Ennouth 
by Mac Dowell of London, and the De Saumarez by Steel of 
Edinburgh. In Upper Hall, obtoroe, — Astrolabe presented to 
Sir Francis Drake by Queen Elizabeth j coat worn by Nelson 
at the Battle of the Nile ; coat and waistcoat in which Neb >n 
was killed at Trafalgar. 

"The coat is the undress uniform of a vice-admiral, lined with -white 
silk, with lace on the cuffs, and epaulettes. Four Btare -of the I >rdcrs of 
the Bath, St. Ferdinand and Merit, the Crescent, and St. Joachim— are 
seicn on the left breast, as Nelson habitually wore them : which disproves 
the story that he purposely adorned himself with his linnMjHnnn an 
going into battle! The course of the fatal ball is shown by a ! 
the left shoulder, and part of the epaulette is torn away ; which agrees 
with Dr. Sir William l'.eattie's aocotltlt Of Lord Nelson's death, and with 
the fact that pieces of the bullion and pad of the epaulette adhered t>> 
the ball, which is now in Her Majesty's possession. The coat and 
waistcoat are stained in several places with the hero's blood." — Sir 
Harris Nicolas. 

The Chapel, built 1779-89, by Athenian Stuart, contains an 
altar-piece, "The Shipwreck of St. Paul," by B. Wat, P. II. A. ( 
and monuments, erected by King William IV., to Admiral 
Sir Richard Goodwin Keats, and Admiral Sir Thomas Hardy 
(Nelson's captain at Trafalgar) ; the former by Chantrcy, and 
the latter by Behnes. Keats, as^ the inscription sets forth, 
was the shipmate and watchmate of William IV., on board the 
Prince George, 1779-81 ; the commoner serving as lieutenant, 
and the king as midshipman 

The Shoic Dormitories are in King Charles's building. 

The income of the Hospital is above 130,0002. a year, de- 
rived from an annual Parliamentary grant of 20,000/. ; from 
fines levied against smuggling, 19,500?. ; effects of Captain 
Kidd, the pirate, 64721. ; forfeited and unclaimed shares of 
prize and bounty money, granted in 1708; 6000?. a yettrj 
granted in 1710, out of the coal and culm tax ; various private 
bequests, particularly one of 20,000/. from Robert Osbaldes- 
ton, and the valuable estates forfeited, in 1715, by tin 
of Derwentwater. 

The Hospital Gates open at Sunrise. The Painted II 
open every Week-day from Ten to Seven during the Slimmer 
months, and from Ten to Three in the Winter; and on Sun- 
days after Divine Service in the Morning. On Monday and 
Friday it is open free to the public ; and on the other days, 
on payment of threepence. Soldiers and sailors are admitted 



212 FOUNDLING HOSPITAL, 

free at all times. The Chapel is open under tlie same regu- 
lations as the Painted Hall. 

Among the noble institutions of a like nature with which 
London abounds may be mentioned : — 1. The London 
Hospital. 2. Westminster Hospital. 3. Charing-cross 
Hospital. 4. Royal Free Hospital, in Gray's-Inn-road. 5. 
King's College Hospital, Portugal-street, Lincoln's-Inn-fields. 
6. University College Hospital. 7. St. Mary's Hospital, 
Cambridge-place, Paddiugton. The "Westminster relieves 
about 16,000 patients annually, of whom, in 1850, upwards 
of 10,000 were admitted on no other claim than the urgency 
of their cases. 

Among the Charities for Reclaiming the Fallen, the reform- 
ation of criminals, and staying the progress of crime, the 
Foundling, the Magdalen, and the Lock arc the most 
important. 

The FOUNDLING HOSPITAL, Guildford Street, was 
founded in 1739, by Captain Thomas Coram, as "an hospital 
for exposed and deserted children." The ground was bought 
of the Earl of Salisbury for 7000Z., and the Hospital built by 
Theodore Jacobson (d. 1772), architect of the Royal Hospital 
at Gosport. The Hospital was changed, in 1760, from a 
Foundling Hospital to what it now is, an hospital for poor 
illegitimate children whose mothers are known. The com- 
mittee requires to be satisfied of the previous good character 
and present necessity of the mother of every child proposed 
for admission. The qualifioation of a governor is a donation 
of 50/. Among the principal benefactors to the Foundling 
Hospital, the great Handel stands unquestionably the first. 
Here, in the chapel of the Hospital, he frequently performed 
his Oratorio of the Messiah. Obsen'c. — Portrait of Captain 
Coram, full-length, by Hogarth. 

"The portrait I painted with the most pleasure, and in which I par- 
ticularly wished to excel, was that of Captain Coram for the Foundling 
Hospital; and if I am so wretched an artist as my enemies assert, it is 
somewhat strange that this, which was one of the first I painted the size 
of life, should stand the test of twenty years' competition, and he. 
generally thought the hest portrait in the' place, notwithstanding the 
first painters in the kingdom exerted all their talents to vie with it."— 
Hogarth. 

The March to Finchley, by Hogarth : Moses brought to 
Pharaoh's Daughter, by Hogarth; Dr. Mead, by Allan 
Ranuay ; Lord Dartmouth; by Sir Joshua Rtynotdi j 
• EL, by Shaekleton ; View of the Foundling Hospital, by 
Richard WiUon : St. George's Hospital, by Richard tyikon; 
.Sutton's Hospital (the Charter House), by Gainsborough ; 
Chelsea Hospital, by Hgatleg ; Bethlehem Hospital, by 



LOCK HOSPITAL. 213 

Haytley ; St. Thomas's Hospital, by Wale ; Greenwich Hos- 
pital, by Wale ; Christ's Hospital, by Wale; three sacred 
subjects, by Hay man, Higlimore, and Wills; also bas-relief, 
by RysbracJc. These pictures were chiefly gifts, and illustrate 
the state of art in England about the middle of the last 
century. The music in the chapel of the Hospital on 
Sundays — the children being the choristers — is fine, and 
worth hearing. Lord Chief Justice Tenterden (d. 1832) is 
buried in the chapel. The Foundling is open for the inspec- 
tion of strangers every Monday from 10 to 4. The juvenile 
band of the establishment perform from 3 to 4. The services 
of the chapel on Sundays commence in the morning at 11 
o'clock, and in the afternoon at 3, precisely. Strangers may 
walk over the building after the services. The servants are 
not permitted to receive fees, but a collection is made at the 
chapel doors to defray the expenses of that part of the 
establishment. 

MAGDALEN" HOSPITAL, St. Geoege's Fields, for the 
reformation and relief of penitent prostitutes. Instituted 
1758, chiefly by the exertions of Mr. Dingley, Sir John 
Fielding, Mr. Saunders Welch, and Jonas Hanway. A sub- 
scription of 20 guineas or more at one time, or of 5 guineas 
per annum for five successive years, is a qualification of a 
governor for life. 

LOCK HOSPITAL, CHAPEL and ASYLUM, Harrow 
Road, Westbourne Green. Supposed to be so called from 
the French loques, rags, from the rags (lint) applied to 
wounds and sores ; so lock of wool, loch of hair. The Hos- 
pital (the only one of the kind in London) was established 
in 1746, for the cure of females suffering from disorders 
contracted by a vicious course of life ; the Chapel in 1764, 
as a means of income to the Hospital ; and the Asylum in 
1787, for the reception of penitent females recovered in the 
Hospital. A subscription of 3 guineas annually entitles to 
one recommendation ; 501. donation, or 5 guineas annually, 
constitutes a governor. The Loke, or Lock, in Kent-street, 
in South wark (from which the present Hospital derives its 
name), was a lazar-housc, or 'spital for leprous people, from 
a very early period. There was a second betwixt Mile End 
and Stratford-le-Bow ; a third at Kingslan J, betwixt Shore- 
ditch and Stoke Newington ; and a fourth at Knightsbridge, 
near Hyde-Park-comer. In one of these Locks, Bully 
Dawson died in 1699, aged 43. St. Giles's-in-the-Fields, and 
St. James's Hospital in Westminster (now the Palace), were 
both instituted for the reception of lepers. 



214 DREADNOUGHT HOSPITAL. 

The DREADNOUGHT or SEAMEN'S HOSPITAL SHIP, 
for Sick ami Diaoaood Seamen of all Nations; who, on pre- 
senting themaelvei alongside tin- .-hi]', are immediately!* 
cviwil. without tin* necessity of a recommendatory letter. 
The Bospil il it supported by voluntary contributions. The 
Dreadnought fought at Trafalgar under Captain Conn! and 
oaptured the Spanish thme*dec)cer the San Juan. 

Among the leading Societies for the Preservation of Human 
Life, Health, and Morals, may be mentioned : — 

The ROYAL HUMANE SOCIETY, for the recovery of 
persons from drowning, founded by Dr. Hawcs; instituted 
1771: and still maintained by voluntary contributions. 
The Receiving House, a tasteful classic building, by Decimus 
Bin-ton, is close to the Serpentine River, in Hydo Park, and 
the Society's office at 3, Trafalgar-square. During a sevcro 
frost the Society has 50 icemen in its employ at an expense 
of 4s. 6d. a day for each man. 

The MODEL BATHS and WASH-HOUSES, in Goulston 
SQUABS, Whitechapel (P. P. Baly, Engineer and Architect) ; 
George Street, Euston Square j St.Martin's-in-the-Fields, 
behind the National Gallery ; Marylkh<>m. : Wkstminstek \ 
St. James's, Piccadilly. That in Goulston-square, erected 
in 1847, was the earliest in point of time, and is still, perhaps, 
not to be surpassed. They are all self-supported, and have 
contributed materially to the comfort and health of the 
lower and middle classes of London. The Baths are 
scrupulously clean. 

The Charities for the Blind, the Deaf, and the Dumb, 
are important and well deserving attention. The leading 
institutions of this nature arc : — 

London Society fob Ti:.\chinu thk Bund to Reap. 1. 
Avenue-road, St. Jobn's-wood j instituted 1880. School for 

tiii- oroiGEM r.i.iM>. St. George's-fiehb. Surrey; instituted 

1780. A -vi i m roa ibm Botfobi \m' I'm < \ 1 1.'\ or D tap and 
Dumb OhzldbbBj Old Cent-road, Surrey] instituted 1788. 

\ : -<r further information regarding the Charities of London, 
reference should be made to Mr. Bempeou Low's excellent 
volume called the "Charities, of London," 



ciAi;s. 



215 



CLUB HOUSES. 

PRINCIPAL CLUBS IN LONDO : 

Those marked with an asterisk (*) admit Strangers to fjfa in the 
Strangers' Loom. 



Name. 


Number 
of Mem- 


Entrance 


Annual 


Where 


bers li- 


Pee. 


Sub- 


Situate. 




mited to. 




scription. 








£ s. 


£ $. 




Alfred . 


600 






23, Alhemarlc-st. 


Army and Navy • 


1450 


30 


6 11 


I'all-mall. 


Arthur's . . . 


600 


21 


10 10 


St. Janies's-st. 


Athenaeum 


1200 


26 5 


6 6 


Pall-mall. 


Boodle's . . . 








•lames's-st. 


Brooks's . 


575 


9 9 


11 11 


St. .Jaincs's-st. 


Carlton . . . 


eoot 


15 15 


10 10 


Pall-mall. 


City of London 




26 5 


6 6 


Old Broad-st.City. 


Cocoa Tree 








St. .lames's-st. 


Conservative . . 


1500 


26 5 


8 8 


St. .laines's-st. 


Coventry House 


500 % 


12 12 


12 12 


Piccadilly. 


•Erechtheum . 


600 


21 


7 7 


St. Jamcs's-sq. 


•Garriek . . . 


300 


15 15 


6 6 


Kiii'-r-st., Covt.-gn. 


Guards . 


Officers c 


f Hous. Ti 


topa only. 


l'all-niall. 


* Junior United Serv. 


1500 


30 


5 5' 


Regent-street. 


Oriental . . . 


800 


21 


S 


Ilunnvir-siuiare. 


Oxford &Cambridge 


1170 g 


26 5 


6 6 


Pall-mall. 


'Parthenon 


700 


21 


7 7 


Regent-street. 


'Reform . . . 


1400 i| 


26 5 


10 10 


Pan-man. 


Travellers' 


700 


21 


10 10 


Pall-mall. 


Union . . . . 


1000 


32 11 


I <; 


Trafalgar-square. 


United Service 


1500 


80 


6 


rail-mail. 


University Club 


1000 f 


26 


6 


Pall-mail, 


White's . . . 


550 






St. James's-st. 


Windham 


600 


27 6 


8 


St. James's-sq. 



From the above table it •will be seen that the twenty-.- ix 
large clubs are nearly in one locality; nine being iu i'all- 
mall, and four in St. Janies's-street. 

UNITED SERVICE CLUB, at the corner of PaJ 1 M.vr.r. 
and the opening into St. James's Paiik, erect c 
John Nash, architect. This is considered to be one of the 
most commodious, economical, and best managed of all the 



t Exclusive of Peers and Members of House ofCommew, 
t 400 English, 100 Foreign. £ 686 from each University, 

|| Exclusive of Honorary, Supernumerary, Mid Life Members. 
% 600 of each University. 



216 CLUBS. 

London Club-hou.se*. The pictures, though numerous, are 
chieliy copies. 

JUNIOR UNITED SERVICE CLUB, N. oorner of 
Charles Street and E. side of Regent Sti:i:i:t. was built 
by Sir Robert Smirke, for the United Service Club, but was 
found too small for the purposes of the Club. 

The ARMY AXD NAVY CLUB, in Pall Mali., oorner of 
Qbobgb Strut, St jAjaofa Squabs, was built 1847-50, 
from the designs of Messrs. Parnell and Smith. The carcase 
or shell of the building cost 18,5001 ; the interior 16,5007.— 
in all 35,000Z., exclusive of fittings. The comparatively 
small plot of land on which it stands has cost the Club 
52,500/., and the total expenditure may be called in round 
numbers 1 mt.iioi)/. The largest apartment is the "Morning- 
room;" and the "Library " is larger than the Drawing-room. 
The enrichments of the ceilings throughout are in carton- 
pierre and papier-mache. The principal furniture is of 
walnut-wood. The Kitchen is one of the successful novelties of 
the building, and will repay a visit. There is even a separate 
cook for chops, steaks, and kidneys, who dedicates his whole 
time and skill to bringing these favourite articles of con- 
sumption to the perfection they deserve. The balcony of the 
Smoking-room commands a noble prospect of cats and 
chimneys. The room, however, is handsome and well 
ventilated. 

The GUARDS' CLUB HOUSE, Pall Mall, was built 
1848-50, from the designs of Henry Harrison, architect. The 
Club is restricted to the Officers of the Household Troops, as 
contradistinguished from the Line. The Household Troops 
are considered to be attendant on the sovereign, and are seldom 
sent abroad but on urgent service. 

W1IITKS. A Tory Club-house, Nos. 37 and 88, St. 
.1 ami s's Street, over against Crockford's; originally White's 
Chocolate-house, under which name it was established aire. 
As a Club it dates. I believe, from 1736, when the 
house ceased to be an open chocolate-house, that any ouo 
might enter who was prepared to pay for what he had. It 
wa- then made ■ private house, for the convenience of the 
Chief frequenters Of the place, whose annual subscriptions 

towards its support were paid to the proprietor, by whom 
the dub was Gunned. With reference to the great spirit of 
B«"fag which prevailed at White's, the arm- of the Club 
were designed by Horace Walpole and George Belwyn. The 

blazon is vert (tor a card-table); three parolis proper 09 



CLUBS. 217 

a chevron sable (for a hazard-table) ; two rouleaus in saltier, 
between two dice proper, on a canton sable ; a white ball 
(for election) argent. The supporters are an old and young 
knave of clubs ; the crest, an arm out of an carl's coronet 
shaking a dice-box ; and the motto, " Cogit Amor Nummi." 
Round the arms is a claret bottle ticket by way of order. 
A book for entering bets is still laid on the table. The 
Club, on June 20th, 1814, gave a ball at Burlington House 
to the Emperor of Russia, the King of Prussia, and the 
allied sovereigns then in England, which cost 9849/. 2s. 6d. 
Covers were laid for 2400 people. Three weeks after the 
Club gave a dinner to the Duke of Wellington, which cost 
24S0Z. 105. 9d. 

BROOKS'S CLUB, St. James's Street. A Whig Club- 
house, Xo. 60, on the W. side, but founded in Pall-mall in 
1764, by 27 noblemen and gentlemen, including the Duke 
of Roxburgh, the Duke of Portland, the Earl of Strathmore, 
Mr. Crewe, afterwards Lord Crewe, and Mr. C. J. Fox. It 
was originally a gaming Club, and was farmed at first by 
Almack, but afterwards by Brooks, a wine merchant and 
money lender, who retired from the Club soon after it was 
built, and died poor about 1782. The present house was 
built, at Brooks's expense (from the designs of Henry 
Holland, architect), and opened in 1778. Sheridan was 
black-balled at Brooks's three times by George Selwyn, because 
his father had been upon the stage, and he only got in at last 
through a ruse of George IV. (then prince of Wales) who 
detained his adversary in conversation in the hall whilst the 
ballot was going on. The Club is restricted to 575 members. 
Entrance money, 9 guineas; annual subscription, 11 guineas ; 
two black-balls witt exclude. The Club (like White's) is still 
managed on the farming principle. 

CARLTON CLUB, Pall Mall (S. side). A Tory and 
Conservative Club-house, originally built by Sir Robert 
Smirke, but since enlarged, and in every sense improved, by 
his brother, Mr. Sydney Smyrke. The portion recently 
built forms about one-third of "the intended new Club-house, 
and contains on the ground floor a coffee-room, 92 feet by 
37 feet, and 21 £ feet high, and 28J feet high in the centre, 
where there is a glazed dome. On the first floor are a 
billiard-room and a private, or house, dinner-room. Above 
are smoking-rooms and dormitories for sen-ants. The ex- 
terior is built of Caen stone, except the shafts of the columns 
and pilasters, which are of polished Peterhead granite. The 
facade is of strictly Italian architecture, and consists of two 



2lti CLUBS. 

orders : the lower order Doric, the upper Ionic j and each 
iuter-columniation of both orders is occupied by an arched 
window, the keystones of which project so as to contribute 
towards the support of the entablature over them. The 
design is founded on the E. front of the Library of St. Marks, 
at Venice, by Sansoviuo and Scamozzi. The upper order is 
strictly after that building, except the sculpture, which 
differs' materially from that of the Italian example. The 
lower order is also different, inasmuch as the Library there 
has an open arcade on the ground floor, which was not 
admissible in the case of the Club-house. The introduction 
of polished granite in the exterior architecture of this build- 
ing is a novelty due to the establishment of extensive 
machinery for cutting and polishing granite at the quarries 
near Aberdeen, without the aid of which machinery the ex- 
pensewould have utterly precluded the useof polished granite. 
The chief object of the architect in introducing here a 
coloured material was to compensate, in some measure, for 
the loss of strong light and shadow in an elevation facing 
the N. It is intended to take down so much of the old 
building as may be necessary to complete the design, when 
the Club-house will have three uniform facades, similar in 
their architectural features to the portion already executed. 

CONSERVATIVE CLUB HOUSE, on the W. side of 
St. James's Street. Founded, 1840, as a Club of ease to the 
Carlton. Built from the designs of the late George Basse vi 
and Sydney Smirke, 1843-45, on the site of the Thatched 
House Tavern, and opened Feb. 19th, 1845. The total cost 
of building and furnishing was 73,211/. 4s. 3d., the architects' 
commission being 3458/. 0's. The encaustic paintings of the 
interior arc by Mr. Bang, and were executed at an expense 
of 2697/. 15s. There are G public rooms, viz., a morning and 
evening-room, library, coffee-room, dining-room, and card- 
room. In addition to these- there are committee-rooms, 
billiard-rooms, &c. The most striking feature of the house 
is tho Hall, coved so as to allow a gallery to run round it, 
and the staircase, botli richly ornamented in colour. The 
most stately room is that for evening occupation, extending 
tVoin X. to S. of the building, on the first floor. It is nearly 
100 feet hi h'H.u'th, -•» in breadth, and 25 in height, with 
coved fc-iling, supported by IS noble Scagliola Corinthian 

column*. The mojning-room on the ground floor jft of the 

same dimensions, and is \i iy eleganl in its appointment. 
Tho library occupies nearly the whole of the upper part of 

tho N. of tho building. Tho collee-room, in the lower 



clubs. _l:i 

division of the northern portion of the building, is of the 
same proportions as the library. The Club is worked by a 
staff of 50 servants, male and female, the keep of whom, 
owing to judicious management, is said to be under 3s. S\d. 
per head per week. The average at the other leading Clubs 
is said to be from 10s. to 12s. per week. The election of 
members is made by the committee, 5 being a quorum and 
two black balls excluding. 

REFORM CLUB, on the S. side of Pall Mall, between the 
Travellers' Club and the Carlton Club, was founded by the 
Liberal members of the two Houses of Parliament, about 
the time the Reform Bill was canvassed and carried, 1830-32. 
The Club consists of 1000 members, exclusive of members 
of either House of Parliament. Entrance fee, 25 guineas; 
annual subscription for the first five years of election, 101. 10s., 
subsequently, 8/. Ss. The house was built from the designs 
of Charles Barry, R.A. The exterior is greatly admired, 
though the windows, it is urged, are too small. The in- 
terior, especially the large square hall covered Avith glass, 
occupying the centre of the building, is very imposing. 
The water supply is from an Artesian well, 360 feet deep, 
sunk at the expense of the Club. The cooking establish- 
ment is said in brilliancy of cuisine to yield to none in 
Britain. 

ATHENAEUM CLUB, Pall Mall. Instituted in 1823 
by the Right Hon. John Wilson Croker, Sir T. Lawrence, 
Sir F. Chantrey, Mr. Jekyll, &c, " for the Association of 
individuals known for their literary or scientific attainments, 
artists of eminence in any class of the Fine Arts, and noble- 
men and gentlemen distinguished as liberal patrons of 
Science, Literature, and the Arts." The members are chosen 
by ballot, except that the committee have the power of 
electing yearly, from the list of candidates for admission, a 
limited number of persons, "who shall have attained to 
distinguished eminence in Science, Literature, and the Arts, 
or for Public Services ; " the number so elected not to exceed 
nine in each year. The number of ordinary members is 
fixed at 1200; entrance fee, 25 guineas; yearly subscription, 
6 guineas. One black ball in ten excludes. The present 
Clubdiouse (Decimus Burton, architect) was built in 1829. 

" The only Club I belong to is the Atluna urn. which c< nsi^ls of twi-lve 
hundred members, amongst whom are to be reckoned a large prop* i ti> n 
of the most eminent persons in the land, in every line— civil, military, 
and ecclesiastical, peers spiritual and temporal (ninety-five noblemen 
and twelve bishops), commoners, men of the learned profeul* us. tin E6 
connected with Science, the Aits, and Commerce in all its principal 



220 CLUBS. 

branches, as well as the distinguished who do not belong to any par- 
ticular class. .Many of these aie to be met with every day, living with 
the same freedom as in their own houses. For six guineas a-year every 
member has the command of an excellent library, with maps, of the 
daily papers, English and foreign, the principal periodicals, and every 
material for writing, with attendance for whatever is wanted. The 
building is a sort of palace, and is kept with the same exactness and 
comfort as a private dwelling. Every member is a master without any 
of the trouble of a master. He can come when he pleases, and stay 
away as long as he pleases, without anything going wrong. He has the 
command of regular servants without having to pay or to manage them. 
He can have whatever meal or refreshment he wants, at all hours, and 
served up with the cleanliness and comfort of his own house. He orders 
just what he pleases, having no interest to think of but his own. In 
short, it is impossible to suppose a greater degree of liberty in living." 
— Walker's Original. 

In the Coffee-room is a fine full-length unfinished portrait of 
George IV., the last work of Sir Thomas Lawrence. He was 
painting one of the orders on the breast a few hours before 
he died. The Library is the best Club Library in London. 

ERECHTHEUM CLUB, St. James's Sqdare, corner of 
York Street. A kind of junior Athenaeum, established by 
Sir John Dean Paul, Bart, in 183-, and deservedly celebrated 
for its good dinners. The Club-house was formerly inha- 
bited by Mr. Wedgewood, whose " ware " is so famous, and 
stands on the site of " Romney House," built for Henry 
Sydney, Earl of Rodney, the handsome Sydney of De Gram- 
mont's Memoirs. 

UNIVERSITY CLUB HOUSE, Suffolk Street, and 
Pall Mall East, was built by William AVilkins, R.A., and 
J. P. Gandy, and opened Feb. 13th, 1826. The members 
belong to the two Universities of Oxford and Cambridge. 
Entrance fee, 25 guineas ; annual subscription, 6 guineas. 

OXFORD AND CAMBRIDGE CLUB, Pall Mall. Built 
1838 (Sidney Smirke, A.R.A., architect). Entrance-money, 
20 guineas; annual subscription, 10 guineas. Number of 
members, 1000. 

UNION CLUB HOUSE, Cockspur Street, and S.W. 
end of Trafalgar Square (Sir Robert Smirke, R.A. archi- 
tect). The Club is chiefly composed of merchants, lawyers, 
members of parliament, ami. us James Smith, who was a 
member, writes, " of gentlemen at large." The stock of wine 
in the cellars of this Club is said to be the largest belonging 
to any Club in London. Entrance money, 30 guineas ; am mil 
subscription, guineas. 

GARRICK CLUB, No. 86, Knra Street, Covert Garde*. 

Instituted in 1S31, and named after David Carrick. to denote 



CLUBS. 22 L 

the theatrical inclination of its members. A lover of the 
English Drama and stage may spend two hours very profit- 
ably in viewing the large collection of theatrical portraits, 
the property of a member of the Club, and chiefly collected 
by the late Charles Matthews, the actor. Observe. — Male 
Portraits. — Nat Lee (curious) ; Doggett ; Quin ; Foote ; 
Henderson, by Gainsborough ; elder Colman, by Sir Joshua ; 
Munden, by Opie ; J. P. Kemble, drawing by Lawrence; 
Moody ; Elliston, drawing by Harlowe ; Bannister, by Russell; 
Tom Sheridan ; head of Garrick, by Zoffany ; King, by 
Richard Wilson, the landscape painter ; Emery ; elder 
Dibdin ; Mr. Powel and Family, by R. Wilson. Female 
Portraits. — Nell Gwyn (a namby-pamby face, but thought 
genuine) ; Mrs. Oldfield (half-length), by Kneller ; Mrs. 
Bracegirdle (three-quarter size); Mrs. Pritchard (half-length); 
Mrs. Cibber ; Peg Wofflngton (also a miniature three-quarter) ; 
Mrs. Abington, by Hiclcey ; Mrs. Siddons, by Harlowe ; Mrs. 
Yates ; Mrs. Billington ; Miss O'Neil, by Joseph ; Nancy 
Dawson ; Mrs. Siddons, drawing by Lawrence ; Mrs. Inch- 
bald, by Harlowe ; Miss Stephens ; Head of Mrs. Robinson, 
by Sir Joshua. Theatrical Subjects. — Joseph Harris, as Car- 
dinal Wolsey (the Strawberry Hill picture; Harris was one 
of Sir W. Davenant's players, and is commended by Downes 
for his excellence in this character) ; Anthony Leigh, as the 
Spanish Friar ; Colley Cibber, as Lord Foppington, by Grisoni; 
Griffin and Johnson, in The Alchemist, by P. Van Bleed-; 
School for Scandal (the Screen Scene), as originally cast ; 
Mrs. Pritchard, as Lady Macbeth, by Zoffany ; Mr. and Mrs. 
Barry, in Hamlet; Rich, in 1753, as Harlequin; Garrick, as 
Richard III., by the elder Norland ; King, as Touchstone, 
by Zoffany ; Weston, as Billy Button, by Zoffany ; King, and 
Mr. and Mrs. Badeley, in The Clandestine Marriage, by 
Zoffany ; Moody and Parsons, in the Committee, by Vander- 
gucht ; Garrick and Mrs. Cibber, by Zoffany ; Love, Law, 
and Physic (Mathews, Liston, Blanchard, and Emery), by 
Clint; Powell, Bensley, and Smith, by/. Mortimer ; Dowton, 
in The Mayor of Garratt ; busts, by Mrs. Siddons — of Herself 
and Brother. The pictures are on view every Wednesday, 
and the only mode of seeing them is the personal introduction 
of a member. The walls of the smoking-room were painted 
by Clarkson Stanfield, and David Roberts. 

WHITTINGTON CLUB and METROPOLITAN ATHE- 
NAEUM, 189, Strand. A cheap club for men and women, 
founded (18-17) with a view to throw open to the humbler 
classes those increased physical comforts, and facilities for 



222 clubs. 

moral and intellectual education, which are the most attrac- 
tive characteristics of modern London life, but which, in the 
absence of individual wealth, associated numbers can alone 
command. The dining and refresh ment rooms (where mem- 
bers may obtain dinner and refreshments at prices calculated 
merely to cover expenses, and free of gratuities to waiters), 
reading, news, chess, and smoking rooms, are open from 
eight in the morning till night. 

Classes arc established for the study and practice of 
languages, chemistry, vocal music, elocution, mathematics, 
historic and dramatic literature, discussion, fencing, dancing, 
&e. Weekly reunions are held for conversation, music, and 
other entertainments, to which members are free. Lectures 
are delivered every session, and Assemblies held on the first 
Monday of each month till May inclusive. 

Subscriptions : — Gentlemen residing or having a place of 
business within seven miles of the General Post Office, two 
guineas yearly ; gentlemen not within the above district, one 
guinea yearly. Ladies' subscription : — half-a-guinea yearly. 
The subscriptions are also payable half-yearly or quarterly, 
at the option of members. No entrance fee. 

The STEAKS. A society of noblemen and gentlemen, 
24 in number, who, in rooms of their own, behind the scenes 
of the Lyceum Theatre, partake of a five o'clock dinner of 
beef-steaks every Saturday, from November till the end of 
June. They abhor the notion of being thought a club, dedi- 
cate their hours to "Beef and Liberty." and enjoy a hearty 
English dinner with hearty English appetites. The room 
they dine in, a little Escurial in itself, is most appropriately 
fitted up — the doors, wainscoting, and roof, of good old 
English oak, ornamented with gridirons as thick as 
Henry VII.'s Chapel with the portcullis of the founder. 
Every thing assumes the shape or is distinguished by the 
representation of their favourite implement, the gridiron* 
The cook is seen at his office through the bars of a spacious 
gridiron, and the original gridiron of the society (the sur- 
vivor of two terrific fires) holds a conspicuous position in 
the centre of the ceiliii-r. Every member has the power of 
inviting a friend, and pickles are not allowed till after a third 
helping. The Steaks had its origin in the Beaf-Steak Society, 
founded (1735) by John Rich, patentee of Covent-garden 
Theatre, and George Lambert, the scene-painter. 



THE CITY. 223 



THE CITY AND THE CITIZENS. 

The entire civil government of the City of London, Within 
the walls and liberties, is vested, by successive charters of 
English sovereigns, in one Corporation, or body of citizens ; 
confirmed for the last time by a charter passed in the 23rd 
of George II. As then settled, the corporation consists of 
the Lord Mayor, 26 aldermen (including the Lord Mayor), 
2 sheriffs for London and Middlesex conjointly, the common 
councilmen of the several wards, and the livery ; assisted by 
a recorder, chamberlain, common serjeant, comptroller, 
Remembrancer, town-clerk, &c. 

The City is divided into Wards bearing the same relation 
to the^ City that the Hundred anciently did to the Shire. 
The Wards are 26 in number, each represented by an alder- 
man, and divided into precincts, each of which returns one 
common councilman. The common councilmen and Ward 
officers are elected annually, and the meetings of the alder- 
men and common council are called "Wardmotes. 

The senior alderman represents Bridge- Ward without, and 
is popularly known as " the father of the City.*' The alder- 
men are chosen by such householders as are freemen and 
pay an annual rent of 101. ; each alderman is elected for life. 
The civic offices are chiefly filled by second-class citizens in 
point of station — the principal bankers and merchants 
uniformly declining to fill them, and paying, at times, heavy 
fines to be exempt from serving. 

The City arms are the sword of St. Paul and the cross of 
St. George. The City was commonly called Cockaigne. The 
name Cockney — a spoilt or effeminate boy — one cockered and 
spoilt — is generally applied to people born within the sound 
of the bells of the church of St. Mary-le-Bow. Hugh Bigod, 
a rebellious baron of Henry III.'s reign, is said to have 
exclaimed — 

" If I were In my Castell of Bungcie 
Vpon the water of "Wauenie, 
I wold not set a button by the King of Cockneie." 

When a female Cockney was informed that barley did not 
grow, but that it was spun by housewives in the country — 
" I knew as much," said the Cockney, " for one may see the 
threads hanging out at the ends thereof." Minsheu, who 
compiled a valuable dictionary of the English language in 
the reign of James I., has a still older and odder mistake. 



224 MANSION HOUSE. 

" Cockney," he says, " is applied only to one born within the 
sound of Bow bells, i.e. within the City of London, which 
term came first out of this tale, that a citizen's son riding 
with his father out of Loudon into the country, and being a 
novice, and merely ignorant how corn or cattle increased, 
asked, when he heard a horse neigh, ' what the horse did I ' 
his father answered, 'the horse doth neigh;' riding farther he 
heard a cock crow, and said, ' doth the cock neigh too ] ' and 
therefore, Cockney by inversion thus, incock q. incoctus, i.e., 
raw or unripe in countrymen's affairs." 

MANSION HOUSE, the residence of the Lord Mayor 
during his term of office, was built 173941, from the designs 
of George Dance, the City surveyor. Lord Burlington sent a 
design by Palladio, which was rejected by the City on the in- 
quiry of a Common Councilman : '• Who was Palladio.'— was he 
a Freeman of the city, and was he not a Roman Catholic 1 " It 
is said to have cost 71,000/., and was formerly disfigured by 
an upper story, familiarly known, east of Temple Bar, as 
" The Mare's (Mayor's) Nest." The principal room is the 
Egyptian Hall, and was so called, because in its original con- 
struction it exactly corresponded with the Egyptian Hall 
described by Vitruvius. With the exception of this Hall 
the rooms arc somewhat poor; and the decorations and 
furniture throughout, some of a century, and others of 
sixty years since. In the Egyptian Hall, on every Easter 
Monday, the Lord Mayor gives a great private banquet and 
ball. The Lord Mayor of London is chosen annually, every 
29th of September, from the aldermen below the chair, who 
have served the office of Bueriff, and is installed in office 
every 9th of November, when " The Show " or procession 
between London and Westminster takes place. This, though 
somewhat pared of its former pomp, is a sight worth Beehlg. 
The procession ascends the Thames from Blackfriars to 
Westminster Bridge, and returns the same way. The car- 
riage in which the Lord Mayor rides to and from Blackfriars 
Bridge, and on all state occasions throughout his mayoralty, 
is a large lumbering carved and gilt coach, painted and de» 
signed by Cipriani, in J7f>7. Its original cost was 10661 8a. : 
and it is said, that an expenditure of upwards of lOOi. is 
every year incurred to keep it in repair. Here sits the chief 
magistrate in his red cloak, and collar of SS., with bis chap- 
lain, and his sword and mace bearers. The sword-bean r 
carries the sword in the pearl seal. hard, presented to the 
corporation by Queen Elizabeth upon opening the Royal Ex- 
change, and tne mace bearer the greal | old i i a given to the 



GUILDHALL. 225 

City by Charles I. He is sworn in at Westminster, in the 
morning of the 9th of November, before one of the Barons of 
the Exchequer, and then returns to preside at the great 
mayoralty dinner in Guildhall, at which some of her Majesty's 
ministers are invariably present. The annual salary of the 
Lord Mayor is 8000/. ; and the annual income of the corpora- 
tion of London, about 156,0002., arising from — 

Coal and Corn Dues .... estimated at £ 60,881 

Rents and Quit Rents ..... „ 56,896 

Markets „ 17,126 

Tolls and Duties „ 7,067 

Brokers' Rents and Fines ... „ 3,892 

Admissions to the Freedom of the City „ 4,518 

Renewing Fines for Leases ... „ 723 



£151,003 
The Lord Mayor generally spends more than his income, 
but how the Corporation money is spent is not very well 
known. The administration of justice at the Central Crimi- 
nal Court in the Old Bailey costs about 12,1822. a-year; the 
City Police, about 10,1182. a-year; Newgate, about 92232. 
a-year ; the House of Correction, about 76022. a-year ; the 
Debtors' Prison, about 19552. a-year ; and the expenses of the 
Conservancy of the Thames and Medway (of which the 
Lord Mayor is Conservator), about 31172. a-year. The Lord 
Mayor, as the chief magistrate of the City, has the right of 
precedence in the City before all the Royal Family ; a right 
disputed in St. Paul's Cathedral by George IV., when Prince 
of Wales, but maintained by Sir James Shaw, the Lord 
Mayor, and confirmed at the same time by King George III. 
At the Sovereign's death he takes his seat at the Privy 
Council, and signs before any other subject. The entire 
City is placed in his custody, and it is usual on state occasions 
to close Temple Bar at the approach of the Sovereign, not in 
order to exclude her, but in order to admit her in form. 

The GUILDHALL of the City of London is at the foot of 
EXHG Street, Cheapside, in the ward of Cheap, and was first 
built in 1111 (12th of Henry IV.), prior to which time the 
Courts were held in Aldermanbury. Of the original building 
there is nothing left but the stone and mortar of the walls ; 
two mutilated windows, one at each end ; a crypt, about half 
of the length of the present Hall, and a roof concealed by 
a fiat ceiling. The front towards King-street was seriously 
injured in the Great Fire, and the present mongrel sub- 
stitute erected in 1789, from the designs of the younger 
Dance. The sculpture in the Hall is of a very ordinary 

Q 



226 



LORD MAYORS DINNER, 



ehai-acter. Observe. — Pyramid ical monument to the great 
Lord Chatham, by the elder Bacon; the inscription by 
Edmund Burke. Monument to William Pitt, by Bubb ; 
the inscription by George Canning. Monument to Nelson, 
by Smith ; the inscription by R. B. Sheridan. Monument 
to Lord Mayor Beckford (the father of the author of Vathek), 
cut by Moore; the inscription upon it is his own speech 
spoken, or said to have been spoken, to King George III., at 
a period of great excitement. The statues of Edward VI., 
Queen Elizabeth, and Charles I., at the upper or E. end of 
the Hall came from the old chapel called Guildhall Chapel, 
pulled down in 1822. In the Common Council Chamber, 
abutting from the Hall, obsen-e. — A standing statue of 
George III. (Chantrqfa first statue); fine bust, by the same 
artist, of Granville Sharp ; bust of Lord Nelson, by the 
Honourable Mrs. Darner ; The Siege of Gibraltar, by /. & 
Copley, R.A. (father of Lord Chancellor Lyndhurst) ; Death 
of Wat Tyler, by James Northcote, JR. A.; whole-length of 
Queen Anne, by Closterman ; Portraits of the Judges (Sir 
Matthew Hale and others) who sat at Clifford's Inn after the 
Great Fire, and arranged all the differences between landlord 
and tenant during the great business of rebuilding, by 
Michael Wri;/7it. The two giants in the Hall — part of the 
pageant of a Lord Mayor's Day — are known as Gog and 
Magog, though antiquaries differ about their proper appel- 
lation, some calling them Colbrand and Brandamore. others 
Corineus and Gogmagog. They were carved by JRichard 
Saunders, and set up in the Hall in 1708. A public dinner 
is given in this Hall, every 9th of November, by the new 
Lord Mayor for the coming year. The Hall on this occasion 
is divided into two distinct but not equal portions. The 
upper end or dais is called the Hustings (from an old Court 
of that name) ; the lower the Body of the Hall. Her 
Majesty's ministers and the great Law officers of tin- Crown 
invariably attend this dinner. At the upper end or dais the 
courses are all hot ; at the lower end only the turtle. The 
scene is well worth seeing — the loving-cup and the barons 
of beef carrying the mind kick to mediaeval times and 
manners. The following is the Bill of Faro : 



250 Tureens of I>nl Turtle, on 
taininp 6 pints eadh. 

200 Bottles of sherbet, 
fi Dishes of Fish. 
30 Entrees. 
1 B >iled Turkeys nnd Oysters. 
t Pullet*. 

Kowls. 



•It! Ditto of Cnpons. 
6 Ditto of dipt. White's Selini" 
true India Curries. 

60 French Plea. 
60 Pigeon Plea, 
68 Huns ornamented. 

MI'S. 

2 Quarters of IIonse-Lamh. 



TEMPLE BAR. 



227 



6 Leverets. 
80 Pheasants. 
24 Geese. 

40 Dishes of Partridges. 
15 Dishes of "Wild Fowl. 

2 Pea Fowls. 



100 Pine Apples, from 2 to 3 lbs . 

each. 
200 Dishes of Hot-house Grapes. 
250 Ice Creams. 

50 Dishes of Apples. 
100 Ditto of Pears. 

60 Ornamented 8avoy Cakes. 

75 Plates of Walnuts. 

80 Ditto of dried Fruit and Pre- 
serves. 

50 Do. of Preserved Ginger. 

60 Do. of Rout Cakes and Chips. 

46 Do. of Brandy Cherries. 



2 Barons of Beef. 

3 Rounds of Beef. 
2 Stewed Rumps of Beef. 

13 Sirloins, Rumps, and Ribs of 

Beef. 
6 Dishes of Asparagus. 

60 Ditto of Mashed and other Po- 
tatoes. 

44 Ditto of Shell Fish. 

4 Ditto of Prawns. 
140 Jellies. 

50 Blancmanges. 

40 Dishes of Tarts, creamed. 

40 Dishes of Almond Pastry. 

30 Ditto of Orange and other 

Tourtes. 
20 Chantilly Baskets. 
60 Dishes of Mince Pies. 
56 Salads. 

THE REMOVES. 

80 Roast Turkeys. 

In a room abutting from the Hall is the " Guildhall or City 
of London Library," containing a large collection of early 
printed plays and pageants, &c, connected with the City ; 
antiquities, &c, discovered in making the excavations for the 
New Royal Exchange ; and in an appropriate case, Shakspeare's 
own signature, attached to a deed of conveyance, for which 
the Corporation of London gave, at a public sale, the sum 
of 147Z. In the crypt is a large red granite bowl, thus 
described in the Corporation journals of 1802 : — 

" Major Cookson, commanding the Royal Artillery in Egypt, presents 
his respectful compliments to the Lord Mayor and Corporation of the 
city of London, and begs to acquaint them that he has taken the liberty 
to ship on board the Anacreon transport, Allan Massingham master, a 
large antique Egyptian red granite bowl, and which Major Cookson 
requests the Lord Mayor and Corporation will do him the honour to 
accept as a testimony of his respect and a memorial of the British 
achievements in Egypt. — Alexandria, Sept. 1, 1802." 

TEMPLE BAR. A gateway of Portland stone, separating 
the Strand from Fleet-street, and the City from the shire; built 
by Wren (1670). On the E. side, in niches, are statues of 
Queen Elizabeth and James I., and on the W. side, those of 
Charles I. and Charles II., all by John Bushnell (d. 1701.) 
The gates are invariably closed by the City authorities when- 
ever the sovereign has occasion to enter the City, and are 
closed at no other time. The visit of the sovereign is, indeed, 
a rare occurrence — confined to a thanksgiving in St. Paul's 
for some important victory, or the opening of a public build- 
ing like the New Royal Exchange. A herald sounds a 
trumpet before the gate — another herald knocks — a parley 

Q 2 



228 THE MONUMENT. 

ensues — the gates are then thrown open, and the Lord Mayor 
for the time being makes over the sword of the City to 
the sovereign, who graciously returns it to the Mayor. The 
mangled remains of Sir Thomas Armstrong, the head and 
quarters of Sir William Perkins, and the quarters of Sir John 
Friend, were among the early ornaments of the present Bar. 
Armstrong was concerned in the Rye House Plot ; Perkins 
and Friend in the attempt to assassinate William III. The 
last ornaments of this character on the Bar were the heads of 
the victims of the fatal '"45." "I have been this morning 
at the Tower," Walpole writes to Montague, Aug. 16th, 
1746, "and passed under the new heads at Temple Bar, 
where people make a trade of letting spying-glasses at a half- 
penny a look." " I remember," said Johnson, " once being 
with Goldsmith in Westminster Abbey. While he surveyed 
Poets' Corner, I said to him : — 

' Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis.' 
When we got to the Temple Bar he stopped me, pointed to the 
heads upon it, and slily Avhispered me : 

' Forsitan et nostrum nomen miscebitur istis.' " 
Johnson was a Jacobite at heart. The last heads which 
remained on the Bar were those of Fletcher and Townley. 
"Yesterday," says a news-writer of the 1st of April, 1772, 
" one of the rebels' heads on Temple Bar fell down. There 
is only one head now remaining." The interior of the Bar is 
leased from the City, by Messrs. Child, the bankers, as 
a repository for the ledgers and cash books of their house. 

The MONUMENT, on Fish Street Hill, is a fluted 
column of the Doric order, erected to commemorate the 
Great Fire of London (2 — 7 Sept. 1666). The design was 
made by Sir Christopher Wren ; the bas-relief on the pedi- 
ment carved by Caius Gabriel Cibber, the father of Colley 
Cibber; the four dragons at the four angles by Edward 
Pierce, for which he had, as Walpole tells us, 50 guineas 
a piece; the Latin inscriptions, written by Dr. Gale, Dean of 
York ; and the whole structure erected in six years (167 1-7 7), 
for the sum of 13,700*. It is 202 feet high, and stands 
at a distance of 202 feet from the house in Puddivg-lanc, 
in which the fire originated. It is hollow, and contains 
a staircase of 345 steps. Admittance from i> till dark ; 
charge, 3c/. each person. The urn on the top is 42 feet high. 
Wren's first design was a pillar invested by flames, sur- 
mounted by a phoenix ; "but, upon second thoughts," ho 
says, " I rejected it, because it will be costly, n< t easily 



CITY COMPANIES. 229 

understood at that height, and "worse understood at a 
distance, and lastly dangerous, by reason of the sail the 
spread wings will carry in the wind." He then designed a 
statue of Charles II., and showed it to that King for his 
approbation; but Charles, "not that his Majesty," says 
Wren, '-'disliked a statue, was pleased to think a large ball 
of metal, gilt, would be more agreeable ; " and the present 
vase of flames was in consequence adopted. The following 
inscription was at one time to be read round the plinth, 
beginning at the west : — 

[\Y.]"THIS PILLAR WAS SET VP IN PERPETYALL REMEMBRANCE OF THAT 
MOST DREADFUL BURNING OF THIS PROTESTANT [s.] CITY, BEGUN 
AND CARRYED ON BY YE TREACHERY AND MALICE OF YE POPISH 
FACTIO, IN YE BEGINNING OF SEPTEM. IN YE YEAR OF [E.] OUR 
LORD 1666, IN ORDER TO YE CARRYING ON THEIR HORRID PLOTT 
FOR EXTIRPATING [N.] THE PROTESTANT RELIGION AND OLD 
ENGLISH LIBERTY, AND THE INTRODUCING POPERY AND SLAVERY."' 

And the inscription on the north side concluded as follows : — 

" SED FVROR PAPISTICVS QVI TAM DIRA PATRAVIT NONDUM 
RESTINGVITVR." 

These offensive paragraphs formed no part of the original 
inscription, but were added in 1681, by order of the Court 
of Aldermen, when Titus Oates and his plot had filled the 
Cty with a fear and horror of the Papists. They were 
obliterated in the reign of James II., recut deeper than 
before in the reign of "William III., and finally erased (by an 
Act of Common Council) Jan. 26th, 1831. 

Six persons have thrown themselves off the Monument : 
Green, a weaver, 1750 ; Cradock, a baker, 1788 ; Levi, a Jew, 
1810; Moyse, the daughter of a baker, 1839; a boy, named 
Hawes, Oct., 1839 ; and a girl of 17, in 1842. This kind of 
death becoming popular, it was deemed advisable to encage 
and disfigure the Monument as we now see it. Goldsmith, 
when in destitute circumstances in London, filled for a short 
time the situation of shopman to a chemist, residing at the 
corner of Monument or Bell Yard, on Fish-stieet-hill. 

The CITY COMPANIES of importance include " The 
Twelve Great Companies," so called, and about six others, 
though the total number of City Companies still existing is 
82 : forty of whom, however, are without halls. Many 
of these are very rich, but very few exercise any of their 
old privileges. The following are the Halls of the Twelve 
Great Companies, arranged in the order of precedence ; 
and such was the importance attached to the Twelve, 
that it was formerly necessary for a citizen, if a mem- 
ber of any other than the Twelve Great Companies, to 



230 MERCERS' HALL. GROCERS ' HALL. 

quit his own Company on becoming an alderman, and enter 
into one of the Twelve. The precedence of the twelve is 
thought to have originated in the selection of twelve citizens 
to attend the Lord Mayor in his office of Butler at the 
Coronation Feast. 

1. MERCERS' HALL and CHAPEL, Cheapside, between 
Ironmonger-lane and Old Jewry. The front, towards 
Cheapside, is a characteristic specimen of the enriched 
decoration employed in London immediately after the Great 
Eire. Observe. — Portrait of Dean Colet, founder of St. Paul's 
School (his father was a mercer, and Colet left the manage- 
ment of the school to the Mercers' Company) ; portrait of 
Sir Thomas Gresham, founder of the Royal Exchange and a 
member of the Mercers' Company. Another eminent 
member was "Whittington, four times Lord Mayor of London. 
Thomas a Becket, the archbishop and saint, was born in a 
house on the site of the Mercers' Chapel, originally an hos- 
pital of St. Thomas of Aeon or Acars, founded by the sister 
of Thomas a Becket, and at the dissolution of religious houses 
bought by the Mercers and called The Mercers' Chapel. 
Guy, the bookseller and founder of the hospital which bears 
bis name, was bound apprentice to a bookseller, Sept. 2nd. 
ltiCO, "in the porch of Mercers' Chapel." That part of 
Cheapside adjoining the Mercers' Chapel was originally 
called the Mercery. Queen Elizabeth was free of the 
Mercers' Company, — King James I. was a Clothworker. 
The usual entrance to the Hall is in Ironmonger-lane. 

2. GROCERS' HALL, in the Poultry, next No. 35. The 
Company was incorporated by Edward III., in 1345, under 
the title of " The Wardens and Commonalty of the Mystery 
of the Grocers of the City of London." They bad previously 
existed under the primitive name of Pepperers, and were 
subsequently united with the Apothecaries. The first Hall 
of the Grocers of which we have any account was built in 1 1-7. 
Their second was built after the Great Fire ; and their third, 
the present edifice (Thomas Leverton, architect), was com- 
menoed in 1798, and opened 1802. Their patron saint is 
St. Anthony. The City dinners to the Long Parliament 
were given in Grocers' Hall, and line the Governors and 
Company of the Bank of England held their Courts from 
the establishment of the Bank in 1604 to 1784. Sir Philip 
Sidney was free of the Croeers' Company, and tho Grocers 
rode in proeession at his funeral. Abol Drugger. the 
Tobaceo Man in Ben Jonson's Alchemist, is "free of the 



DRAPERS HALL. — FISHMONGERS HALL. 231 

Grocers." The most distinguished warden in the Company's 
list is Sir John Cutler, the penurious Cutler of the poet Pope, 
to whom the second Duke of Buckingham of the Villiers 
family made his memorable reply : — 

" His Grace's fate sage Cutler could foresee, 
And well (he thought) advised him—' Live like me.' 
As well his Grace replied—' Like you, Sir John ? 
That I can do when all 1 have is gone.' " — Pope. 

A portrait and portrait-statue of Cutler adorn the Hall of 
the Company. 

3. DRAPERS' HALL and GARDENS, Throgmorton 
Street, City. The Company was incorporated in 1439, and 
settled in Throgmorton-street in 1541, on the attainder of 
Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, whose house and garden- 
ground they acquired by purchase of Henry VIII. 

" This house heing finished, and having some reasonable plot of ground 
left for a garden, he [Cromwell] caused the pales of the gardens adjoining 
to the north part thereof, on a sudden to be taken down ; twenty-two feet 
to be measured forth right into the north of every man's ground ; a line 
there to be di-aAvn, a trench to be cast, a foundation laid, and a high brick 
wall to be built. My father had a garden there, and a house standing 
close to his south pale ; this house they loosed from the ground, and bare 
upon rollers into my father's garden twenty-two feet, ere my father heard 
thereof; no warning was given him, nor other answer, when he spake to 
the surveyors of that work, but that their master, Sir Thomas, com- 
manded them so to do. No man durst go to argue the matter, but each 
man lost his land, and my father paid his whole rent, which was 6s. Qd. 
the year for that half which was left." — Stow, p. 68. 

Cromwell's house was destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666; 
and the new Hall of the Company was erected in the suc- 
ceeding year from the designs of Jarman, architect of the 
second Royal Exchange. This is the present Hall — the 
street ornaments were added by the brothers Adam. 
Drapers'-gardens extended northwards as far as London Wall, 
and must have commanded formerly a fine view of Highgate 
and the adjoining heights. Ward commends them in his 
" London Spy " as a fashionable promenade " an hour before 
dinner time." Observe. — Portrait by Sir William Beechcy of 
Admiral Lord Nelson, and a curious picture, attributed to 
Zucchero, and engraved by Bartolozzi, of Mary, Queen of 
Scots, and her son, James I., when four years old. 

4. FISHMONGERS' HALL, at the north foot of London 
Bridge, erected 1831, on the site of the old Hall built after 
the Great Fire by Jarman, the City surveyor. The earliest 
extant charter of the Company is a patent of the 37th of 
Edw. III. ; while the acting charter of incorporation is dated 



•232, GOLDSMITHS 1 HALL. 

2nd of James I. The London Fishmongers wore divided 
formerly into two distinct classes, "Stock-fishmongers'' and 
" Salt-fishmongers." Then Thames-street was known as 
" Stock-Fishmonger-row," and the old Fish-market of London 
was " ahovc bridge," in what is now called Old Fish-street- 
hill, in the ward of Queenhithe, not as now, "below bridge," 
in Thames-street, in the ward of Billingsgate. The Company- 
is divided into liverymen (about 350 in number), and free- 
men (about 1000). The ruling body consists of Si — the 
prime warden, 5 wardens, and 28 assistants. The freedom is 
obtained by patrimony, servitude, redemption (for defective 
service), or gift. The purchase-money of the freedom is 105/. 
Emi n e n t Members. — Sir William Walworth, who slew Wat 
Tylt-r ; Js;iac Pennington, the turbulent Lord Mayor of the Civil 
War under Charles I. ; Dogget, the comedian and whig, who 
bequeathed a sum of money for the purchase of a " coat and 
badge " to be rowed for every 1st of August from the Swan 
at London Bridge to the Swan at Battersea, in remembrance 
of George I.'s accession to the throne. Observe. — A funeral 
pall or hearse-cloth of the age of Henry VIII., very fine, and 
carefully engraved by Shaic ; original drawing of a portion 
of the pageant exhibited by the Fishmongers' Company, 
Oct. 29th, 1616, on the occasion of Sir John Leman. a 
member of the Company, entering on the office of Lord 
Mayor of the City of London; statue of Sir William Wal- 
worth, by Edward Pierce; portraits of William III. and 
Queen, by Murray ; George II. and Queen, by Shaekhton ; 
Duke of Kent, by Bccchey ; Earl St. Vincent (the Admiral), 
by Beechcy ; and Queen Victoria, by Herbert Smith. 

5. GOLDSMITHS' HALL, Foster Lane, Cheapside, be- 
hind the general Post Office, built by Philip Hardwiek, R.A., 
and opened with a splendid banquet* July 15th, 1835. The 
Goldsmiths existed as a guild from a very early period, but 
were not incorporated before 1327, the 1st of Edward III. 
Eenry Fit/.-Alwin, the first Mayor of London, and who con- 
tinued Mayor for upwards of 24 years, was a goldsmith of the 
guild. The Goldsmiths' Company possess the privilege of 
assaying and stamping all articles of gold and silver manu- 
facture pursuant to acta L2 Geo. II. <■. 26, 24 Geo. III. c. 68) 
38 Geo. III. c. 59, and 8 Vict, e. _ , _ > . The assays in one day 
are about L50, and arc conducted as follows : — They scrape a 
portion from every piece of plate manufactured, ami send it 
to their assay master, [f found true to the standard quan- 
tities, the articles are pnmfid ; if what is called ^^' " deceitful 
work," they are destroyed. These standard scrapings are 



skinners' hall. 233 

afterwards melted down and assayed by the Company, to 
whom they belong. This last assay is a sort of "pix" by the 
Company on the practice of its assayers. The Hall mark, 
Stamped on the several articles assayed, consists of the 
Sovereign's head, the royal lion, the leopard of the old royal 
arms of England, and the letter in the alphabet which marks 
the year of the Sovereign's reign when the assay was made. 
The allowance to the Company is 2\ per cent., and the 
receipts for stamping are paid over to the Inland Revenue 
Office. Observe. — The exterior of the Hall itself, a noble 
specimen of Mr. Hardwick's abilities — bold and well-propor- 
tioned in every part. On the staircase, full-length portraits 
of George IV., by Northcote ; William IV., by Slice ; George III, 
and his Queen, by Ramsay. In the Livery Tea Room, a 
Conversation-piece, by Hudson (Sir Joshua Reynolds's 
master). In the Committee Room, the original portrait, by 
Jansen, of a liveryman of the Company, the celebrated Sir 
Hugh Middelton, who brought the New River to London : 
portrait of Sir Martin Bowes, with the cup he bequeathed to 
the Goldsmiths' Company, standing on the table before him.; 
(Queen Elizabeth is said to have drunk out of this cup at 
her coronation ; it is still preserved, and is engraved in 
Shaw's Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages) : Roman 
altar, exhibiting a full-length figure of Apollo, in relief, 
found in digging the foundations for the present Hall : full- 
length portraits of Queen Victoria, by Haytev ; Queen 
Adelaide, by Shee ; Prince Albert, by C. ; and marble busts, 
by Chantrey, of George III., George IV., and William IV. 

6. SKINNERS' HALL, Dowgate Hill. The Company 
was incorporated in 1327, and the government vested in a 
master, 4 wardens, and 60 assistants, with a livery of 137 
members. The Hall was destroyed in the Great Fire, and 
immediately rebuilt. The present front was added by an 
architect of the name of Jupp, about 1808. The mode of 
electing a master is curious. A cap of maintenance is carried 
into the Hall in great state, and is tried on by the old 
master, who announces that it will not fit him. He then 
passes it on to be tried by several next him. Two or three 
more misfits occur, till at last the cap is handed to the 
intended new master, for whom it was made. The wardens 
are elected in the same manner. The gowns of the livery- 
men were faced, in former times, with budge. Budge-row, 
in Watling-street, was so called of budge-fur, and of the 
skinners dwelling there. Observe. — Portrait of Sir Andrew 
Judd, Lord Mayor of London in 1551, and founder of the 



234 MERCHANT TAILORS' HALL. 

large and excellent school at Tunbridge, of which the 
Skinners' Company have the patronage and supervision. 

7. MERCHANT TAILORS' HALL, in Threadneedle 
Street, a little beyond Finch-lane, but concealed from the 
street by an ornamental row of merchants' houses. Company 
incorporated 1466. It has the honour to enumerate among 
its members several of the Kings of England and many of 
the chief nobility. The Hall was built, after the Great Fire, 
by Jarinan, the City architect, and is the largest of the Com- 
] Allies' Halls. The Merchant Tailors' is the great Tory Com- 
pany, as the Fishmongers' is the great Whig Company. Here, 
in 184 , a grand dinner was given to Sir Robert Peel, at which 
the whole body of Conservative Members of the House of 
Commons were present, and Sir Robert announced the new 
principles of his party; and here, inl851, a dinner was given to 
Lord Stanley, at which 200 Members of the House of Commons 
were present, and Lord Stanley explained the prospects of 
the Protectionist party. A few portraits deserve inspection. 
Observe. — Head of Henry VIIL, by Paris Bordone ; head of 
Charles I. ; three-quarter portrait of Charles II. ; full-length 
of Charles II.; full-length of James II.; full-length of 
William III.; full-length of Queen Anne; full-lengths of 
George III. and his Queen, by Ramsay (same as at Gold- 
smiths' Hall) ; full-length of the late Duke of York, by Sir 
Thomas Lawrence; full-length, seated, of Lord Chancellor 
Eldon, by Briygs ; full-length of the Duke of Wellington, by 
Wilkie (with a horse by his side, very spirited but not very 
like) ; three-quarter of Mr. Pitt, by Hoppner. Also among 
the following portraits of old officers of the Company 
(artists unknown), Sir Thomas White, master, 1561, founder 
of St. John's College, Oxford. Stow, the chronicler, and 
Speed, the historian, were Merchant Tailors. Mode of 
Admission. — Order from the master; for the master's ad- 
dress, apply to the clerk, at his office in the Hall. When 
Dr. South was appointed Chaplain to this Company, he took 
fur the text of his inauguration sermon, " A remnant of all 
shall be saved." 

8. HABERDASHERS' HALL, at Ktaimn*. L.vm: end, 
ChiahudBj behind the Post-officv, the Hall of the Haber- 
dashere, the eighth on the list of the Twelve Great Oonv 
peniee. Tho Hall was destroyed in the Greet Fire, and 
rebuilt, as we now see it, it is said, by Sir Christopher Wren ; 
but it is more in Jarman's styh\ The Hall contains a mis- 
cellaneous collection of portraits, but not one of any conse- 



vintners' hall. 235 

quence or merit. The Haberdashers were originally called 
Hurrers and Milaners, and were incorporated 26th of 
Henry VI. 

9. SALTERS' HALL, Oxford Court, St. Swithin's Lane* 
the Hall of the Master, Wardens, and Commonalty of the 
Art or Mystery of Salters. The present Hall was built by 
Henry Can*, architect, and opened 1827. Oxford-court, in 
which the Hall is situated, was so called from John de Vere, 
the sixteenth Earl of Oxford of that name, who died in 1562, 
and was originally the site of the inn or hostel of the Priors 
of Tortington, in Sussex. Empson and Dudley, notorious 
as the unscrupulous instruments of Henry VII.'s avarice in 
the later and more unpopular years of his reign, lived in 
Walbrook, in " two fair houses," with doors leading into the 
garden of the Prior of Tortington (now Salters'-garden). 
" Here they met," says Stow, " and consulted of matters at 
their pleasures." Observe. — Portrait of Adrian Charpentier, 
painter of the clever and only good portrait of Roubiliac, 
the sculptor. 

10. IRONMONGERS' HALL, on the north side of 
Fenchurch Street. The present Hall was erected by 
Thomas Holden, architect, whose name, with the date 1748, 
appears on the front. The Ironmongers were incorporated 
for the first time in 1464 :— 3rd of Edward IV. Observe. — 
Portrait of Admiral Lord Viscount Hood, by Gainsborough ; 
presented by Lord Hood, on his admission into this Com- 
pany in 1783, after the freedom of the City had been con- 
ferred upon him for his eminent naval services. The great 
Banquetting-hall has recently been decorated in the Eliza- 
bethan style, by Jackson and Sons, in papier mache and 
carton pierre. 

11. VINTNERS' HALL, on the river side of Upper 
Thames Street. It is a modern building, of small preten- 
sions, but the Company is of great antiquity. In the Court- 
room are full-length portraits of Charles II., James II., 
Marie D'Este, and Prince George of Denmark. The patron 
saint of the Company is St. Martin, and one of the churches in 
the ward of Vintry was called St. Martin's-in-the-Vintry. 

12. CLOTHWORKERS' HALL, on the east side of 
Mincing Lane, Fexciiukch Street. A small building, 
principally of red brick, the Hall of the Master, Wardens, 
and Commonalty of Freemen of the Art and Mystery of 
Clothworkers of the City of London. King James I. in- 



■231} stationers' hall. 

corporated himself into the Clothworkcrs, as men dealing 
in the principal and noblest staple ware of all these Islands. 
" Beeing in the open hall, he asked who was master of the 
company, and the Lord Mayor answered, Syr William Stone; 
nnto whom the King said, ' Wilt thou make me free of the 
Clothworkcrs ? ' ' Yea,' quoth the master, ' and thinkc 
myselfe a happy man that I live to see this day.' Then the 
King said, ' Stone, give me thy hand, and now I am a Cloth- 
worker.' " Pepys, who was Master in 1677, presented a 
richly-chased silver cup, called " The Loving Cup," still in 
the possession of the Company, and used on all festive 
occasions. 

Of the other Halls of Companies the most important are — 

ArOTHECARIES' HALL, Water- Lane, BlackfrTars. 
A brick and stone building, erected in 1670 as the Dispen- 
sary and Hall of the Incorporated Company of Apothecaries. 

" Nigh where Fleet Ditch descends in sable streams, 
To wash his sooty Naiads in the Thames, 
There stands a structure on a rising hill, 
"Where tyros take their freedom out to kill." 

Garth, The Dispensary. 

The Grocers and the Apothecaries were originally one Com- 
pany ; but this union did not exist above eleven years, King 
James I., at the suit of Gideon Delaune (d. 1659), his own 
apothecary, granting (1617) a charter to the Apothecaries as 
a separate Company. In the Hall is a small good portrait of 
James L, and a contemporary statue of Delaune. In 1687 
commenced a controversy between the College of Physicians 
and the Company of Apothecaries, the heats and bicker- 
ings of which were the occasion of Garth's poem of The 
Dispensary. The Apothecaries have a Botanic Garden at 
Chelsea ; and still retain the power of granting certificates to 
competent persons to dispense medicines. In the Hall is a 
well-supported retail-shop, for the sale of unadulterated 
medicines. 

STATIONERS' HALL, Stationers' Hall Court. LuDOatl 
SlLL. The Hall of the "Master and Keepers or Wardens and 
Commonalty of tin- Mysl r\ or Art of the Stationers of the City 
of London," the only London Company entirely restricted 
to the members of its own croft The Company was incorpo- 
rated in the reign of Philip and Mary, and the present Hall 
erected on the site of Bargaveny House, belonging to Henry 
Nevill, sixth Lord Abergavenny (d. L587). The Hall was 
destroyed in the Great Fire of 1666, when the Stationers of 



BARBER SURGEONS' HALL. 237 

London (the greatest sufferers on that occasion) lost property, 
it is said, to the amount of 200,000Z. Observe. — Portraits of 
Prior and Steele (good) ; of Richardson, the novelist, Master 
of the Company in 1754, and of Mrs. Richardson, the 
novelist's wife (both by Highmore); of Alderman Boydell, 
by Graham; of Vincent Wing, the astrologer; Wing died in 
1668, but his name is still continued as the compiler of the 
sheet almanacks of the Stationers' Company. The Stationers' 
Company, for two important centuries in English history, 
had nearly the entire monopoly of learning. Printers were 
obliged to serve their time to a member of the Company, 
and every publication, from a Bible to a ballad, was required 
to be " Entered at Stationers' Hall." The service is now un- 
necessary, but under the recent Copyright Act, the proprietor 
of every published work is required, for his own protection, 
to register in the books of the Stationers' Company its title — 
owner and date of publication, in order to secure it from 
piracy. The fee is 5s. The number of Freemen is between 
1000 and 1100, and of the livery, or leading persons, about 450. 
The Company's capital is upwards of 40,000?., divided into 
shares varying in value from 401. to 4001. each. The great 
treasure of the Company is its register of works entered 
for publication, commencing in 1557, and now in course of 
publication by the Shakespeare Society. The only publications 
which the Company continues to make are almanacks, of 
which they had once the entire monopoly, and a Latin Gradus. 
Almanack clay at Stationers' Hall (every 22nd of November, 
at 3 o'clock) is a sight worth seeing, for the bustle of the porters 
anxious to get off with early supplies. The celebrated Bible 
of the year 1632, with the important word "not" omitted 
in the seventh commandment, "Thou shalt not commit 
adultery," was printed by the Stationers' Company. The 
omission was made a Star-Chamber matter of by Archbishop 
Laud, and a heavy fine laid on the Company for their 
neglect. 

At the Hall of the Armourers' Company, Coleman-street, 
is a noble collection of mazers, hanaps, and silver gilt cups, 
not to be matched by any other company in London. At 
Barber-Surgeons' Hall, Monkwell-street, City, is the fine 
picture, by Holbein, of Henry VIII. presenting the charter to 
the Company, the most important work now existing of Hol- 
bein's painting in England. At the same Hall arc two silver 
gilt cups, one of great beauty, presented by Henry VIII. ; 
the other, scarcely inferior, by Charles II. At Weavers' 
Hall, 22, Basinghall-strcet, is an old picture of William Lee, 
the Cambridge scholar, who is said to have invented the 



238 AUTILLKRV OOXPAYT, 

loom for weaving stockings : the picture represents him 
pointing out his loom to a female knitter. At Saddlers' 
Hall, Cheapside, is a fine Funeral Pall of 15th century 
work, inferior, however, to the Pall at th<> Rah mongers'. 
At (.'Aitri:NTi.i:s' ll.u.r., ( !arp< liters' Buildings, London Wall, 
are four paintings in distemper, of a date as early as the 
reign of Edward IV., with the ancient caps and crowns of 
the Miter and Warden*. At I'.untku-Stai neks' Hall, 
Little Tower-street, is a portrait of Camden, the antiquary 
(the son of a painter-stainer*. wd a Loving Cup, bequeathed 
by him to the Company, end used every St. Luke's Day. 

The ARTILLERY GROUND (Fmst kv Bquarb, weal 

side.) lia> been the exrrei.-ini: Hound since 1622 of the 
Honourable Artillery Company of the City of London. The 
old City Trained Band was established 1 585. during the fear of 
a Spanish invasion ; new formed in 1610, and a weekly exercise 
in arms was adhered to with strict military discipline. When 
the Civil War broke out, the citizens of London (then carefully 
trained to war) took up arms against the King ; and on all 
occasions, more especially at the battle of Newbury, behaved 
with admirable conduct and courage. Since the Restoration, 
they have led a peaceable life, and, except in 1780, when their 
promptness preserved the Bank of England, have only been 
called out on state occasions, such as the public thanksgiving 
(1705) for the victories of the Duke of Marlborough, when 
Queen Anne went to St. Paul's, and the Westminster Militia 
lined the streets from St. James's to Temple Bar. and the 
city Trained bands from Temple Bar to St. Paul's. The 
musters and marchings of this most celebrated Company 
are admirably ridiculed by Fletcher in The Knight 01 the 

Burning Pestle ; and the manner in which their orden were 
issued, by Steele, in No. 41 of the Tatler. I need hardly 
add, that John Gilpin was a Train-band Captain. 

'• A Train-band Captain <>ko was he 
< >f ounotu London town." 

Frincc Albert is the Colonel of the Company, and tho force 
U about -50 men. 



EMINENT PERSONS BORN IN LONDON. 23 ( J 



EMINENT PERSONS BORN IN LONDON. 

St. Thomas a Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, behind the 
Mercers' Chapel in the Poultry. 

Sir Thomas More, Lord Chancellor, in Milk-street, Cheap- 
side. 

Lord Bacon, Lord Chancellor, in York House, on the site of 
Buckingham-street in the Strand. 

Great Lord Stafford, in Chancery-lane. 

The great Earl of Chatham, in the parish of St. James's, 
Westminster. 

William Camden, author of " Britannia," in the Little Old 
Bailey, near St. Sepulchre's Church. 

John Stow, the historian of London. 

Chaucer, the father of English Poetry. 

Spenser, author of the Fairie Queene, in East Smithfield, 
near the Tower it is said. 

Ben Jonson, in Hartshox-ne-lane, near Northumberland- 
street, Charing-cross, it is said. 

Milton, in Bread-street, Cheapside, where his father was a 
scrivener at the sign of the Spread Eagle. 

Cowley, in Fleet-street, near Chancery-lane, where his 
father was a grocer. 

Pope, in Lombard-street, where his father was a linen-draper. 

Gray, at No. 41, Coruhill, where his father was a linen- 
draper. 

Lord Byron, at No. 24, Holies-street, Cavendish-square, 
where his mother was in lodgings. 

Inigo Jones, in or near Cloth Fair, Smithfield, where hi 
father was a clothworker. 

Hogarth, in Bartholomew-close, Smithfield, where his father 
was a corrector of the press to the booksellers in Little 
Britain. 

PENH, the founder of Pennsylvania, in the house of his 
father the Admiral, on Great Tower-hill, on the E. side, 
within a court adjoining to London Wall 

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, in the Piazza, Covent-garden. 

Horace Walpole, in Arlington-street, Piccadilly. 



240 



EMINENT PERSONS BURIED IN LONDON. 



EMINENT PERSONS BURIED IN LONDON AND ITS 
IMMEDIATE VICINITY. 



KINGS and QUEENS:— 

Edward the Confessor . 

Edward I. 

Edward III. 

Henry V. 

James IV. of Scotland 

Anne Boleyn . 
Lady Jane Grey . 
Queen Elizabeth 
.M ary Queen of Scots . 



"Westminster Abbey 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

Ditto. 

St. Michael's, "Wood-street, 

Cheapside. 
St. Peter' s-ad-Vincula, Tower 
Ditto. 

Westminster Abbey. 
Ditto. 



SOLDIERS:— 

Ayiner de Valence, Earl of Pembroke, Westminster Abbey. 



Sir Francis Verc 

Lord Herbert of Cherbury 

General "Wolfe 

Sir Thomas Picton 

SEAMEN :— 

Bir Walter Raleigh 
Nelson .... 
C'ollingwood 



Ditto. 

St. (iilos's-in-the-Fields. 
( ireenwich. 

Chapel of Bayswater Burying- 
ground. 

St. Margaret's, "Westminster. 

St. Paul's. 

Ditto. 



HISTORICAL CHARACTERS:— 

Cromwell, Earl of Essex . . .St. Peter' s-ad-Vincula, Tower. 

Protector Somerset Ditto 

Viliiers,lst&2d Dukes of Buckingham, Westminster Abbey. 

Duke of Monmouth . . . . st. Peter's-ad-Vincnla, Tower, 

STATESMEN:— 
Sir Thomas .More 
Sir William Temple 
Savile, Lord Halifax . 
Bolingbroke .... 
Chatham .... 
Pitt 



Chelsea Old Church. 
Westminster Abbey. 

Ditto. 

Battersca Church. 



Canning 

DIVINES:— 

Miles Coverdale . . . . , 
I'.i hop Andrews . . . . , 
Fuller, author of •• Wortnie " . 

Barrow 

South 

Archbishop Tillotsqn . . . , 

Bishop Burnet 

v i "ii, antiior of •• Fasti and Fes- 

ti\ ah" 

i . founder of the Quakers 

P ley 



"Westminster Abbey. 



st. Magnus. London Bridge. 
st. Saviour's, Bouthwark. 
Cranford, near Hounslos . 
Westminster Abbey. 
Ditto. 

St. Lawrence, .lew ry. 

st. James's, ClerkenweH. 

St. George the .Martyr, Queen's 

Sonars. 
BuuhlU-fields Burial-ground. 
Wesley's Chapel, City-road. 



BURIAL PLACES OF GREAT PERSONS. 



241 



DIVINES, continued :- 

Isaac Watts 
Rev. John Newton 



Swcdenbort 



Banhill-fields. 

St. Mary Woolnoth, Lombard- 
street. 

Swedish Church, Prince's- 
sqnare, Ratdiff Highway. 



POETS, &c:— 

Chaucer "Westminster Abbey. 

< lower St. Saviour's, Southwark. 



Spenser . 

Sir Philip Sydney 

Chapman 

Ben Jonson . 

Beaumont 

Fletcher 

Massinger 

Kit Marlowe 

Milton 

Cowley . 

Butler 

Otway . 

Dry den 

Pope 

Congrevc . 

G ay 

Prior 

Addison 

Thomson . 

Dr. Johnson 

Chatterton 

It. B. Sheridan 

Campbell . 

Tom Dibdin 

MUSICIANS:— 

Purcell 
Handel . 



. "Westminster Abbey. 
. Site of St. Paul's. 
. St. Giles's-in-the-Fields. 
. "Westminster Abbev. 
. Ditto. 

. St. Saviour's, Southwark. 
. Ditto. 

. Deptford Old Church. 
. St. Giles's, Cripplegate. 
. "Westminster Abbey. 
. St. Paul's, Coven t-garden. 
. St. Clement's Danes. 
. "Westminster Abbey. 
. Twickenham. 
. Westminster Abbey. 
. Ditto. 
. Ditto. 
. Ditto. 
. Richmond. 
. Westminster Abbey. 
. Site of Farringdon Market. 
. Westminster Abbey. 
. Ditto. 

. St. Martin's-in-the-Fields Bu- 
rial-ground, Camden-town 



Westminster Abbey. 
Ditto. 



NOVELISTS :- 
Bunyan . 
De Foe . 
Richardson 

Ftcrne . 
Goldsmith 



ACTORS and ACTRESSES 
Tarlton .... 
Burbadge .... 
Ned Alleyu . 
Betterton .... 
Colley Cibber 



Garrick . 
Mrs. Oldficld 
Mrs. Bracegirdle 

Mrs. Siddons 



Bunhill fields. 

Ditto. 

St. Bride's Church, Fleet- 
street. 

Bays water Burial-ground. 

Ground of Temple Church, 
Fleet-street. 



. St. Leonard's, Shored itch. 

. Ditto. 

. Dulwich College. 

. Westminster Abbey. 

. Danish Church, SVellclose 

square. 
. Westminster Abbey. 
. Ditto. 
. Ditto. 
. Old Paddington Churchyard. 



242 



BURIAL PLACES OF GREAT PERSONS. 



PHYSICIANS and SURGEONS 
Sir Hans Sloane 
Dr. Mead .... 
Cheseldcn .... 
John Hunter 



Sir Astley Cooper 

PHILOSOPHERS :— 

Sir Isaac Newton . 

LAWYERS :— 

Plowden 

Sir William Follett . 

HISTORIANS and ANTIQUARIES :- 
Fox, author of "Acts and Monuments" 

Camden 

Stow 



Spelman 

Archbishop Usher 
Oldys . 
Ritson 
Btrutt . 

PAINTERS :— 
Holbein . 



Van Dyck 

Sir Peter Lely . 

Vandervelde 

Sir Joshua Reynolds 

Hogarth 

Gainsborough . 

Stothard. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence 



SCTLPTORS:— 

Grinling Gibbons 

Roubiliac 

Flaxman 



ARCHITECTS :— 
Inigo Jones 

Sir Christopher Wren 

ENGRAVERS:— 
Hollar . 



Woollett 
Strange . 
William Sharp 

ENGINEERS:— 
John Rennie . 



EMINENT FOREIGNERS: 

(asaubon 

St. Kvremont . 

General Paoli 



Chelsea Churchyard (Old). 
Westminster Abbey. 
Chapel of Chelsea College. 
St. Martin's - in - the - Fields 

vaults. 
Chapel of Guy's Hospital. 

Westminster Abbey. 

Temple Church. 
Temple Church. 

St. Giles's-in-the-Fields. 

Westminster Abbey. 

St. Andrew Undershaft, Lead- 

enhall-street. 
Westminster Abbev. 
Ditto. 

St. Bennet, Paul's-wharf. 
Btinhill-fields. 
St.Andrew's-in-the-Wardrobe 



St. Catherine Cree, Leaden- 
hall-street. 
Site of St. Paul's. 
St. Paul's, Covent-garden. 
St. James's, Piccadilly. 
St. Paul's. 

Chiswick Churchyard. 
Kew Churchyard. 
Bunhill-fields. 
St. Paul's. 



St. Paul's, Covent-garden. 
St. Martm's-in-the-Fields. 
St. Giles's Burial-ground at 
St. Pancras. 



St. Bennet, Paul's-wharf. 
St. Paul's. 



St. Margaret's, AVestminster 

(churchyard). 
Old St. Pancras Churchyard. 
St. Paul's, Covent-garden. 
Chiswick Churchyard. 



St. Paul's. 



Westminster Abbey. 

Ditto. 

Old St. Pancras Churchyard. 



BURIAL PLACES OF GREAT PERSONS. 243 

MISCELLANEOUS:- 

Will Somers, Henry VIII.'s jester . St. Leonard s. 

Old Parr Westminster Abbey. 

Hakluyt Ditto. 

Capt. John Smith, author of " History 

of Virginia " . . . . . St. Sepulchre's, Snow-hill. 
Heminge and Cundall . . . . St. Mary's, Aldermanbury. 

Roger Ascham St. Sepulchre's, Snow-hill. 

Andrew Marvell St. Giles' s-in-the-Fields. 

Pepys St. Olave's, Hart-street. 

Dr. Busby Westminster Abbey. 

LaBelle Stuart Ditto. 

Nell Gwyn St. Martin s-in-the-Fields. 

Duchess of Cleveland .... Chiswick. 

Judge Jefferies St. Mary's, Aldermanbury. 

Colonel Blood New Chapel-yard, Broadway, 

Westminster. 
Trusty Dick Penderell .... St.Giles's-in-the-FieldChurch- 

yard. 

Dr. Sacheverel St. Andrew's, Holhorn. _ 

Ludowick Muggleton . . . . Bethlehem Churchyard, Liver- 
pool-street, City. 

Jack Sheppard St. Martin s-in-the-Fields. 

Joe Miller . ... St. Clement's Danes Yard, m 

Portugal-street. 

Cocker St. George's, Southwark. 

Hoyle Marylebone Churchyard, Pad- 

dington. 
Lady Mary Wortley Montague . . South Audley-street Chapel, 

Jack Wilkes Ditto. 

Lord George Gordon . . . . St. James s, Hampstead-road. 
Joanna Southcott . . . .St. John's Chapel Burial- 
ground, St. John's Y ood. 

John Home Tooke Ealing. 

Rev. Sydney Smith .... Kensal Green. 

PUBLIC BENEFACTORS:- . 

William Caxton St. Margaret's, Westminster. 

Sir Thomas Gresham . . . .St. Helen's, Bishopsgate. 

CELEBRATED CHARACTERS DURING THE CIVIL WAR. 

1637—1649:— , m , _. . 

Charles I St. George's Chapel, Yv indsor. 

Lord Clarendon Westminster Abbey. 

Prince Rupert 5 itt0 ^ a ™ , r., ^ 

Attorney-General Noy . . . Brentford Old Church. 

Cleveland St. Michael's, College-hill. 

Alexander Brome .... Lincoln's-Inn Chapel. 

Rush worth St. George s, Southwark 

Cromwell 1 Under Tyburn Gallows, 

Bradshaw > Hyde Park end of Edg- 

Ireton \ ware-road. 

Earl of Essex Westminster Abbey. 

Fleetwood Bunhill-fields. 

Monk Westminster Abbey. 

p ym Ditto. 

Sir John Eliot St. Peter's-ad-Vincula, Tower. 

Seiden Temple Church. 

Blake "(Pit in St. Margaret's Church- 
May ' J y ard > Westminster. 

R 2 



244 HOUSES OF EMINENT TERSONS. 

CELEBRATED CHARACTERS DURING THE CIVIL WAB, 

1637—1649, continued:— 
Lilburn Bethlehem Churchyard, Liver- 
pool-street. 

Richard Baxter Christ Church, Newgate-street. 

Bdmund Calamy St. Mary Aldermary. 



HOUSES IN WHICH EMINENT PERSONS HAVE 
LIVED. 

'*' THERE is a custom on the Continent well worthy of 
notice," says the elegant-minded author of the Pleasures of 
Memory. " In Boulogne, we read as we ramble through it, 
'Ici est mort l'Autcur de Gil Bias;' in Rouen, 'lei est ne 
Pierre Corncille;' in Geneva, 'Ici est ne Jean Jacques 
Rousseau;' and in Dijon there is the 'Maison Bossuet;' in 
Paris, the ' Quai Voltaire.' Very rare are such memorials 
among us ; and yet wherever we meet with them, in what- 
ever country they were, or of whatever age, we should surely 
say that they wei'e evidences of refinement and sensibility in 
the people. The house of Pindar was spared 

When temple and tower 
Went to the ground ; 

and its ruins were held sacred to the last. According to 
Pausanias they were still to be seen in the second century."' 
Concurring in this sentiment to its fullest extent, I have 
compiled the following list of eminent persons who have 
lived in London, and whose houses are known. 

Great Duke of Marlborough died in Marlborough House, 
Pall-mall. 

Duke of Schomberg. in Schomberg House, Pall-mall. 

Great Lord Clive (lied in No. 45, Berkeley-square. 

Lord Nelson lived at No. 141, New Bond-street, after the 
battle of Cape St. Vincent and the Expedition to Tcnerifte, 
where he lost his arm. 

Sir Thomas Picton, who fell at Waterloo, at No. 21. 
Edward-street, Portman-squarc. Here his body was brought 
after Waterloo. 

Lord Hill, the hero of A 1 marc/, in the Large house, S.W. 
corner of Belgravc-square. 

Lord Lynedoch, the hero of Barossa, died at No. 12, 
Stratton-Btreet, Piccadilly. 
i Lord Chancellor Shaftesbury, in Shui\es.bury House, cast 
bide of Aldersgate-strcet. 



HOUSES OF EMINENT PERSONS. 245 

Lord Chancellor Somers, in the large house N.W. corner 
of Lincolu's-Inn-fields. 

Duke of Newcastle, prime minister in the reign of 
George II., in the same house. 

Lord Mansfield, when only Mr. Murray, at No. 5, King's- 
Benck-walks, Temple. 

Lord Chancellor Cowper, at No. 13, Great George-street, 
Hanover-square. 

The polite Earl of Chesterfield died in Chesterfield House, 
May Fair. 

Lord Chancellor Thurlow, at No. 45, Great Ormond-street, 
where the Great Seal was stolen from him. 

Lord Chancellor Eldon, at No. 6, Bedford-square, and 
W. corner of Hamilton-place, Piccadilly, in which he died. 

Sir Samuel Romilly died at No. 21, Russell-square. 

Edmund Burke, at No. 37, Gerard-street, Soho. 

R. Brinsley Sheridan died at No. 7, Saville-row, Burling- 
ton-gardens. 

Sir Robert Peel died at his house in Privy -gardens, White- 
hall. 

Milton lived in a garden-house in Petty France, now No. 
19, York-street, Westminster. 

Dryden died at No. 43, Gerard-street, Soho. 

Prior lived in Duke-street, Westminster, the house 
facing Charles-street. 

Southerne lodged in Tothill-street, Westminster, facing 
Dartmouth-street. It was an oilman's in his time, and is still. 

Addison died in Holland House, Kensington. 

Byrou was born in No. 24, Holies-street, Cavendish -square, 
and spent the short honeymoon of his married life at No. 139, 
Piccadilly. In the rooms of the Albany, he wrote Lara. 

Sir Walter Scott put up at Miss Dumergue's, corner of 
White Horse-street, Piccadilly, and at Mr. Lockhart's, 24, 
Sussex-place, Regent's Park. He lay insensible at the St. 
James's Hotel, in Jermyn-street, a few months previous to 
his death. 

Shelley lodged at No. 41, Hans-place, Sloane-street. 

Keats wrote his magnificent sonnet on Chapman's Homer, 
&c, in the second floor of No. 71, Cheapside. 

The last London residence of Campbell, author of " The 
Pleasures of Hope," was at No. 8, Victoria-square. 

Crabbe lodged at No. 37, Bury -street, St. James's. 

Johnson completed his Dictionary in the garret of No. 17, 
Gough-square, Fleet-street, and died at No. 8, Bolt-court, 
Fleet-street. 

Boswell died at No. 47, Great Portland-street, Oxford-st. 



24G HOUSES OF EMINENT PERSONS. 

Goldsmith died at No. 2, Brick-court, Temple, up two pair 
of stairs, and on the right as you ascend the staircase. 

Gibbon wrote his Defence of his Decline and Fall, at No. 7, 
Bentinck-street, Manchestei'-square. 

Horace Walpole lived at No. 5, Arlington-street, Piccadilly, 
and died at Xo. 11, Berkeley-square. 

Garrick died in the centre house of the A del phi-terrace. 

Mrs. Siddons lived at No. 49, Great Marlborough-street, 
and died in Siddons House at the top of Upper Baker-street, 
Regent's Park (right hand side). 

Edmund Kean lived at No. 12, Clarges-street, when at the 
height of his fame. 

Archbishop Laud, Archbishop Sancroft, Archbishop Til- 
lotson, at Lambeth Palace. 

Archbishop Leighton died in the Bell Inn, "Warwick -lane, 
Newgate-street. 

Bishop Burnet died in St. John's-square, Clerkenwell. 

Richardson, author of Clarissa Harlowe, lived in Salisbury- 
square, Fleet-street. 

Sterne, author of Tristram Shandy, died at No. 41, Old 
Bond-street. 

Charles Lamb, at No. 4, Inner-Temple-lanc. 

Sir Isaac Newton lived in St. Martin's-street, S. side of 
Leicester-square. His Observatory is still to be seen on the 
top of the house. 

Sir Joseph Banks lived and held his parties at No. 32, 
Soho-square, now the Linnaian Society. 

Priestley was living in Lansdowne House, Berkeley-square, 
when he made the discovery of oxygen. 

Brunei perfected his block machinery at 

Francis Baily weighed the earth at No. 37, Tavistock-placc, 
Tiivistock-square — the house stands isolated in a garden. 

Linacre lived on the site of No. 5, Knightrider-street, 
Doctor's Commons — the house was bequeathed by him to 
the College of Physicians, and is still possessed by them. 

Dr. Arbuthnot, in Dover-street, Piccadillv, second door, 
W. side. 

Dr. Mead, at No. 49, Great Ormond-strect. 

Dr. .Ji'iiner, at No. It, Hertford-street, May Fair. 

Dr. Baillie died at No. 2f>, Cavendish-square. 

Mr. Alicinethy died at No. 14, Bedford-row. 

Sir Astley Cooper died at Xo. 2. New street. Spring-gardens. 

dialing Gibbons, W. side of Bow-street* Covrnt garden, 
N. corner of Kings-court. 

Hogarth, in Leicester-square, now northern half of 
Sablonidre Eotei 



HOUSES OF EMINENT PERSONS. 247 

Sir Joshua Reynolds, centre of W. side of Leicester-square. 

Gainsborough, in western half of Schomberg House, Pall- 
mall. 

Flaxman died at No. 7, Buckingham-street, Fitzroy-square. 
His studio still remains. 

Chantrey died in Eccleston-street, Pimlico, corner of Lower 
Belgrave-place. 

Stothard died at No. 28, Newman-street, Oxford-street. 

Wilkie painted his Rent Day at No. 84, Upper Portland-st., 
and his Chelsea Pensioners at No. 24, Lower Phillimore-place. 

Sir Thomas Lawrence died at No. 65, Russell-square. 

Handel lived in Burlington House, Piccadilly, with the 
Earl of Burlington, the architect. 

Carl Maria Von Weber died at No. 91, Upper Portland- 
street. 

Watteau lived with Dr. Mead at No. 49, Great Ormond-st. 

Orleans Egalite, at No. 31, South-street, Grosvenor-square. 

Madame de Stael, at No. 30, Argyll-street, Regent-street. 

Blucher, when hi England in 1814, in St. James's Palace, in 
the dark brick house, on your right as you pass the narrow 
opening from St. James's to Stafford House. 

Charles X. of France at No. 72, South-Audley-street. 

Louis Philippe's last London lodging was at Cox's Hotel, 
in Jermyn-street. 

11 Guizot, at No. 21, Pelham-crescent, Brompton. 

Talleyrand, at the house of the French Embassy, N. side 
of Manchester-square. 

Joseph Buonaparte and Lucien Buonaparte, at No. 23, 
Park-crescent, Portland-place. 

Penn, founder of Pennsylvania, in Norfolk-street, Strand, 
last house on left hand side. 

" Honest Shippen," half way down E. side of Norfolk- 
street, Strand. 

Jonathan Wild, No. 68, Old Bailey. 

Jeremy Bentham, Queen-square House, Westminster — the 
long low house looking upon St. James' s-park. 

Rev. Sydney Smith died at No. 56, Green-st., Grosvenor-sq. 

Daniel O'Connell, at No. 29, Bury-street, during the struggle 
(1829) for Catholic Emancipation. 

Louis Napoleon (the President of the French Republic) 
lodged at No. 3, King-street, St. James's-square ; this was his 
last London lodging. 

Louis Blanc, on his flight from France in 1848, took up 
his lodgings at No. 126, Piccadilly. 

Jenny Lind lived in a small garden-house in Brompton- 
lane, Old Brompton, near the Gloucester-road. 



248 STREETS AND EMINENT PERSONS. 



STREETS (HOUSES UNKNOWN OR NOT STANDING) 
IN WHICH EMINENT PERSONS HAVE LIVED. 

Sir Thomas More lived at Chelsea, in a house immediately 
facing the present Battersea Bridge. He is buried in Chelsea 
old Church. 

Charles V. of Spain was lodged in the Blackfriars. 

Shakspeare is said to have lived on the Bankside, in South- 
wark, near the Globe Theatre. He -was possessed of a house 
in Ireland-yard, Blackfriars. 

Spenser died for lack of bread in King-street, Westminster, 
and was buried in Westminster Abbey. 

Izaak Walton lived in Chancery-lane, in the 7th house on 
the left hand as you walk from Fleet-street to Holboru. 

Harvey, the discoverer of the circulation of the blood, 
lived, 

Oliver Cromwell lived in Long-acre ; in King-street, West- 
minster ; in the Cockpit, now the site of the Treasury ; and 
at Whitehall, of which the Banqueting-house only remains. 

Van Dyck died in the Blackfriars, and was buried in St. 
Paul's Cathedral. 

Vandervclde the younger lived in Piccadilly, over against 
the church of St. James, in which he is buried. 

Peter the Great lived in a house (Pepys's) on the site of 
the last house on the W. side of Buckingham-street, Strand, 
and frequented the Czar of Muscovy Public House, 48, Great 
Tower-street. 

Voltaire, when in London, in 1726, lodged at the White 
Peruke in Maiden-lane. 

Andrew Marvcll was living in Maiden-lane when he refused 
a bribe from the Lord Treasurer Danby. 

Nell Gwyn died in a house on the site of No. 70, Pall-mall. 

Locke dates the dedication of his " Essay on Human 
Understanding " from Dorset-court, Fleet-street. 

Addison lived, when a bachelor, in St. James's-place, St. 
James's-strcet, where it is said Mr. Rogers, the poet, now lives. 

Fielding lived in Bow-street, Covent-gardcn, in a house on 
the site of the present Police-office. 

Butler, author of Hudibras, died in Rose-street, Covent- 
gardcn, and was buried in the churchyard of St. Paul's, 
Covent-garden. 

Benjamin Franklin worked as a journeyman printer in 
Bartholomew-close, West Smithfield. He lived also at No. 7, 
Craven-street, Strand. 



SITES AND REMARKABLE EVENTS. 249 

John Wilkes ( Wilkes and Liberty) lived in Prince's-court, 
Great George-street, Westminster. 

Lady Mary Wortley Montague died in Great George-street, 
Hanover-square. 

General Paoli died (1807) " at his house near the Edgeware- 
road," and was buried in old St. Pancras Church vard. 



PLACES AND SITES (NOT ALREADY MENTIONED) 

CONNECTED WITH REMARKABLE EVENTS, 

OR OTHERWISE DISTINGUISHED. 

London Wall : remains to be seen off Ludgate-hill, Tower- 
hill, and in the churchyard of St. Giles's, Cripplegate. 

London Stone : which Jack Cade struck with his staff, in 
outer wall of the church of St. Swithin Cannon-street, Wat- 
ling-street. 

Smithfield : scene of Wat Tyler's death ; of Wallace's 
execution at the Elms ; of Bartholomew Fair ; and of the 
dreadful burnings in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Mary.* 

Charing-cross ; Statue of Charles I. by Le Soeur : site of the 
last cross erected by Edward I. to Queen Eleanor, as the last 
place at which the coffin rested on its way to Westminster 
Abbey. . Site also of the execution of the Regicides. 

St. John's Gate, Clerkenwell, and the Knights of St. Johu ; 
Cave, Dr. Johnson, and The Gentleman's Magazine. 

Tabard Inn, Southwark : the starting-place of Chaucer's 
Canterbury Pilgrims. 

Friday-street, Cheapside, and the curious evidence given by 
the poet Chaucer on the Scrope and Grosvenor controversy. 

North-East corner of St. Paul's Churchyard : site of Paul's 
Cross, where the Paul's Cross Sermons were preached. 

The rising ground in the Tower, near the chapel of St. 
Peter-ad- Vincula : the place of execution of Anne Boleyn, 
Lady Jane Grey, &c. 

Westminster Abbey : place of coronation of our kings and 
queens, and sepulchre of many of them. 

* In March, 1849, during excavations necessary for a new sewer, and 
at a depth of three feet below the surface, immediately opposite the 
entrance to the church of St Bartholomew the Great, the workmen laid 
open a mass of unhewn stones, blackened as if by fire, and covered with 
ashes, and human bones charred and partially consumed. This I believe 
to have been the spot generally used for the Smithfield burnings— the 
face of the sufferer being turned to the east and to the great gate of 
St. Bartholomew, the prior of which was generally present on such 
occasions. Many bones were carried away as relics. The spot should be 
marked by an appropriate monument. 



250 SITES AND REMARKABLE EVENTS. 

Westminster Hall : place of trial of Earl of Strafford, of 
Charles I., and of Warren Hastings. 

New Houses of Parliament : site of Star-Chamber, Painted 
Chamber, and Guy Faux' Cellar. 

Almonry, Westminster, in which Caxton erected his 
printing-press. 

Centre of St. Paul's : site of tomb of John of Gaunt, and 
of the first Duke Humphrey's Walk. 

Bridewell, * Bridge-street, Blackfriars : scene of Queen 
Katherine's Trial. 

Ludgate-hill, over against Saracen's Head, where Wyat, in 
the reign of Queen Mary, was stayed in his rebellion. 

Palace Yard, Westminster, in which Sir Walter Ealeigh 
was executed. 

The street immediately facing the Banqueting-house at 
Whitehall, in which Charles I. was executed. 

Centre of Lincoln's-Inn-fields, in which Lord Russell was 
executed. 

Pall-mall end of Haymarket : scene of the murder of Mr. 
Thynn by assassins hired by Count Koningsmarck. 

Corner of Suffolk-street, Pall-mall : scene of the barbarous 
revenge on Sir John Coventry, which led to the famous 
Coventry Act against cutting and maiming. 

Maiden-lane, Covent-garden, where, in a garret, and with 
only cold mutton before him for his dinner, Andrew Marvell 
refused the bribe of Lord Treasurer Danby. 

Gray's-Inn-lane, where Hampden and Pym lived, and where 
they held their consultations for resisting the impost of 
shipmoney. 

Middle Temple Gate, Fleet-street, occupying site of former 
gate built by Sir Amias Paulet, as a fine laid upon him by 
Cardinal Wolsey. 

Coleman-street, in the city, whither the five members 
accused by Charles I. of high treason fled for concealment. 

N. E. corner of the Parade in the Tower : scene of Blood's 
stealing the crown in the reign of Charles II. 

Hose-alley, King-street, Covent-garden : scene of Dryden's 
beating by bullies hired by the Eaid of Rochester. 

Ground between Dover-street and Bond-street, immediately 
facing St. James's-street : site of Clarendon House. 

Hyde Park (probably near the Ring), where Oliver Crom- 
well drove the six horses presented to him by the Earl of 
Oldenburgh, and where, when thrown from his seat, a pistol 
went off in his pocket. 

Black Jack Public-house, Portsmouth-street, Clare Market : 
favourite resort of Joe Miller, and celebrated for the jump 



SITES AND REMARKABLE EVENTS. 251 

which Jack Sheppard made from one of its first-floor windows 
to escape the emissaries of Jonathan Wild. 

Roman Catholic Chapel, Duke-street, Lincoln's-Inn-fields : 
the first building destroyed in the riots of 1780. 

Room in Colonial Office in Downing-street in which Nelson 
and "Wellington met for the first and only time. 

N. E. corner of Bloomsbury-square : site of Lord Mansfield's 
house, and scene of the burning of his library in the riots 
of 1780. 

Barclay's Brewhouse, on the Bankside : site of Globe 
Theatre, in which Shakspeare played. 

Statue of "William IV. in King William-street, facing 
London Bridge : site of Boar's Head Tavern, immortalised by 
Shakspeare. 

Bread-street, Cheapside, in which the Mermaid Tavern of 
Sir Walter Raleigh and Shakspeare stood. 

Child's Banking-house, No. 1, Fleet-street : site of Devil 
Tavern, favourite resort of Ben Jonson and of Dr. Johnson. 

Ham and Beef-shop, corner of Bow-street : site of "Will's 
Coffee-house. 

Centre house on S. side of Great Russell-street, Covent- 
garden : site of Button's Coffee-house. 

Essex Head, in Essex-street, Strand, kept in Johnson's 
last years by a servant of Thrale's, and where the Doctor 
established his last club. 

Tower-hill, on which the scaffold stood on which, in 1747, 
the last person (Lord Lovat) was beheaded in this country. 

Pudding-lane, Monument-yard, in which the Fire of 
London began. 

Pie-corner, in Giltspur-street, in which it ended. 

Cock-lane, Giltspur-street, famous for its ghost. 

Mitre Tavern, Fleet-street, where Johnson and Boswell 
determined on making a tour to the Hebrides. 

Grub-street, Cripplegate, long celebrated as the resort of 
poor and distressed authors. 

Alsatia, or Whitefriars, immortalised by Sir Walter Scott 
in " The Fortunes of Nigel." 

Picthatch, nearly opposite the Charter-House-end of Old- 
street-road, called by Falstaff, Pistol's " manor of Picthatch." 

Blue Boar Inn, No. 270, High Holborn, where Cromwell 
intercepted a letter from Charles I., which is said to have 
settled the king's execution. 

St. James's-square, round which Johnson and Savage have 
often walked a whole night for want of a bed. 

House at the top of Crane-court, Fleet-street, now Royal 
Scottish Hospital, with its handsome room built by Wren, 



25S BITES AND KIMABKABLI EVENTS. 

iu which Sir Isaac Newton sat as President of the Royal 
Society. 

W. end of Serpentine : scene of memorable duel between 
Duke Hamilton ami L'onl Mohun. 

W. side of Gateway of Inner Temple Lane, Fleet-street 
(a confectioner's), where, in the shop of Robinson the book- 
seller, Pope and Warburton met for the first time. 

No. 8, Great Russell-street, Co vent-garden : the shop of Tom 
Davies, where Johnson mid Bos well met for the first time. 

Burlington House Gate, Piccadilly : scene of Hogarth's 
print, in which he attacks Pope for his satire on the Duke of 
Chandos. 

JewVrow, Chelsea : scene of Wilkie'a Chelsea Pen 
reading the Gazette of the Battle of Waterloo. 

Ground between the Piazza and Bo^i be of the two 

gardens whieb led to the memorable retort made by Dr. EtaoV 
cliflfe to sir Godfrey Kneller. 

Howard-street, Norfolk-street, Strand : scene (before the 
door of Mrs. Bracegirdle) of the murder, by Lord Mohun, 
of Mountfort, the actor. 

Fox-court, (Jray's-Inn-lane : the birth-place of Richard 
Savage. 

Brook-street, Holborn, where Chatterton poisoned himself. 

Shire-lane, Fleet-street, where the Kit-Kat Club met. 

Foot of Primrose-hill, where the body of Sir Edmundsbury 
< fodfrey was found. 

The vacant Bpaoe on E. side of Ferringdon-street : site of 
the Elect Prison 

Ground W. of Chelsea Hospital : site ofRanelagjh Gardens. 

Bouse in Arlington-street* Piccadilly, in which Lord Nelson 
and bis wife quarrelled, and saw one another for the last time. 

I. an downe Bouse, in which Priestley was living when he 

discovered oxygen. 

House off Tavistock-place, TavistockH^uare, in which 
Brands Baily weighed the earth. 

treet, facing Cato-Streei : scene of the Cuto Con- 
spiracy of 'Thistlew 1 and his associates. 

No. :'.!'. G rosvenor-sqnaje (Lord Barrowby's), where his 

Majesty*! Dlinisteni were to have been murdered si they sat 

at dinner, by Thistlewood and his gang. 

No. 7.t lonnaught place, Bdgware road, whither the Pi 
Charlotte hurried in a hackney coach when she quarrelled 
with her father and left Warwick Bouse. 

No. -I:'. Connanghl square, BSdgware-road: supposed i 
Tyburn ( (allows. 

,'. s .'itii Audi. \ tree* (then Alderman Wood's), where 



OUT-DOOR MONUMENTS. 253 

Queen Caroline lodged in 1820 and in the balcony of which 
si 10 would appear and bow to the mob assembled in the street. 

Xo. , Westbourne-place, Sloane-square (S. side): the 
house which Colonel Wardlc, it was said, had undertaken to 
furnish for the notorious Mary Ann Clarke, in part payment 
of her services in the prosecution of the Duke of York at the 
bar of the House of Commons. 

No. 50, Albemarle-street (Mr. Murray's), where Sir Walter 
Scott and Lord Byron met for the first time. 

No. 80, Piccadilly, from whence Sir Francis Burdett was 
taken to the Tower. 

Hall of Chelsea Hospital : scene of Whitelocke's trial, and 
of the Court of Enquiry into the Convention of Cintra. 

Somerset Coffee-house, Strand, E. corner of entrance to 
Bong's College, at the bar of which Junius directed many of 
his letters to be left for Woodfall. 

Upper part of Constitution-hill, where Sir Robert Peel was 
thrown from his horse and killed. 

Bankside, Southwark : scene of the attack of Barclay's 
draymen on Marshal Haynau. 



OUTDOOR MONUMENTS AND PUBLIC STATUES. 

The MONUMENT, to commemorate the Fire of London. 
See p. 229. 

YORK COLUMN, Carlton-House Gardens. A column 
of Scotch granite, -erected (1830-33) by public subscription, 
with a bronze statue of the Duke of York, second son of 
George III., upon the top. The column, 124 feet high, was 
designed by Mr. B. Wyatt, and the statue, 14 feet high, 
execxited by Sir Richard Westmacott. There is a staircase 
and gallery affording a fine view of the W. end of London 
and the Surrey Hills. It is open from 12 to 4, from May to 
Sept. 24th, during which period alone the atmosphere of 
London is clear enough to allow the view to be seen. 

NELSON COLUMN, Trafalgar Square. A column 
of Portland stone, designed by Mi*. Railton, and erected 
1840-43, surmounted by a statue of Nelson. The statue, 
by E. H. Baily, R.A., is formed of two stones from the 
Granton quarry; it has been styled ••'the beau-ideal of a Green- 
wich Pensioner." The capital of the column is of bronze, 
furnished from cannon taken from the French. The bi-onze 
bas-relief of the Death of Nelson is by Mr. Carew ; of the 



2o4 OUT-DOOR MONUMENTS. 

Nile, by Mr. Woodington ; of Copenhagen, by the late 
Mr. Ternouth ; and of St. Vincent, by the late Mr. Watson. 
To the great disgrace of the nation and the government, this 
monument to the noblest of our naval heroes is still unfinished. 
Four large lions in granite will .surmount the four angles at 
the base, and the total cost of the column will be about 33,000J. 
The largest individual subscription towards the monument 
was contributed by the Emperor of Russia (500/.). 

Bronze Equestrian Statue of CHARLES I., at Charing 
Cross, by Hubei-t Le Socur, a Frenchman, and pupil of John 
of Bologna, cast in 1633, in a spot of ground near the church 
in Covent Garden, and not being erected before the com- 
mencement of the Civil War, sold by the Parliament to John 
Rivet, a brazier living at the Dial, near Holborn Conduit, 
with strict orders to break it to pieces. But the man pro- 
duced some fragments of old brass, and concealed the statue 
under ground till the Restoration. The statue was set up in 
its present situation at the expense of the Crown, in 1676. 
The pedestal, generally attributed to Grinling Gibbons, was 
the work of Joshua Marshall, Master Mason to the Crown. 

Standing Statue of CHARLES II., at Chelsea Hospital, by 
Grinling Gibbons. 

Bronze Standing Statue of JAMES II., behind Whitehall, 
by Grinling Gibbons. 

Bronze Equestrian Statue of WILLIAM III., in St. Jamcs's- 
square, by Bacon, junior. 

Standing Statue of QUEEN ANNE, before the W. door 
of St. Paul's, by F. Bird. 

Bronze Equestrian Statue of GEORGE III., at Cockspur- 
strcet, Charing Cross, by M. C. Wyatt. 

Bronze Equestrian Statue of GEORGE IV., in Trafalgar- 
square, by Sir Francis Chantrey. 

Marble Standing Statue of QUEEN VICTORIA, in the 
Royal Exchange, by Lough. 

Equestrian Statue of DUKE OF CUMBERLAND, the 
victor at Culloden, in Cavendish-square. 

Standing Statue of DUKE OF BEDFORD, in Russell- 
square, by Sir Richard Westmacott. 

Standing Statue of PITT, in llano ver-.square, by Sir Franoil 
Chantrey. 

Sitting Figure of FOX, in Blui-iusbury-square, by Sir 
Richard Westmacott. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. £55 

Standing Statue of CANNING, in Palace-yard, by Sir 
Richard Westinacott. 

Bronze Statue of ACHILLES, in Hyde Park, erected 1822, 
and " Inscribed by the Women of England to Arthur Duke 
of "Wellington and his brave Companions in arms;" by Sir 
Richard Westinacott. See p. 29, 

Bronze Equestrian Statue of DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 
in front of the Royal Exchange, by Sir Francis Chantrey. 

Bronze Equestrian Statue of DUKE OF WELLINGTON, 
on Triumphal Arch, at Hyde-Park-corner, by M. C. Wyatt. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES, SQUARES, 
LANES, 8cc. 

The landmarks, or central situations of London, are the Bank 
of England, the Royal Exchange, and the Mansion House, all 
three lying together in the very heart of the city ; — St. Paul's 
Cathedral and the General Post Office, both in the City, and 
within a stone's throw of one another ; — Temple Bar and 
Somerset House, the very central points of modern London ; — 
Charing Cross ; Regent Circus, in Piccadilly ; the Piccadilly 
end of Albemarle -street, and Apsley House at Hyde-Park- 
corner, the leading points of the southern side of modern 
London; — Tottenham Court Road, the Regent Circus in 
Oxford-street, and the corner of Edgware Road, the leading 
points of the northern line of London. 

The principal thoroughfares, or main arteries, are Regent- 
street, Piccadilly, Oxford-street, Holborn, the Strand, Fleet- 
street, Cheapside, Cornhill, the New Road, the City Road, 
Drury-lane, Chancery-lane, Gray's-Inn-lane. These are all 
traversed by a continuous stream of omnibuses, running at 
sixpenny and fourpenny fares, and are best seen from the 
top of an omnibus. What Johnson called " the full tide of 
human existence," is to be seen at the Bank and Royal Ex- 
change ; at Charing Cross ; and the Regent Circus in Oxford- 
sti'eet. 

New Road is in length .... 5115 yards. 

Oxford-street 2304 „ 

Regent-street 1730 „ 

Piccadilly 1694 „ 

City Road 1690 „ 

Strand 1369 „ 

The longest street of any consequence in London without 
a turning, is Sackville-street, Piccadilly. 



2o6 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 

PALL MALL. A spacious street extending from the foot 
of St. James's Street to the foot of the Haymarket, and so 
called from a game of that name introduced into England in 
the reign of Charles I., perhaps earlier. James I., in his 
" Basilicon Doron,'' recommends it as a game that Prince 
Henry should use. The name (from Palla a ball, and Maglia 
a mallet) is given to avenues aud walks in other countries, as 
at Utrecht in Holland. The Malls at Blois, Tours, and Lyons 
are mentioned by Evelyn in his " Memoirs," under the year 
1044. Pepys mentions u Pell Mell" for the first time under 
the 26th of July, 1660, where he says, " We went to Wood's 
at the Pell Mell (our old house for clubbing), and there we 
spent till ten at night." This is not only one of the earliest 
references to Pall Mall, as an inhabited locality, but one of 
the earliest uses of the word u clubbing" in its modern sig- 
nification of a Club ; and additionally interesting, seeing that 
the street still maintains what Johnson would have called its 
'•'clubbable" character. 

Emi nent Inhabitants. — Dr. Sydenham, the celebrated phy- 
sician. He was living in Pall Mall from 1664 to 1689, when 
he died. He is buried in St. James's Church, Mr. Fox told 
Mr. Rogers that Sydenham was sitting at his window looking 
on the Mall, with his pipe in his mouth and a silver tankard 
before him, when a fellow made a snatch at the tankard and 
ran off with it. " Nor was he overtaken," said Fox, " before 
he got among the bushes in Bond-street, and there they lost 
him." — Nell Gwyn, from 1670 to her death in 1687, In a 
house on the " south side," with a garden towards the Park — - 
now No. 79, Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Part.-. The house, however, has been rebuilt since Nell in- 
habited it. — The great Duke of Marlborough, in Marlborough 
House. — George Psalmanazar had lodgings here on his first 
arrival, and here he was visited as an inhabitant of Formosa. 
— William, Duke of Cumberland, the hero of Culloden, 
in Schomberg House, in 1760. — Robert Dodaley, the book- 
seller, originally a footman. He opened a shop here in 1735, 
with the sign of " Tully's Bead," and, dying in 1764. was 
buried at Durham. — Gainsborough, the painter, in the western 
wing of Schomberg House, from 1777 to 1783. — At the Star 
and Carter Tavern. William, fifth Lord Byron (& 1798) killed 
(1765) hia neighbour and friend, Mr. Chaworth, in what was 
rather a broil than a duel. The quarrel was a very foolish 
one — a dispute between the combatants, whether Lord Byron, 
who took no care of his game, or Mr. Chaworth, who did, 
had most game on their manor. Lord Byron was tried and 
acquitted. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 

PALL-MALL. 

m 

- 



United Service 
Club, p. 215. 



257 



York 

Recent-street. Site of Carlton House. Column, 

p. 253. 



St. James's 
Square. 



Army and Navy Club, p 216. — 



British Institution, p. xli. 

New Society of Painters In — 
Water Colours, p. xli. 



*t. James' s-street. 



— Athena-urn 
Club, p. 219. 



Travellers' Club, by Barry. 
The garden-front fine. 



— Reform Club, p. 219. 



Carlton Club, p. 217. 



Ordnance Office, p. 54. 
Harding's, Fashionable Haber- 
dasher. 
Schomberg House. In the W. 

wing lived Gainsborough, the 

painter. 
79, Site of Nell Gwynn's house. 
Oxford and Cambridge Club, 

p. 220. 



Guards' Club, p. 216. 



Marlborough House, p. 167, the 
great Duke of Marlborough 
died here. Vernon Gallery. 



— St. James's Palace. 



258 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 

PICCADILLY, a street consisting of shops and fashionable 
dwelling-houses running E. and AN', from the top of the 
Haymarket to Hyde-pane Comer. The earliest allusion to 
it is in Gerard, who observes in his Herbal (1596) "that the 
small wild buglosse grows upon the drie ditch bankes about 
Pickadilla." The origin of the name is somewhat uncertain, 
but the most likely solution is, that it was so called after one 
Higgins, a tailor, who built it temp. James I., and who got 
most of his estate by pickadilles. a kind of stiff collar, much 
worn in England from 1605 to 1620. 

The first Piccadilly, taking the word in its modern accep- 
tation of a street, was a very short line of road, running no 
further W. than the foot of Sackville-street, and the name 
Piccadilly-street occurs for the first time in the rate-books of 
St. Martin's, under the year 1G73. Sir Thomas Clarges's house, 
on the site of the present Albany, is described in 167 
" near Burlington House, above Piccadilly." From Sackville- 
street to Albemarlc-street was originally called Portugal- 
street, after Catherine of Braganza, Queen of Charles II., and 
all beyond was the great Bath-road, or, as Agas calls it (1560) 
'•'the way to Reding.'' The Piccadilly of 1708 is described 
as " a very considerable and publick street, between Coventry- 
street and Portugal-street;" and the Piccadilly of 17*20 as 
"a large street and great thoroughfare, between Coventry- 
street and Albemarle-street.*' Portugal-street gave way to 
Piccadilly in the reign of George I. That part of the present 
street, between Devonshire House and Hyde-park Corner, 
was taken up, as Ralph tells us, in 1734, by the shops and 
stone-yards of statuaries, just as the New-road is now. We 
may road the history of the street in the names of several of 
the surrounding thoroughfares and buildings. Albemarle- 
street was .so called after Christopher Monk, second Duke of 
Albemarle, to whom ( 'larcndon House was sold in 1675, bv 
Laurence Hyde, Earl of Rochester, boh of the great Lord 
Clarendon. Bond-street was so called after sir Thomas 
Bond, of iYrkliani. to whom Clarendon Souse was sold by 
the Duke of Albemarle when in difficulties, a little before 
his death. Jermyn-stre* t was bo called alter Senry Jermyn, 
Bar] of st. Alban, who died 1683-4 ; Burlington House after 
Boyle, Earl of Burlington ; Dover street, aft< r Henry Jermyn, 
Lord Dover (d. 1708), the little Jermyn of De Grammontfa 
Memoirs; Berkeley-atreel and Stratton-street, after John, 
Lord Berkeley of Stratton, Lord Deputy of Ireland in the 

a of Charles II.: Clargea-street, aiter Sir Walter Clar i 
the nephew of Ann Ckrges, wife of General Monk; and 
Axlington-etreel and Ben] Eenry Bennet, Earl 



PRINCIPAL THOROtfGHF'ARfcS. 259 

of Arlington, one of the Cabal. Air-street was built in 1659, 
Stratton-street in 1093, and Bolton-street was, in 1708, the 
most westerly street in London. Devonshire House occupies 
the site of Berkeley Honse, in which the first Duke of 
Devonshire died (1707). Hamilton-place derives its name 
from James Hamilton, ranger of Hyde-park in the reign of 
Charles II., and brother of La Belle Hamilton. Halfmoon- 
street was so called from the Halfmoon Tavern. Coventry 
House, No. 106, was built on the site of an old inn, called the 
Greyhound. Apsley House was called after Apsley, Earl of 
Bathurst, who built it late in the last century ; and the 
Albany, from the Duke of York and Albany, brother of 
George IV. St. James's Church (by Wren) was consecrated 
on Sunday, the 13th of July, 1684. The sexton's book of 
St. Martin's informs us that the White Bear Inn was in 
existence in 1685; and Strype, in his new edition of Stowe, 
that there was a White Horse Cellar in Piccadilly in 1720. 
The two Corinthian pilasters, one on each side of the Three 
Kings Inn gateway in Piccadilly, belonged to Clarendon 
House, and are, it is thought, the only remains of that edifice. 
Sir William Petty, our first writer of authority on political 
arithmetic, died in a house over against St. James's Church 
(1687). Next but one to Sir William Petty, Verrio, the 
painter, was living in 1675. In the dark-red-brick rectory 
house, at the N. side of the chm-ch, pulled down 1848, and 
immediately rebuilt (now No. 197), lived and died Dr. Samuel 
Clarke, rector of St. James's, from 1709 till his death in 1729. 
Here he edited Crcsar and Homer ; here he wrote his Scrip- 
ture Doctrine of the Trinity, and his Treatise on the Being 
and Attributes of God. In Coventry House, facing the 
Green Park, corner of Engine-street (now the Ambassadors' 
Club), died, in 1809, William, sixth Earl of Coventry, married, 
in 1752, to the eldest of the three beautiful Miss Gunnings. 
In what was then No. 23, now the first house E. of Hertford 
House, died (1803). Sir William Hamilton, collector of the 
Hamiltonian gems, but more generally known as the husband 
of Nelson's Lady Hamilton. From No. 80, Sir Francis 
Burdett was taken to the Tower, April 6th, 1810 ; the officer, 
armed with an arrest- warrant, scaling the house with a ladder, 
and entering the window of the drawing-room, where Sir 
Francis was found instructing his son in Magna Charta, the 
street being occupied by the Horse Guards. No. 105, now 
Hertford House, was the old Pulteney Hotel; here the 
Emperor of Russia put up during the memorable visit of the 
allied sovereigns in 1814': and here the Duchess of Olden- 
burgh (the Emperor Alexander's sister) introduced Prince 

s 2 



260 ruiNcirAL thoroughfares. 

Leopold to the Princess Charlotte. In the large brick house 
No. 1, Stratton-strect, died Mrs. Coutts, afterwards Duchess 
of St. Albans, — it is now Miss Coutts Burdett's. Lord Eldon's 
house, at the corner of Hamilton-place, was built by his 
grandfather, Lord Chancellor Eldon, who died in it. Nos. 
138 and 139 were all one house in the old Duke of Queens- 
bury 's time. Here, in the balcony, on fine days in summer, 
he used to sit, a thin, withered old figure, with one eye, 
looking on all the females that passed him, and not dis- 
pleased if they returned him whole winks for his single ones. 
He had been Prince of the Jockies of his time, and was a 
voluptuary and millionaire. "Old (>." was his popular 
appellation. At the Duchess of Gloucester's, at the corner 
of Park-lane, once Lord Elgin's, and where the Elgin marbles 
were placed on their first arrival in this country, is a very 
beautiful carpet in sixty squares, worked by sixty of the prin- 
cipal ladies among the aristocracy. No. 91 was formerly 
Egremont House, then Cholrnondeley House, next Cambridge 
House, and now tenanted by Sir Richard Sutton, the ground 
landlord of half of Piccadilly. The Duke of Cambridge, 
youngest son of George III., died in this house. The bay- 
fronted house at the W. corner of Whitehorse-street was the 
residence of M. Charles Duniergue, the friend of Sir Walter 
Scott ; until a child of his own was established in London, 
this was Scott's head-quarters when in town. The London 
season of Lord Byron's married life was passed in that half 
of the Duke of Queensbury's house, now No. 139. Here he 
brought his wife, and that hag of a house-maid. Mrs. Mule, 
of whom Moore has given an amusing account. On the pave- 
ment opposite Lord Willoughby D'Eresby's, next but one 
W. to Hamilton-place, stood the Hez-cules Pillars public- 
house, where Squire Western put his horses np when in 
pursuit of Tom Jones, and where that bluff brave soldier, 
the Marquis of Granby (d. 1770), spent many a happy hour. 
On the south side, facing Old Bond-street, waa the shop of 
Wright, the bookseller, where Clifford assaulted Peter Pindar 
and got the better of him in the struggle. The house two 
doors E. of the Duke of Wellington's was long the London 
residence of Beckford, author of Vathek. In the most 
westerly of the two brick house- between Apsley House and 
Hamilton-place, the Late Marquis of Northampton gave his 
soi)'£cs,u* President of the Royal Society. In the other brick 
house lives Lord Londesborough, distinguished for his know- 
ledge and love of antiquities. 



ritlXCirAL THOROUGHFARES. 



261 



PICCADILLY. 

St. George's 
Hospital. 

Grosvenor-nlaco. Hyde Park Corner. 

W. 




The Green Park. 



I Apsley House. 

Duke "of Wellington. 

— Hamilton-place. Lord Eldon 

d. in corner house. 
No. 139, Lord Byron lived at. 

— Park-lane, leading to Oxford- 

street. 



5" a 

u 

It. 

H — 

8*3 



Reservoir of Waterworks 
Company. 



Arlington-street. — 
No. 5, II. Walpole's house. 

St. James' s-street. — 

Ludlam, hosier. — 

Grange, fruiterer.— 

Duke-street. — 

l'ortnum & Mason's. — 

St. James's Church. + 



!l- 

--: 
o S 

|* 

3D — J 

5T = 

-J o 
g" 

4g 

o P 
05 >— 

II 



Down-street. Mr. Hope's 

house, p. 23. 
Engine- street. Hertford 

house, p. 22. 
Whitehorse-street. At west 
corner Sir Walter Scott 
usually stopped when in 
town. 

■ Half Moon-street. East corner 
house Madame d'Arblay lived. 

Clarges-street. 

Bolton-street. Bathhouse, p. 20. 

Stratton-street. West corner 
house, Miss Burdett Coutts. 
Devonshire house. 



Berkeley-street. 



— Dover-street. 
At Three Kings stables, re- 
mains of Clarendon house. 

— Albemarle-street. 

— Bond-street. In No. 41, died 
Sterne. 

— Burlington Arcade. 
Burlington house, p. 21. 

— Albany (let in lodgings.) 

— Sackville-street. 
Swallow-street. Scottish 

Church. 



— Air-street. 

— Swan & Edgar. 




208 nmrciPAL thorough? 

ST. JAMES'S STREET commences at Bt James's Palace, 

and extends to Albeniarlc-street. 

" The Campus Martins of St. .Tamcs's- 
ffhtN tin; beam* i I fro, 

re they take the & Id ii' Rotten B 

l:. /:. Sktri 

Obsen'c. — East side, White's Club-house, Nob. 87 and 38; 
Boodle's Club-house, No. 28; and on the west side, Crook- 
ford's, two doors from top (and now closed) : Brooks's Club- 
house, No. 60; Arthur's, No. 69; Conservative Club, No. 85; 
Thatched House Tavern, containing three portraits, two wtj 
fine, by Sir Joshua Reynolds. Bmtm nt Inhabitant*. — Waller, 
the poet, from 1<;(30 till the period of his death (1687) in a 
house on the west side. Pope* in "lodgings at Mr. 1 1 
next door to y c Golden Ball, on j* Second Terras in St. 
James's-street." Gibbon, the historian, died, 1794, in No. 
76 (S. corner of Little St. James then Elmsleythe 

bookseller's, now the site of the Conservative Club. Lord 
Byron, in lodgings, at No 8, in 1 811 . 

"When we were on the point of setting out from blfl lodging in St. 
James's-street [to go to Sydenham to Tom Campbell's^ it being then 
ah.. nt mid-day, be Mid to the servant, irho was shutting the door of the 

vis-a-vis. 'Have y.m pnt in the pistols?' and was answered in the 
alnnnative." - ACS onfi I. ' 

Gillray, the carioaturist (d. 1815), in No. 29, over what was 
then the slid]) of Messrs. Humphrey, the printeellers end 
publishers. He threw himself out of an upstairs window, 
and died of the injuries he received. Jn this street Blood 

made his desperate attack on the great Duke of Ormond, 
when "ii his way home between 6 and 7 in the evening 
(Tuesday, Dee. 6th, i » ; t < • ^ . to Clarendon Souse, si the top of 
St. Jam. - Btrt • it, where he then resided The > ; ^ footmen 
who invariably attended the duke, walking on both sides of 
the street, o i oach, were by Borne oontrivsnos 

stopped, or by some mismanagemenl were not in th< 

and th-' duke \,. ; . nt of his Oaniage, buokled to a 

i trength, and actually oarried past Berkeley 

House (now Devonshire Ho a Piccadilly, on the r< 
Tyburn, where they intended i > hive hanged him. The 
coachman drove to i Harendon House, told the porter that his 
r bad been isisod by two men, who had oarried him 
down Piocadilly. A ehase was immediately made, and tin* 
• hike dis co vered in a violent in the mud with the 

villain he was I led to, who regained bis horse, fired a pistol 
nt the <luke. and made bis escape. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



2H3 



ST. JAMESS STREET. 
Piccadilly. Piccadilly. 



23, Lord Walsingham. 
22, Duke of Beaufort. 



21, Dow. Countess 
Seftcu. 



of 



lived 



White's Clot Boom 



20, Marq. of Salisbury, tj, 
19, Earl of Zetland. E 
18, Rt. Hon. E. E'.lice. < 
17, Earl of Yarborough. 



Jermyn-strect. 



w.— 



-K. 



11 

u 

■O 



%& 



2, S. Rogers, 
Esq. 



Brooks's Club. — 



Old Cocoa-tree Club. 64.— 



Site where Sir Rich. 
Steele lived. 



Gillrav, the caricaturist, killed 
himself from window of No. 29. 



Kyder-street. 



St. James's-placc. 



King-street. 



J l_ 



Spencer House. 
No. 



Arthur's Club. — 



Almack'B. 



No. 74, Conservative Club. — 

In a house on this site died 

Gibbon, the historian. 

Thatched House. — | 
Dilettanti Portraits. ! 



No. 8, Lord Byron s lodgings 
in 1811. 



Pall Mull. 



St. James's Palace. 



264 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



REGENT STREET. The most handsome street in the 
metropolis. It was designed and carried out by Mr. John 
Nash, architect, under an Act of Parliament obtained in 
1813. The street was intended as a communication from 
Carlton House to the Regent's Park, and commenced at St. 
Alban's-street, facing Carlton House, thence through St. 
James's Market across Piccadilly to Castle-street, where it 
formed a Quadrant, to intersect with Swallow -street, and 
then, taking the line of Swallow-street, (the site of which is 
about the centre of Regent-street,) it crossed Oxford 
to Foley House, where it intersected with Portland-place. 
The reason for adopting this line was that great part of the 
property belonged to the Crown. Langham-place Church 
was built by Nash a> a termination to the view up Regent- 
street from Oxford-street. For this purpose the tower and 
spire are advanced forward to the centre line of the street, 
and appear almost isolated from the church. In his designs 
for Regent-street, Mr. Nash adopted the idea of uniting 
several dwellings into a single facade, so as to preserve a 
degree of continuity essential to architectural importance ; 
and, however open to criticism many of these designs may 
be, when considered separately, it cannot be denied that be 
has produced a varied succession of architectural scenery. 
the effect of which is picturesque and imposing, certainly 
superior to that of any other portion of the metropolis, and 
far preferable to the naked brick walk then nniversally 
forming the sides of our streets. The perishable nature of 
the brick and composition of which the houses in this street 
are built gave rise to the following epigram : — 

"Augustus at Rome ru for building renown'd, 

And of marble In- left what of briek be hud found j 
Hut is not <"ir NftSh, BOO. ■ very great master? — 
lie finds us nil brick and lie loaves us all plaster." 

Quarterly Bmntw /arJimi, IBM, 



REGENT STREET AND WATERLOO PLACE. 



Polytechnic Institution. 



All Souls', Lugham-plM& 

Nash, architect. 



— National Institute of Fine Arts. 



Oxford-st. Oxford-st. 



anover Chapel. Cockerell, + 
architect. 
Verrey, confectioner and — 
restaurant; good. 



Cosmorama. — 



Conduit-street.— 



Holmes's shawl shop. 
New Burlington-street. 



Newman's stables, horses on the 
first, second, and third floors. 



— Argyll-street. 



Houbigant, French glover and 
perfumer. 



•— Archbishop Tenison's Chapel. 



Scotch Stores, in Beak-street. 
Forrer, artist in hair. 



Vigo-street, leading to Albany — ~ Marylebone-street, near cut to 
and Bond-streets. llayniarket. 



%\— Davis, famous for cigars. 

V 



Swan and Edgar. — >• 




Piccadilly. Piccadilly. 



Jermyn-street. — 
Carlton Club Chambers 
Regent-street Chapel. Repton, arch 

Howell and James's, mercors 

Charles-street. — 



Jermyn-street. 
Parthenon Club. 

— (Jallery of Illustration, 
formerly house of Nash 
the architect. 

unior Unit. Ser. Club. 

— Charles-street. 



Pali-Mall. Pali-Mall. 



266 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES, 



HOLBORN, or OLDBOURXE. A main thoroughfare, 
running east and west, between Drury-lane and Farringdon- 
street. From Drury-lane to Brook-street is called " High 
Holborn;" from Brook-street to Fetter-lane, " Holborn ; " 
and from Fetter-lane to Fferringdon-etreet* "Holborn Hill." 
At Brook-street stood " Holborn Bus, * marking the ter- 
mination of the City Liberties in that direction ; and at 
Farringdon-street stood a stone bridge over the Fleet, called 
u Oldbourne Bridge," It deriws its name from Oldbourne, 
or Hilbourne. a burn or rivulet that broke out near Holborn 
Bars, and ran down the whole street to Oldbourne Bridge, 
and into the river of the Wells and Fleet Ditch. Th 
the old road from Newgate and the Tower to the gallows at 
Tyburn. Up the " heavy hill " went William, Lord Russell 
on his way to the scaffold in Lincoln's-Iun-fields. The MOM 
line of road from Aldgate to Tyburn was chosen for the 
cruel whippings which Titus Oates, Dangerfield, and Johnson 
endured in the reign of James II. Eminent 1 /(habitants. — 
Gerard, who dates his Herbal (fol. 1597) "From my house 
in Holborne, within the suburbs of London, this first of 
December, 1597." He had a good garden behind his house, 
and mentions in his Herbal many of the rarer plants which 
grew well in it. — Sir Kenelm Digby, in a house of his own 
building, between King-street and Southampton-street. — 
Milton. 

" B« [Milton] left his great house in Barbican, and betook himself t > a 
smaller, anion;,' those that open backward Into Lincoln's Inn Fields ; here 
he lived a private life, still prosecating his studies and curious search 
into knowledge." — PhtUpt't /.'/< c/MBkm, 12ino, lfV.U, p. xxi.x. 

Observe. — The Blue Boar Inn, No. 270, High Holborn, where 
a letter from Charles I. was intercepted by Cromwell and 
Ireton, disguised as troopers. The letter is said to have 
determined the king's execution.* 

• Handbook for London, Past and Present," p. CO. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



267 



HOLBORN. 

Skinner-street. 
B. 
'I'tii — Farringdon- street, covering the 

Fleet Ditch. 
Froposed new street to Clerken- I '_ shoe-lane. 

well Church. 3 I ni _ , . , _ _ 

2 + St. Andrew s, Holbom. 
Ely-place.—, c j Dr. Sacheverel's Church.- Savage, 

See Ely Chapel. the poet, baptised in this church. 

Hatton-garden.— ~ 



.eather-laue. — 



Fumival's-Inn. 
Brook-street. — 



Gray's-Inn-lane, Fox-court (on ■ 
right hand). 

Birth-place of Savage. 

Fuhvood's-reuts. — 



Red Lion-street.— 



Kingsgate-street 

King-street. — 
Southampton-street. — 



H — Fetter-lane. 
— Castle-street. 



Si to of Holhorn Bars, or City 
Liberty without the walls. 

— Chancery-lane. 



Great Turnstile, 






Lincoln's-Inn- 
ficlds. 



— Little Turnstile. 

— New Turnstile. 

— Little Queen-street. 
Down this street Lord Russell 

was led to the scaffold. 



Museum-street, 1 >rui -v-lano. 

leading to liritish Museum. W. 

Oxford-street. 



■2i>* PRINCIPAL THOROl IHFARE& 



The STRAND. One of the main arteries of London 
reaching '• from Charing-cross to Essex-street : " from I 
street to Temple Bar mi "Temple Bar Without." It was 
long very little more than "a way or street " between the 
Cities of Westminster and London, ami was not payed before 
1532, when an Act was passed for "paving the street way 
between Charing-cross and Strand-cross, at the charge of the 
owners of the land." One of the first ascertained inhabitants 
was Peter of Savoy, uncle of Henry III., to whom that king, 
in the thirtieth year of his reign (1245), granted "all those 
houses upon the Thames, which sometime pertained to 
Briane de Insula, or Lisle, without the walls of the City of 
London, in the way or street called the Strand." The 
Bishops were the next great dignitaries who had inns or 
houses in the Strand, connecting, as it were, the City with 
the King's Palace at Westminster. " Aneientl y." says Selden, 
in his Table Talk, "the noblemen lay within the City for 
safety and security; but the bishops' houses were by the 
water-side, because they were held sacred persons whom 
nobody would hurt." As many as nine bishops possessed 
inns or hostels on the south or water side of the present 
Strand, at the period of the Reformation. 



1'KINVirAL THOROUGHFARES. 



STRAND. 



Temple Bai 
E. 



Wych St., leading to Drury-lane. 

Ilolywell-street. 
Full of Jew-clot hesmen 
and Book-stalls. 



Catherine-street, leading to 
Brydges-street. 

Lyceum Theatre. 



Burleigh-street. 
Site of Exeter 'Change. 

Southampton-street 

Site of Bedford House. 



Adelphi Theatre. 
Behind this Theatre is Maiden 
Lane, in which Andrew Marvel 
lived and Voltaire lodged. 



King William-street. — 



Golden'Cross. — 



— Site of Essex House. 

!— Devereux Court. Here was the 
Grecian Coffee-house. 



St. Clement's Dane Church. 
Site of Arundel House. 



St. Mary-le-Strand Church. Site 

of Maypole. 
— Somerset House. 

No. 141. Site of Tonson's shop. 
Wellington-street, leading t 
Waterloo Bridge. 



Savoy Chapel, down " Sav 
Steps." Worth seeing. 

Beaufort Buildings. Site of 

Worcester House. 
Cecil-street. Site of Salisbury 

House and New Exchange. 
Adam St., leading to Adelphi 

Terrace, facing the River. 

In the centre house of which 

Garrick died. 
Coutts & Co., Bankers. 

Site of Durham House. 
Sir Walter Raleigh lived here. Go 
down Buckingham Street and see 
Inigo Jones's Water Gate, all 
that remains of York House, built 
forVilliers, Duke of Buckingham. 

Site of York House. Lord Bacon 
born here. 

Hungerford Market. 



Northumberland House. 



W. 

Charing Cross. 



'2,0 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



FLEET STREET, between Tkmi-lk BaS and Ludgate 
Hill. One of the largest thorough fares in London, and one 
of the most famous, deriving its name from a streamlet 
called the Fleet, obscure in itself, but widely known from 
the Ditch, the Prison, and the street to which it has given its 
name. The two churches are St. Dunstan's-in-the-'West, and 
St. Bride's, the former by Shaw, the latter by Wren. Ob- 
serve.— Middle Temple Gate and Inner Temple Gate ; "White- 
friars, or Alsatia; Bolt-court, in which Dr. Johnson lived and 
died ; Shire-lane, a dingy and narrow passage, in which the 
Kit-Kat Club met in the reign of Queen Anne. The Fire of 
London stopped at the church of St. Dunstan's-in-the-'West 
on the one side, and within a few houses of the Inner Temple 
Gate on the other. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 

FLEET STREET. 

E. 



271 



Shoe Lane, leading to Holborn. 



— Bride Lane,leading to Bridewell 

Hospital. 

+ St Bride's Church. 

Built by Wren. 

— To Salisbury Square, 

Iu which Richardson, the novelUt 

lived. 



Bolt Court. 
Dr. Johnson died here. 



— Bouvorie- street, leading t.» 
Whitefriars and Alsatia. 



Fetter Lane, leading to Holborn. 

Peele's Coffee House ; 

Newspapers filed here. 



— Serjeants' Inn. 



— Mitre Tavern. Snort oi Dr. 
J'dmson and BSMKJtk 



Craae Court — Scottish Hospital; - 
Old Meeting Room of Royal 
Society, when Sir Isaac 
Newton was President. 

I'hurch of St. Dunstan's in 

the "West. 
Here the Fire of London stopped. 

Chancery Lane. - 
Seven doors up, on 
the left, lived 
Izaak Walton. 



Cock Tavern. — 
Famous for Stout 



Iluare's Banking House. 



— Inner Temple Lane, leading 

to Temple Church: at W. 
corner house (now a confec- 
tioner's), Pope and Warbur- 
ton first met. 

— Rainbow Tavern. Famuus for 

Stout. 

— .Middle Temple Lane. 



Child's Banking House. 
Oldest Banking House in London. 
Site also of Dev il Tavern. 



w. 

Temple Bar. 



272 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



CHEAPSIDE, or CHEAT. A street between the Poultry 
and St. Paul's, a continuation of the line from Charing Cross 
to the Royal Exchange, from Holborn to the Bank of England. 
This street, one of the most frequented thoroughfares in 
London, was famous in former times for its " Ridings," its 
" Cross," its " Conduit," and its '' Standard," and, still later, 
for its silk-mercers, linen-drapers, and hosiers. 

The last Lord Mayor's pageant* devised by the City poet, 
and publicly performed (Elkanah Settle was this last City 
poet), was seen by Queen Anne in the first year of her reign 
(1702) "from a balcony in Cheapside." The concluding plate 
of Hogarth's "Industry and Idleness" represents the City 
procession entering Cheapside — the seats erected on the occa- 
sion and the canopied balcony, hung with tapestry, containing 
Frederick, Prince of Wales, and his Princess, as spectators of 
the scene. 

Observe— Church of St. Mary-le-Bow (p. 122); Saddlers' 
Hall, next No. 142 : here Sir Richard Blackmore, the poet, 
followed the profession of a physician. Xo. 90. corner of 
Ironmonger-lane, was the shop of Alderman Boydcll (d. 1804). 
Before he removed here, he lived "at the Unicorn, the corner 
of Queen-street, in Cheapside, London." Before the proooni 
Mansion-house was built in 1737, No. 73 (formerly Mr, I 
the bookseller's) was used occasionally as the Lord Mayor's 
Mansion-house. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



■>!?> 



CHEAPSIDE AND POULTRY. 



Mansion House, 



St. Mildred in the Poultry. 



Site of Poultry Compter. — £ 
Grocers' Hall. — 

Old Jewry. 



Mercers' Hall, p. 230, behind 
which Thomas Becket, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, was 
born. 

King-street, leading to the 
Guild Hall, p. 225. 



Laurence-lane. 



Milk-street. Sir Thomas More 
born in. 



Wood-street. 



(J utter-lane. 



Genera] Post Oihce. 



Bucklersbury, lending to the 
beautiful church of St. 
Stephen's, "NValbrook, one of 
Wren's greatest works. 



Queen-street, leading to South- 
wark Bridge, p. 44. 



St Mary-lc-Bow Church. 



Bread-street. 

Milton born in. Ilere stood the 
Mermaid Tavern, frequented by 
Shakspeare, Raleigh, Ben Jonson. 



Friday-street. 



— old Change. 

L 

W. St. Paul's Church-yard. 



274 n:iN(ii'.\i. THOBOUGHl 



CORNHILL. A crowded thoroughfare between the Pouir 
try and Lbadehhai i and so called, of a corn 

market "time out of mind there holden,"' and formerly dis- 
tinguished for its prison for night-walkers, called " The Tun.'* 
because the same was built somewhat in fashion of a tun 

standing on 'the one end, — for its fair Conduit of sweet water 
"castellated in the middestof the street," — and for its water- 
standard, called "The Standard,*' with its four spouts run- 
ning at every tide four different ways. •• The Tun" waa bujlt 
in 1283 by Henry Walleis, who built the Stocks Market (the 
site is still marked by a pump and suitable inscription") ; the 
Conduit (adjoining it) in 1401, and the Standard in 1682, for 
water from the Thames, brought by an artificial forcer 
invented by Peter Morris, a Dutchman, the first person who 
conveyed Thames water into houses by pipes of lead. The 
Standard stood near the junction of Cornhill with Leaden- 
hall-street, and distances were formerly measured from it, 
as many of our suburban milestones still remain to prove, 
The earliest occupants of the street were drapers. 

The two churches are St. Peter's, Cornhill, and St. 
Michael's, Cornhill. Gray, the poet, was born Deo, "-'''th. 
1716. in a house on the site of No. 41. The original house 
was destroyed by fire, March 25th, 1748. and immediately 
rebuilt by ('my. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGH I All is 



275 



CORNHILL. 



Bishopsgate-Bt., leading to 

Shoreditch. E. 



Finch-lane. — 
Joe's Chop-house, good. 



Site of Freeman's-court, - 
in which De Foe lived. 



Royal Exchange, p. 61. 



Gracechurch-st., leading to 
London Bridge. 

St. Peter's, Cornhill. 



St. Michael's, Cornhill. 

St. Michael' s-alley. 

No. 41, birth-place of Gray, 
the poet. 

Birchiu-lane. 



Change-alley. 



Pope's 1 lead-alley. 



— Lombard-street. 
Bank of England, p. 59. — s t . Mary Woolnoth Ch., p. 196. 

Princes-street. W. Mansion House, p. '224. 

T2 



27H PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES, 



DRURY LANE was so called, from the town house of 
the ancient family of the Drurys. Before the Drurys btdlt 
here, the old name for this lane or road was " Via de 
Aldwych ; " hence the name of Wych-street, at the bottom 
of Drurydane. A portion of it, in James I.'s time, was 
occasionally called Princc's-street ; — " Drurydane, now called 
the Prince's-street," but the old name triumphed, and 
Princc's-street was confined to a new row of tenements, 
branching to the east, and still distinguished by that name. 
Observe. — Craven-yard (so called from Craven House); Clare- 
House-court (so called from the noble family of Holies, 
Earls of Clare) ; Pit-place (so called from the Cockpit 
Theatre) ; Charles-street, originally Lewknor's-lane, and 
long notorious; Coal-yard, the birthplace of Nell Gwynn. 
Eminent Inhabitants. — Nell Gwynn. 

" 1 May, 1667. To "Westminster; in the way meeting many milk- 
maids with their garlands upon their pails, dancing with a fiddler before 
them; and saw pretty Nelly standing at her lodgings door in Drury- 
lanein hdr smock-sleevea and bodice, looking upon one ; she seemed a 
mighty pretty creature." — Fspj/a. 

Drurydane lost its aristocratic character early in the reign of 
William III. Steele, in the Tatlcr (No. 46), describes it as 
a long course of building divided into particular districts or 
" ladyships," after the manner of " lordships " in other parts, 
" over which matrons of known abilities preside." ( lay calls 
up all our caution and virtue in this place — 

"() may thy virtue guard thee through the roads 
I >t" Drurv's mazy COUrtfl and dark ahodos! 
The harlots' guileful path-, who nightly stand 

Where Catherine-streel deecenda Into the strand."- D r im m. 
In Drury-lane Lord Mohun made his unsuccessful attempt 
to carry off Mrs. Bracegirdle, the actr< 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



277 



DRURY LANE. 



31 



Broad-street, St. Giles's. 



Ilolbom. 



Long Acre, leading to 
Leicester-square. 



Little Russell-street, leading 

to Covent-garden, Dniry-lano 

Theatre, &c. 



Russell-conrt. footway from 
City to Covent-garden. 



Site of Nell Gwynn's lodging, — 
where Pepys saw her watching 
the milkmaids on May day. 



Strand. 



— Coal-yard, birth-place of 
Nell Gwyun. 

Charles-street alias Lewknor's- 

lane, long a notoriously 

bad part of London. 



Great Queen's-street, leading 
to Lincoln's-inu-fields. 



Pitt-place, properly Cockpit- 
place, site of Cockpit Theatre 
(the first Drury-laue Theatre.) 

Prince' s-street, leading to 
Lincoln' s-inn-fields. 

Scene of seizure of Mrs. Brace- 
girdle by Lord Mohun. 



-Craven-buildings, sito of cravc-n 
v house, in wbich the Queen ot 
Bohemia died. 




St. Mary-le-Strand Churcli. 



278 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



CHANCERY LANE, a long lane running from Fleet- 
street into Holborn, chiefly occupied by barristers aud soli- 
citors of recent standing. The great Lord Strafford was 
born (1593) in this lane, "at the house of his mother's 
father, Mr. Robert Atkinson, a bencher of Lincoln's Inn ; " 
the register of St. Dunstan's, Fleet-street, records his bap- 
tism. Eminent Inhabitants. — Isaak Walton (1627-44), in 
what was then the seventh house on the left hand as you 
walk from Fleet-street into Holborn. Jacob Tonson's first 
shop was at or near the Fleet-street end of Chancery-lane, 
and distinguished by the sign of the Judge's Head. About 
1697 he removed to Gray's Inn Gate, where he remained till 
about 1712, and then removed to a house in the Strand over- 
against Catherine-street. Here he adopted Shakspeare's 
Head for his sign. . Observe. — Old Lincoln's Inn Gateway, of 
the age of Henry VIII. (dated 1518). At the back of the 
Rolls Chapel is " Bowling-Inn-alley ; " Mary Ann Clarke (the 
wife of a bricklayer, and subsequently the mistress of the 
Duke of York) was the daughter of a man named Thompson, 
a journeyman labourer in this narrow court. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGH 1AI: I >. 

CHANCERY LANE. 



Holborn. Holborn. 



279 




N 
W K 



-Southampton Buildings. 



-Cursitor-street. 



Id Gateway to Lincoln's-Inn. 



Carey-street. 



Law Institution and Club.— 



Izaak Walton lived. 



—Rolls House and Chapel, p. 58. 
—New Record office, now building. 
— Serjeants' Inn. 



Temple Bar.— Fleet-street. 



Fleet-street. 



280 PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



OXFORD STREET. A line of thoroughfare, one mile and 
a half long, between St. Giles's Pound and old TyLura Turn- 
pike, and so called from its being the highway from London 
to Oxford. In 1708 it was known as Tyburn-road. It is, 
however, somewhat uncertain when it was first formed into 
a continuous line of street, and in what year it was first 
called Oxford-street. New Oxford-street, opened for car- 
riages March 6th, 1847, occupies the site of the "Rookery *' 
of St. Giles, through which it was driven at a cost of 
290,227*. 4s. 10d, of which 113,963*. was paid to the Duke of 
Bedford alone fur freehold purchases. All that remained, in 
the autumn of 1849, of this infamous Rookery (so called as 
a place of resort for sharpers and quarrelsome people) was 
included and condensed in ninety -five wretched houses in 
Church-lane and Carrier-street, wherein, incredible as the 
fact may appear, no less than 2850 persons were crammed in 
1 to 1-jij acre of ground. In these noisome abodes nightly 
shelter, at 3c*. per head, might be obtained. 

The NEW ROAD is a crowded thoroughfare or continua- 
tion of the City-road, leading to the Regent's Park, St. 
John's-wood, and . the Edgeware-road. It was planned in 
1754, and opened about 1758. Observe. — St. James's Chapel, 
Pentonville (on the north side) ; here R. P. Bonington. the 
painter, is buried. — St. Pan eras New Church. — Holy Trinity 
Church, Marylebone. — St. Marylebone New Church. 

CITY ROAD. A crowded thoroughfare — a continuation 
of the New-road, running from the Angel at Islington to 
Finsbury-square ; opened 1761 ; Mr. Dingley, the projector, 
who gave it the name of the City-road, modestly declining 
to have it called after his own name. Obseire. — John 
"Wesley's chapel and grave, immediately opposite Bunhill- 
fields Burial-ground. 

M Gnai niiiititiiiirs assembled to see the ceremony of laying the (bandar 
tion, so that Wesley oonld not, irithoul much difficulty, K*'t through the 

press to lay the Brsi stone, on whlcb liis inline and tiie date w ere Inserted 
on a jilate of brass. ' This was Uld by John Wesley, on April 1. 1777.' 
Probably, says be, this w\\\ be seen do more by any human eye, but will 
remain there till the rarth. and the. works thereof, aro burnt up." — 
Souihejft /.[/' '/ II 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



281 



BOW STREET, COVENT GARDEN, 

So called from running in the shape of a hent bow. 

I J 

Long Acre. Long Acre. 



W — 



— E 



Royal Italian Opera or Covent - 
Garden Theatre, p. 176. 
On the site of this theatre 
lived Dr. Radcliffe, Wycherley, 
and many other wits, from 164G 
to 1735. 

Bow-street Police Office. Here - 
Fielding wrote his Tom Jones. 



Site of Will's Coffee-house. 



Upper house, corner of King's 
Arms-court, lived Griuling 
Gibbons. 



Great Russell-street. 



Great Russell-street. 



282 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



GREAT QUEEN STREET, LINCOLNSINN FIELDS, 
So called in compliment to Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I. 
Lincoln' s-Inn-fields. 



Little Queen-street, leading to - 

Hoi born. 
Down this street Lord Kussell was 

Id to the scaffold in Lincoln s- 

Inn-fields. 



The whole of the north side was 
built a century later than the 
south. 



W 



House of Lord Chancellor Soraers 
and ninth Duke of Newcastle 



The whole of the south Bide was 
originally built by Inigo Jones, 
and from 1G30 to 1730 was one of 
the most fashionable localities 
in Li melon — the houses com 
manding a tine view of Holborn- 
fields. Great Marlborough-st., 
a century later, was similarly 
situated with respect to Oxford- 
street. In one of these houses 
Lord Herbert of Cherbury died. 
In one of them Sir Godfrey 
Kneller lived for the last twenty 
years of his life. The large 
red-brick house, with an arch- 
way under it (now Nos. 55 and 
5G) was the house of Hudson, 
the portrait-painter, and master 
of Sir Joshua Reynolds. 



Drury-lane. 



I>rury-lanr. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



283 



CHARING CROSS TO WESTMINSTER ABBEY. 





N. 

h'C» 

R#3 


— Northumberland House 


Drummond's Bank. — 


"as 
o2S 


— Craig's Court. 

Cox and Greenwood's. 


A-dniiralty, p. 54. — ; 


OS ° ° 

w a 


— Scotland Yard. 



Metropolitan Police station. 



Paymaster-Gen's office, p. 52. 



Horse Guards, p. 53. 

Office of the Com.-in-Chief 

(the Duke of Wellington). 



The Treasury, p. 48. 

Office of the Prime Minister. 

Site of Cockpit, in which 
Oliver Cromwell lived. 
Chancel, of the ' I 
Exchequer. I 

Colouial Office. — — : r 

Foreign Office. Dowmng-st. 






Whitehall Banqueting-house, 
built by Inigo Jones, p. 5. 



— Privy Gardens. 

Sir R. Peel's house. 



Richmond Terr.— Site of Duchess 
of Portsmouth's lodgings. 



In this street died, for 

lack of bread, m 

Spenser, author of the / £ / 
" Fairie Queen " 




Great George-street, 
to Westminster Bridge. 



284 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



HAYMARKET, 

So called from a Market of Hay formerly kept there. 



•iccadilly. Coventry-street 



The whole W. side is occupied by 
Restaurants, Taverns, Public- 
Houses, and Shell-fish shops. 
The Blue Posts has been a 
tavern for nearly two centuries. 
Quin's is the best oyster-shop 
in the llaymarket. 



Charles-street. - 



Her Majesty's Theatre, or old 
Italian Opera House. 



Coventry Court. Site of Picca- 
dilly Gaming House and of 
Coventry House, residence of 
Secretary Coventry, sec. to 
Charles II. 



— Panton-street. In a garret In 
one of these houses, Addison 
wrote his " Campaign." 



James-street. 



— Ilemmings' Supper-room. 
Cafe" de 1' Europe. 

— llaymarket Theatre, p. It 



Suffolk-street 



Pall-Mall. Pall-Mall. 
S. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



L'N.-, 



GROSVENOR PLACE, 

So called from the Grosvenor family, the ground landlords, 
and huilt 1767—1777. 



St. George's Hospital, p. 208.— 
Wilkins architect. 



Halkin-street, leading to 
Belgrave-square. 
No. 12, corner house, Earl of 
Carlisle's. 



Chapel-street. — 

Grosvenor-place houses. — 
No. 3, Sir Anthony Rothschild. 
No. 41 Viscount Mahon. 

No. 16, Sir James Graham. 



Apsley House 
Piccadilly. 



Footway to Constitution-hill. 



- Garden wall of Buckingham 
Palace, p. 1. 
The houses in Grosvenor-place 
overlook Buckingham Palace 
gardens, and were huilt during 
the Grenville administration ; 
Grenville, to vex King George 
III., refusing to purchase the 
Kite. 



Queen's Summer House, on 
Mount concealing the Mews 
from the Palace. 



Lower Grosvenor-place. 



286 



PRISrClPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



PARK LANE. 



1 

- 
I 

Site of Tyburn Gallows, and O 
bnrial-pl. of Oliver Cromwell. ~ 



I i 
Marble Arcli, 
from Buckingham Palace. 



Grosvenor Gate. 



HYDE PARK. 



Btanhope Gate.- 



Oxford-street. 



Camelford House. "Where the 
Princess Charlotte and Princ 
Leopold Uvea. 

Green Street: at No. 56, died 
Rev. Sydney Smith. 



Upper Grosvenor-street 
Grosvenor House. 

— Mount-street 

— South-street. 



Stanhope-street. Chesterfield 
House, p. 18, facing the Park. 



Piccadilly. Piccadilly. 



To City. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



287 



NEWGATE STREET. 
General Post Office. E. 

St. Martin's-le-Grand. Cheaps* 3 ®* 



Bath-street (Old Bagnio), in 
time of Charles II. 



Bull Head-court, 
-relief of William Evans and 
Sir Jeffrey Hudson. 



King Edward-street, formerly 
Butcher-hall-lane. 



Passage leading to Christ's — 
Hospital. 



Christ's Hospital, New Hall, 
p. 196. 



Giltspur-street 
Compter 

n 



Panyer-alley. (Curious sculp- 
ture in.) 



Queen's Head Passage. (Dolly's 
Chop-house in.) 



Ivy-lane. (Site of Dr. Johnson's 
Ivy-lane Club.) 



Newgate Market. (The great 
Carcass-market of London.) 



In Bell-inn Archbishop 
Leighton died. 



— Warwick-lane. (On right, Old 
College of Physicians, built by 
"Wren. Observe— EBigy of 
Guy on W. wall of lane.) 

Newgate. 



Pye-corner. 
Here Fire of Lon- 
don stopped. 



Giltspur-street. Old Bailey. 



St. x 
Sepulchre's 
Church. 



2ss 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGH I A RES. 



ALDERSGATE STREET. 

N. 



"Wilderness-row. Old-street-road. 
Charter House, p. 195 



Smitlificld. 



Long-lane. — 



Albion Tavern, - 
famous for good dinners. 
London House, - 
formerly residence of Bishops of 
London. 
"Westmoreland Buildings, - 
marking site of town-house of 
the Nevilles, Earls of "West- 
moreland. 

Little Britain. - 
St. Botolph, Aldersgate.- 
BiUl and Mouth street.— 



Site of Pistol's " Manor of Pict- 
hatch." 



Barbican. 



— Landerdale-bnildings, marking 
site of Lauderdale House, 
town-house of Duke of Lauder- 
dale, temp. Chas. II. 

Shaftesbury House, built by 
Inigo Jones for the Earl of 
Thanet. Here lived Lord 
Chancellor Shaftesburv, temp. 
Chas. II. 



Here stood Aldersgate. 



General rost-oftice, p. 50. 



Newgate-street 



Cheapalde. 

St. Anil's, x ji LOO. 

s. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



289 



FISH-STREET HILL, GRACECHURCH STREET, AND 
BISHOPSGATE-STREET. 

St. Botolph, Bishopsgate. Houndsditch. 



Bull Inn, used as a stage (before - 
theatres were erected) by Tarl- 
ton and Burbage; here Hob- 
son, the earner, put up. 

South Sea House. — 

Threadneedle-st. - 
St. Martin's Outwich. ■ 
London Tavern, celebrated for • 
good dinners. 



N 



Cornhill. 



Omnibuses for Sur- — 
— E rey and Kent start 
from both sides of 
street. 

At the Cross Keys, in the reign — 
of Queen Elizabeth, Bankes 
exhibited his horse, Morocco. 

Lombard-st. — 

White-Hart-court. Fox, founder— 
of the Quakers, died in. 

Nag's-Head-court. M. Green,— 
the poet, died in. 

King "William-street. — 

Statue of "William IV. Site of— 
Boar's Head Tavern in East- 
cheap. 



Arthur-street. Here stood a 
stone house in which Edward 
the Black Prince was lodged. 



Here stood Bishopsgate, one of 
the gates in London-wall. 



St. Helen's Bishopsgate, p. 118. 

Crosby Hall. Good perpendi- 
cular building, temp. Hen. VIII. 
Wesleyan Centenary Hall. 



— Leadenhall-street. 



Fenchurch-street. 

St. Bennet, Gracechurch. 



— Little Eastcheap. 



£ — Monument— 202 feet from which 
the Fire of London began. 



St. Magnus, by Sir C. Wren. 



The Thames. 
Site "f "Id London Bridge. 



290 rniNur.w. WlOllOtJGfifAMIS. 

UPPER AND LOWER THAMES STREET. 
f ho Town*. 



St. Dunstan's-hill. 
St. Duustan's, by WVen. 

St. Marv-nt-Hill. 
Coal Exchange. — 



Pudding-lane. lire of London 
began. 

Fish-atreet-hill. 



King William-street.— 



N- 



Suffolk-lane. 
Merchant Tailors' School. 

Dowgate. 



College-hill. 

St. Michael's, College-hill, by 
Wren. 
St. James's Garlic-hithe, by 
Wren. 

St. Michaels, o_ueenhithe,by 
Wren. 

Bread-Mn ■•■t-hill, leading to — 
Cbeapnde. 

< > l < 1 li^h-sti-ect-hill. 
X St. Mary B«M 
Bennet's, Viuil's -wharf. 
burial-place of Inigo Jones, 
leading to BereldB College, 
p. l88,endDoetor»*Conunoni, 
p. 68. 



Custom-house, i>. 4:'. 



Billingsgate Market, p. 72. 

.-t.aiiihoats down river for 
(,r. enwich, Woolwich, Black- 
wall 

Site of Old London Bridge. 

St. Magnus, by Wren. 

London Bridge. 

Fishmongers' Hall. 

• Old Shades, famous for its win. 1 -. 

• Steamboats up river to Black- 

friars. Chelsea, &c. 

All Hallows the More; hand- 
some screen, presented by 
Hans merchants. 
- Steel-vard, site of Hall of Hans 
Mmhunts, 1250—1660. 



Three Crams in the Vintry. 
Southwark Bridge, p. 44. 
— Vintners' Hall. 



— Queenhitlie. a quay or market, 
long the rival of Billingsgate. 



Of Barnard < astlo. The 
mstle of Bainardtis, the Nor- 
man associate of William 
the rjonqneror, whose name 
rarriTW also in Bayswaftar, 

, Be] n.. id's water. 
- Puddle Duck. 



•J Bleokfrlars Bridge. 
New Bridge-street, Bleokfrlars, 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



■2'J] 



HIGHSTREET, SOUTHWARK. 

S 6 



J£ 



River Thames. 



St. Saviour's, Southwark, p. 115 + 

Site of Bishop of Winchester's 
Palace, near to which stood 
the Globe Theatre, in which 
Shakspeare acted. 



St. Margaret's-hill. 



N 
W— — E 

S 



Union-street. 



The Mint; the Alsatia of 
Southwark. 



River Thames. 



Railway Stations of 5 separate 
lines, of Dover, &c, see p. 70. 



St. Thomas's Hospital. 
Guy's Hospital. 
— St. Thomas's Church. 



— Talbot Inn, the Tabard of 
Chaucer's " Canterbury Tales." 



King-street. 
Site of Marshalsea Prison. 



+ st. t.oorge's Church, Soathvark, 
burial-placo of Hishop Bonner. 
Rushworth, and Cocker. 
U2 



292 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



THE THAMES. 
From Battersea to Vauxhall Bridge. 



x Battersea Bridge 

Battersea Church. Burial-place 
of Lord Bolinghroke. 



Battersea Park. 



Red House, famous for pigeon 
shooting. 



— . Site of Sir Thomas Mores 
house. 



a Chelsea Old Church. Burial- 
►, place of Sir T. More and Sir 
2 Hans Sloane. 



Cedars in Botanic Gardens. 

Chelsea Hospital. 
Bridge to Battersea Park. 

x 
St. Barnabas Church. 



T. Cubltt's Factory 



New Church, built at the Mtfl 

expeue a of a Prebendary >>t 

Westminster. 



Vauxhall Brhl --. p. 17. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



213 



THE THAMES. 

From Vauxhall Bridge to Hungerford Bridge. 

Vauxhall Bridge, p. 47. 



Vauxhall Gardens, p. xxxix. — 



Lambeth Old Church '- 
lurial-place of Tradescant and 
Ashmole. 



Lambeth Palace, p. 8. 



Lollards' Tower. — 



— Penitentiary, p. 14S. 



St. John's Church, West- 
minster. 



Westminster Abbey, 



— Houses of Parliament. 

Westminster Bridge, p. 48. 

— Board of Control for Affairs of 
India 

— Richmond- terrace.' 

— Montagu House. 

— Privy Gardens. Here Sir 
R. Peel died, p. 23. 

— Whitehall Stairs. 
Scotland Yard. 
Northumberland House. 



Hungerford Bridge, p. 1.3. 



L>y4 



PRINCIPAL TIIOROUOHKA RBS. 



THE THAMES. 
rrmii Ihmgerford Bridge to Blackfriars BtMgB. 

Hungerford Bridge, p, 45. 



York House. 

— Water-gate, built by Inigo 

Jones, for Villiers, D. of 
Buckingham. 

— Adelphi-terrace — in centre 

house Garrick died. 

— Savoy, p. 120. 

— Duchv of Lancaster Office. 



x South-Western Railway 
Station. 



Old Lambeth Marsh now built 
over by Stamford-street. 



Waterloo Bridge, p. 40. 

— Somerset House, p. 55. 

— King's College, p. 192. 
Sit.' of Arundel House. 

— Bite of Essex House. 

— Middle Temple Hall. 

x Temple Church, p. 117. 

— Temple Gardens. 

— Paper Buildings (red), Temple. 

— WhitclViars. Of Alsatia. 

— Site of Salisbury House and 

Dorset House. 

Fine spire of St. Bride's, bv 

Wren, p. 122. 

II.,! ltit.h Of s.w.r runs int.. 

the Thames. 



BlaekfriftM Bridge, p. 45. 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



iWo 



THE THAMES. 
From Blackfriars Bridge to London Bridge. 

Blackfriars Bridge, p. 45. 

i — | x 

Times Newspaper Office. 

— Pier. 

— Site of Blackfriars Theatre. 

— Site of Castle Baynard. 

x 
St. Paul's, p. 109. 

— Paul's-wharf Pier. 



Fine view from river of the 
spires and towers of churches 
by Wren. The tallest and 
handsomest is Bow Church, p. 
122. 



Queenhithc- 



— Vintners' Hall, p. 235. 

- Snuthwark Bridge, p. 44. 

— Three Cranes in the Vintry. 



Barclay's Brewhouse 
Site of Globe Theatre. — 
Remains of Winchester Palace. 



St. Saviour's Church, p. 115 



— Steelyard. 

— Shades, famous for its wine. 

— Fishmongers' Hall. 
London Bridge, p. 44. 



29G 



PRINCIPAL THOROUGHFARES. 



THE THAMES. 
From London Bridge to Blackwall. 



London Bridge, p. 44. 



Kotherhithe Church. — 



Commercial Docks, p. 69. — 



Deptford Dock Yard. 



Greenwich Hospital, p. 210. 



Trafalgar Tavern. 
Crown uiul Sceptre. — 

•th famous for li.sli dinners 



Site of Old London Bridge. 
- .Monument, p. 228. 
- Steam-boat l'ier to Gravesend, 
Margate, and boats too large 

fur "above bridge." 

Tower of London, p. 70. 

Traitors' (iatc. 

The large square tower is 
called the " "White Tower." 

— St. Katherine's Docks, p. GG. 



— London Docks, p. G7. 



Thames Tunnel, p. 47. 



West India Docks, p. 07>. 

[■la of Doge. Here the Hirer 

is very herpentinc. 



— Blackwall Bailwav Station. 

I ■ ..'s Tavern. famous 

for Ban dinners. 





rling- 

C. ol 

(Miss 
is), 
ford, 
ring. 












E law 




4^ 


° § i »;- o^ 




& 


yS oSM".;. 




y% 


o" - P J. 


6 


Walker-st. 


N. 


llalkin-st 



13, William Scrope. 
16, Sir Roderick 

Murchison. 
18, E.ofEllesmere. 



BELGRAVE SQUARE. 
W. E. 

Built 1826—1833. 



48, V.Combermcre. 
45, D. of Montrose. 
41, Arch, of York. 






«-s 



^ 



J" 



Upper Brook-st. 



24,E. of Shaftesbury. 
23, E. of Derby. 



GROSVENOR 
SQUARE. 

Built 1,'20—1730. 



Upp. Grosvenor-st. 



\ 



1 

U-. i 



c - s 
■ I < 



- - 

•c g 

So 



L i 



i:. 



r - 
E5 



7, Earl of Wilton. 
6, Joseph Neeld. 
Fine pictures. 



= 

li:j* 



4 



in 



298 



PRINCIPAL SQUARES. 



38, Earl of Jersey. 



HM-stlV.-t. 

42, Ed. Broughton. 

43, Earl of Hadding- 
ton. 

41, ('.Darin- Wall. 

Fine staircase by 

Kent. 
45, Earl of Powis. 

The Rreat Lord Clive 

died En this house. 



N. 

BERKELEY 
SQUARE. 

Bldli 17.30—1740. 



Lansaowne House 



21, E. of Balcarres. 
Lady Ann Lindsay 
died in this house. 

Bruton-street. 



l.-». Mar.of Hertford. 
Horace Walpole 

died at No. 11. 
Qanter, celebrated 

for Ices. 



Hay Hill. 



Upper Berkeley-st. 



26, Lord Garva-li. 
Fine picture l>y 
Raphael. 

L T pper Seymour-st. 



W. 



PORTMAN 
SQUARE. 



Built 1790—1800. 



Berkc ley-street. 



Seymour-street. 



PRINCIPAL BQUARE8. 



299 



London Library- 
Statistical Society. 
Lichfield House. 

Late Lord Castle- 
reagh lived in 
corner house. 

17,D. of Cleveland. " 

18. SirW. Wynn. 

19, B. of Winchstr. 

Army and Naw 

' Club. 


ll,WyndhamCliil 
10, E. of Eglintour 
9, Hudson Gurney 
8, Lord Stanley. 

York-street. 


Erechtheum Club. 
7/WBbnn. Egertoi 

(!, Marq. of Bristol 




N. 

ST. JAMES'S 

SQUARE. 

W. Built 1674-1690. E. 

Statue of William III. 
S. 


4, Earl de Grey. 
Fine Pictures. 

2, E. of Falmouth. 

~ 23, E. of Dart- 
mouth. 
22, Bp. of London. 

21, Norfolk House. 
Geo.III. born here. 


i i 



Royal Academy of r 
Music. -J 

Tcnterden-street. 

Oriental Club. 



20, Earl of Lucan. 
'Jl.M/.f Downshire. 



Brook-atrwt. 



~ _ . it 

*S £. © J 

W «| j 

33" l r/ - - 



N. 



HANOVER SQUARE. 

Built 1720— 1730. 
W. E. 



Statue of William 
by Chantrey. 



'itt. 



Prince's-street. 

Hanover-sq. rooms. 

Hanover-street. 




300 



PRINCIPAL SQUARES. 



m . The whole N. 

rs'o P sidewastohave 
£ ^ beeo occupied 
by the entrance 
to the town 
house of the 
munificent D. 
of Chandos. 



i- 00 >. v 

3 >- = 



Whole W. side 
occupied l)y liar- 
court House, resi- 
dence of Duke of 
Portland. 



CAVENDISH 

SQUARE. 

Built 1730— 17G0. 

W. statue of William, E. 

Duke of Cumberland, 

Victor at the 

Battle of Culloden, 1748. 



Statue of Lord 
George Bentinck 
to be placed on 
South side. 



Holies-street, e £g 

In No. 24, otj 

Lord Byron 2|g| 

was born. o &. " 

In] 



Site of Leicester House. 
The " Poutiug-place " of two Princes 
of Wales, 
-i i 1 I 1 l — Panorama. 



To Piccadilly. 



Sir Joshua Key- 
nolds's bouse. 



Ilaymarket. 



N. 

LEICESTER 

SQUARE. 

W. Built 1070— 1690. E. 

Mr. Wyhi's greet ci' 'be 

in Centre. 



Si Martm'e-eoart 
Sir [MM Newton'i house and 
i Rtarjr. 



To Covent-garden. 



Site of John Hun- 
ter's bOQM and 

moMnm. 
Sahlonlere Hotel. 

In northern half 
1 1 garth lived. 

-ir.it. In 
NO, 11 lived 

W llett the en- 

srer, 



PRINCIPAL BQT7ABE8. 



301 



oho Bazaar. 



SOHO SQUARE. . 
W. Built 1670—1690. E 



Statue of Charles II. 



J 



„v - 

: . 3 

! en O 



3« 



Whole south side 
originally occupied 

by 
Monmouth House. 



1 
§ 

Site of * pulled down 

Bedford House, H in 1800. 



No. 6 was old 

Mr. Disraeli's. 



BLOOMSBURY 

SQUARE. 

Built 1690—1710. 

W. B 

Statue of C.J. Fox, 

Sir B.AVrstmacott. 



Site of Lord 

Mansfield's house, 

destroyed In riots 

Of 1780. 



302 



PRINOIPAl ■QUARJGS. 



3, Mr. Justice 
Patteson. 



N. 



BEDFORD 

SQUARE. 
W. E. 

Built 1800—1806. 



6, Lord Chancellor 
Eldon lired here. 

7, Sir Hubert Inglis. 



to >> 



RUSSELL SQUARE. 

Built 1800—1806. 

W. E. 

Btatne <>f i>nke 

of Bedford. 

by 

sir B. Weitmaoott 



71. Lord Chancellor 

Loughborough 

livi M here. 
i;?. Mr.JnstkeTal- 

foord. 
65, S ir T hom asL a w - 

rence died lure. 
Mr. HoUbrd*! l'i- 

tures here. 



IS 

if 



x m . 

2 1.5 

35 * 



King-street. Built by- 



Church of St. Paul's, 
Covent Garden, 
built by Inigo 
Jones. 



Henrietta-street. 



E* Pi 



Inigo Jones. £ -<g 



Bedford Hotel. 

', 03 o OJ 



S 2 5 > e £ 

U * -S ? O -, 



COVENT 



MARKET. 

Built 1630—164 



GARDEN 
E. 



Il 



Great Russell-st. 



© t^ oj •* 

?f iff !H 



II 

fiOD 



£ 2 



r J 



Great Queen-st 
Newcastle House at -1 
corner. Here lived 
Lord Chancellor 
Somers, and the 
Minister Duke of 
Newcastle. 
Lindsey House, 
(with 2 vases), built 
by Inigo Jones. 
Duke-street. 



"Whetstone's 
Park at back. 
1 



N 



LINCOLN S-INN 
FIELDS. 

"Win. Lord Russell 
beheaded in centre. 

Built 1619—1636. 



Stone-buildings. 



Lincoln's Inn Hall. 



To Lincoln's Inn. 



-1 1 1 r 

Royal College of Surgeon*. 
Here stood Sir William Davenant's Theatre. 



304 



PRINCIPAL SQUARES. 



National Gallery, p. 164, and Royal Academy of 
Arts, p. 183. Wilkins, arclit. 


1 

3D 


Church of 
St. Martin's-in-the- 

Fields. 
Gibbs,archt.,p.l25. 


Pall-mall East. 






To the Strand. 


College of 
Physicians, p. 185. 


Statue of 

George IV., 

by Chantrey. 

TRAFALGAR SQUARE. 

Built 1829—1850. 


f 


Union Club, p. 220 


The Fountains, of Peterhead 
Granite. 

n 


Morley's Hotel. 



Cockspur-street. 



Nelson Column, p. 253 



Char. Cross branch 
of Gen. Post Office. 
Letters received later 
than at other offices. 



Statue of Charles I. by Le Soeur. 
Site of Queen Eleanor's Cross. 
Place of execution of Regicides. 



Whitehall. 



©taru antt Calendar 

OF 

LONDON OCCUEEENCES. 

1851-2. 



CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 30"; 



MAY, 1851. 



Th 



4 
M 6 
Tt 



W 

Th 



F 9 

S 10 
11 
SI ! 12 
Tu 13 
W 14 
Th 15 



F 16 

S r 
S 18 
If 

T'' 



Th 22 
F 23 

S 

s 

M 
Tu 

W 28 
Th29 



F 30 
S 31 



Crystal Palace opened. British Museum closed from 1st 
to 7th. National Gallery open from 10 till 6. Meeting of 
Soc. of Antiquaries at8. Royal Soc. Meeting at half-past8. 

Monthly meeting at 4 of Archaeological Institute. Distribu- 
tion of Prizes at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. 

White-bait dinners at Blackwall and Greenwich in full 
season. Horticultural Fete at Chiswick. 

2ntJ £untiay after trinity. 

Royal Academy Exhibition opens. 

Her .Majesty's Drawing Room. Meeting at 8 of Institution 
of Civil Engineers. 

State Ball at Buckingham Palace. 

Meeting of Society of Antiquaries at 8, and of Royal Society 
at half-past 8. British Museum re-opens", and the 
Library till Aug. 31st is open daily from 9 till 7. 

3rtr 5?unuay after (Trinity. 

Her Majesty s Concert at Buckingham Palace. 

Meeting at 8 of Institution of Civil Engineers. 

General Exhibition at Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's Park. 

Her Majesty's Drawing-room. Meeting of Society of Anti- 
quaries at 8, and of Royal Society at half-past 8. Festival 
in St. Paul's of Sons of Clergy. 

Sir E. Bulwer Lytton's new Play acted before the Queen and 
Prince Albert by Mr. Dickens, &c.,at Devonshire House. 

4tlj Sunuay after trinity. 

Her Majesty^ Concert at Buckingham Palace. 

Epsom Races commence. Meeting at 8 of Institution of 

Civil Engineers. 
Derby day at Epsom. Meeting of Ethnological Society at 

17, Savile-row, at 8. 
Meeting of Soc. Antiquaries at 8, and of Roy. Soc. at half-past 8. 
Oaks day at Epsom. 
Her Majesty's Birth-day— kept May 31st. 

Sorption 5untiay. 

Conversazione of the President of the Institution of Civil 
Engineers at 25, Great George-street, Westminster, at 9. 

Her Majesty's Levee. 

Restoration of Charles II. Speaker of the House of Commons 
w.nt in State to St. Margaret's Church, W.-stnnusU-r. 
Meeting of Society of Antiquaries at 8. 

Her Majesty's Birth-day kept: the Knights of the several 
Orders appear in their collars. Review in St. James's 
Park. Exhibition of American Plants at Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Regent's Park. Soirt'e of the President of the 
Royal Society. 



x 2 



308 



CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 



JUNE, 1851. 



S 
M 
To 

W 

Th 



Tu 
W 

Th 
F 

S 

s 

M 

Tr 
W 



Tu 



&urrtiag aftrv 3scrnsion. 

Ascot Races commence. Last four days ; the great day is 
Thursday. 

Sons of the Clergy at St. Paul's (fine sipfht). Meeting of 
Society of Antiquaries at 8, and of Royal Society for 
Election of Fellows. Ascot Cup day at Ascot Races. 

Monthly meeting, at 4, of Archaeological Institute, at 26, 
Suffolk-street, Pall-mall East. 

Exhibition of American Plants at Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Regent's Park. Horticultural Fete at Chiswiek. Annual 
Visitation of the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, and 
dinner afterwards at" the Crown and Sceptre, Greenwich. 

URSttjiX Suntoag. 

Whit Monday. Greenwich Fair, and much fun in Greenwich 
Park. British Museum open every day in the week 
except Saturday. 

General Exhibition at Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's 
Park. 

The Queen's Fancy Ball at Buckingham Palace. 
Last Soiree of the President of the Royal Society at 9. 

Ertnttg JSimtag. 



Celebration of Battle of "Waterloo. Grand dinner at Apsley 
House to the officers who fought at Waterloo. Meeting 
of Ethnological Society at 17, Savilc-row, at 8. 

Meeting of Society of Antiquaries at 8, and of Royal Society 
:it half-past 8, and adjournment till Nov. 20th". 

Rose Garden Exhibition, at Royal Botanic Society's, Regents 
Park. 



S 

M 
Tr 

\V 
Tu 
F 

S 



1st Sfaritag after QDrimtg, 



Midsummer Day. Election in Guildhall of the Sheriff's of 
Loudon and Middlesex for the ensuing year. 



2ntJ SuntJau aftrv Crinito. 



CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 309 



JULY, 1851. 


Tu 


1 




W 


2 


General Exhibition, at Royal Botanic Gardens, Regent's 
Park. 


Th 
F 


3 
4 


Dog Days begin, and end Aug. 11th. Meeting at Ipswich of 
the British Association for the Advancement of Science. 


S 

S 

M 


5 
6 

7 


3rtl ^imuag after £rmitg. 


Tu 


8 




W 

Th 


9 
10 


Her Majesty at a Grand Ball and Banquet in Guildhall. 


F 


11 




S 


12 




S 


18 


z\t\) 5tmuag aftrr Crtmtrj. 


M 


14 


Royal Agricultural Society's Show at Windsor. 


Tu 


15 


St. Swithin, a rainy and influential Saint in England. 


\V 


16 




Th 


17 




F 


18 




S 


19 


Horticultural F8te at Chiswick. The Duke of Devonshire's 
grounds usually open to visitors to the Fete. 


S 

M 


•20 
21 


5t\) Stmtiag after £rimtg. 


Tu 


22 




W 


23 




Th 


24 




F 


■23 




S 


•_v, 




S 


■-'7 


Otfj &unuarj after £rimtg. 


M 


88 




Tu 
W 
Th 


89 
90 
31 


Goodwood Races. 
The Lord Mayor and Corporation go Swan-Upping in state 
barges on the Thames from London to Staines, either 
in this month or in August— a pretty sight. 



310 



CALENDAR OF LO.vpoy orcURnrv r- 



AUGUST, 1851. 



6 

S 

M 
Tu 

w 

Tu 
F 

S 

s 

M 

Tr 
W 
Tu 
F 



M 

Tu 

\V 

'I'n 

F 

S 

3 

M 

Tu 

YV 

Tm 

I' 



Accession of the House of Hanover to the British Throne. 
Doggott's Coat and Badge rowed for on the Thames ; a 
pretty sight. 



7tlj 5untiay after {Trinity. 



Final heat of Champion Sculls on the Thames. 

Strj Suntiag after Crtm'tg. 

Dog Days end. 

London emptier than ever. Grouse shooting begins. 



9trj j&imtiaD aftfr Crtnitg. Birthday of the Duchess of 
Kent, the mother of the Queen. 



I0t 1) &mriM| aftrr (Trinity. 



Prinee Albert'! birthday. 



llth iritnuay after Mnntty. 



CALENDAR of LONDON OCCURRBN* B8. 3U 



SEPTEMBER, 1851. 



1 London very empty. Partridge 6hooting begins. British 
Museum closed till 8th. 
Tu 2 

"W 3 Bartholomew Fair opens. 
Th 4 
F 5 
S 

s 
Iff 

Ti 
W IC 



I2tfj Suntiarj after iTriratg. 

British Museum re-opens from 10 to 4 till May 7th. The 
Library is open from 9 till 4. 



Tu 26 

-'7 



Tu 



90 



13tfj SuntJag after iTrimtg. 

Doncaster Eaces commence. 
National Gallery closed till Nov. 1st. 



Speech Day at Christ's Hospital on 21st. St. Mattln 

l^tfj gtnttag after vTrinitg. 



York Column Staircase closed. The Column is open from 
April 1st to Sept. 24th. 



I5trj Simfcag after £rtnitg. 

Michaelmas Day. Election of Lord Mayor for the ensuing 
year. The Lord Mayor and Corporation attend Dirlne 
service at St. Lawrence's Church, in King-stiv t. ( 'heap- 
side, and dine at Mansion House. 

New Sheriffs of London and Middlesex sworn in .r 
minster Hall. 



312 



CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 



OCTOBER, 1851. 


W 


1 


Pheasant Shooting hcgins. The National Gallery is 
during the whole of this month. 


closed 


Til 


2 






F 


3 






S 


4 






S 


5 


lOtfj jhtntag aftrr iTrinttg. 




M 


6 






Tu 


7 






w 


8 






Tu 


9 






F 


10 






S 


11 






S 


IS 


IZtfj Suntoag after (Frinitg. 




M 


13 






Tu 


14 






W 


15 






Tu 


it; 






F 


17 






S 


18 






S 


10 


IStrj Suntoag after trinitg. 




M 


20 






Tu 


21 






W 


28 






Th 


23 






F 


M 






S 


25 






S 


M 


lOtTj Suntoag aftrr trinitg. 




M 


27 






Tu 


28 






W 


29 






Th 


80 


• 




F 


■M 







CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 313 



NOVEMBER, 1851. 


S 1 


National Gallery re-opens from 10 till 5 till May 1st. Dul- 




wich Gallery open between 11 and 3. 


S 5 


20tfj Suntoajj aftrv JTrinitg. 


M S 


i 


Tu 4 


i 


-w I 


> Guy Fawkes' Day or Gunpowder Plot Day. Great bonfires 




and fireworks at night. 


Til ( 




F ' 


' 


S I 


3 


S I 


) 2lst Glinting after CvinttU. Prince of Wales's birth-day. 


M 1 


) Lord Mayor's-day. Grand dinner at Guildhall. 


Tu 1 


1 


W 1 


I 


Th l 


1 


F 1 


1 


S 1 


5 


S i 


6 22ntJ Sfanbag after (Trinitg. 


M 1 


7 


Tu 1 


B 


W 1 


1 


Tn 2 


g Meeting of Society of Antiquaries at 8. 


F 2 


1 


S 2 


2 


s 2 


3 23rtJ Stinting aflrr QTrinttg. 


M 2 


4 


Tu 2 


5 


W - 


6 


ThS 


7 


F 2 


8 


S 2 


9 Anniversary Meeting Of Royal Society ("for 30th). 


S s 


&uumt £linuay. Crystal Palace to be taken down, 




pursuant to contract. 



314 



i M.I'M'.M: (IF LONDON 0CCTRR1-'N"<T>. 



DECEMBER. 1851. 


M 


1 




Tu 


•_> 




W 


3 




Tu 


4 




F 

S 

s 


5 
6 

7 


Play of Terence's performed at Westminster School. 

2nto Suntoag in Sbbtttt. 


M 


s 




Tu 


!> 




W 
Th 


LO 

11 


Smithfield Club Cattle Show, at the Baker-street Bazaar, 
opens about this time. Annual Distribution of P 
at Royal Academy of Arts. 


F 

S 


12 
13 


Founder's Day at Charter House. 


s 

M 


1! 

us 


3rU &unuan in "Stobrnt. 


Tu 


16 




W 


17 




Tu 


18 




F 


19 




S 


20 




S 


81 


4$ 5uniJao in •Stobrnt. st. Thomas's Dsy. Blectiea of 

Common Councilmen in the City. 


M 


22 


The butchers' shops full of the finest prize meat 


Tu 


23 




\V 


24 


Christmas Ere. Bot» bella commence ringing at 9. 


Tu 
F 


25 

21 i 


Christmas Day. 


S 


87 




S 

M 


•-•s 
2! 


1st Simtoag after Christmas. 


Tu 
W 


31 


Wesleyans InChspel watch out the Old v. *r, la 1 

1 1 \ in it Of PrsiM at U "'clock. 



CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 



315 



JANUARY, 1852. 



British Museum closed from 1st to 7th of January. 



Th 1 


British Mu 


F S 




S I 


I 


S < 


I 


M { 




Tu ( 


3 


W ' 


■ 


Tn 


1 British Mi 


F 


! 


S 1 


I 


S i 


l 


M 1 


2 


Tu 1 


3 


W 1 


i 


Th 1 


3 


F 1 


6 


S 1 


7 


S l 


8 


M 1 


9 


Tu2 





w a 


1 


th a 


2 


r a 


3 


B 2 


4 


S - 


5 


U - 


6 


1 ■- 


7 


w ■- 


8 


Th 5 


!9 


F i 


50 Anniverss 


s i 


Jl 



Anniversary of Execution of Charles I. 



316 



CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 





FEBRUARY, 1852. 


s 


1 




M 


a 




Tu 


8 




W 


4 




Th 


5 




F 


8 




S 


7 




S 


8 




M 


9 




Tv 


in 




W 


11 




Th 


L2 




F 


13 




S 


14 




S 


15 




M 


16 




Tu 


17 




W 


L8 




Th 


i:t 




F 


20 




S 


21 




S 


22 




M 


28 




Tu 


24 




W 


•J:, 




Tu 


26 




F 


27 




S 


28 




S 


29 





CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 317 



MARCH, 


1852. 


M 


1 


St. David's Day. 




Tu 


a 






W 


3 






Th 


4 






F 


6 






S 


6 






S 


7 






M 


8 






Tc 


9 






W 


10 






Th 


11 






F 


IS 






S 


13 






s 


14 






M 


15 






Tc 


16 






W 


17 


St. Patrick's Day. 




Th 


18 






F 


IS 






S 


30 






S 


■21 






M 


28 






Tc 


23 






W 


24 






Th 


26 






F 


26 






S 


27 






S 


•_>s 






M 


-.".< 






Tu 


80 






W 


31 







318 



CALENDAR OF LONDON OCCURRENCES. 



APRIL, 1852. 


T.i 
F 


1 

2 


York Column open from this day till the 24th of September. 
Dulwich Gallery open from 10 till 5 till 1st of November. 


S 


3 




s 


•1 




M 


.-> 




T 


G 




W 


7 




Th 


« 


Maunday Thursday. 


F 

S 


D 

10 


Good Friday. 


S 


11 


Easter Sunday. 


M 

Tu 
W 


is 

13 

11 


Easter Monday > _ 

_ m , > Greenwich Fair. 

Easter Tuesday > 


Th 


16 




F 


L6 




S 


17 




s 


18 




M 


19 




Tu 


90 




W 


21 




Th 


99 




F 


23 


Anniversary Meeting of Society of Antiquaries. 


S 


•21 




S 


25 




M 


96 




Tu 


27 




W 


98 




Th 


•_".! 




F 


11 








INDEX. 



A. 

Abney Park Cemetery, 132 

Addison, Joseph, last moments 
of, 19 

Adelphi Theatre, 177 

Admiralty, the, 54, 56 

Albert, H.R.H. Prince; collection 
of pictures exhibited by, 8 

Aldersgate-street, Plan of, 288 

Almack's Assembly Rooms, 180 

Ambassadors' residences, xlviii 

Anglesea. Marquis of; his man- 
sion, 20 

Anne, Queen, 4 ; and her hus- 
band, 8 

Antiquaries, Society of, 56, 1S7 ; 
library and museum, 188 

Apothecaries' Hall, 236 

Apsley House, 9 ; pictures, &c, 10 

Archaeological and antiquarian at- 
tractions, xliv 

Architectural notabilities, xlii.xliii 

Architects, British, Institute of, 
188; admission fees, 189 

Architects Works in London; list 
of 84. 

Armourers' Company, 237 

Army ; regulations relative to en- 
listments, pay, &c, 53 

Army and Navy Club, 216 

Artillery Ground, 238 

Asiatic Society, 190 

Ashburton, Lord ; mansion of, 20 

Astley's Theatre, 178 

Astronomical Society, 191 

Athenaeum Club, 219 

Audit Office, 55 



Bank of England ; its origin, 59 ; 
its ingenious weighing and 
printing machines, 60, 01 

Bancroft, Francis ; glazed coffin 
of, 119 

Barber Surgeons' Hall, 237 

Barclay and Perkins's brewery, 
75; origin of the firm, 76 

Barnabas (St.) Church, Pimlico, and 
Rev. W. J. E. Bennett, 127 

Bartholomew the Great (St.) 
church of, 115 

Batholomew's (St.) Hospital, 203 ; 
enormous quantities of medica- 
ments used, 204-5; its lec- 
turers, &c, 205 

Bath House, its fine collection of 
pictures, 20, 21 

Baths and Wash-houses, 214 

Battersea Park, 34 

Bavarian Chapel. LIS 

Bedford-square, Plan of, 302 

Belgrave-squaiv, Plan of, 297 

Belgravia, xi 

Berkeley-square, Plan of, 298 

Bethlehem Hospital for Lunatics, 
206; notorious inmates, Ml 

Billingsgate Market, 72. 7.) 

Birth-places of eminent persons, 239 

BiBhopsgate-itrsai, rian of, 289 

Blackmara Bridge. 16 

Blind, Schools and Asvlums for 
the. 214 

Bloomsbury-squ.iiv, Plan of, 301 

Botanical Gardens, Regent's-park, 
34 ; Kew, 36 



320 



INDEX. 



Bow-street, Coveut-gardeu, Plan 

of, 281 
Bow Church, and Bow hells, 122 
Breweries, 75, 76 

Bride's (St.) Church, Fleet-street, 
122 ; source of Wren's idea of 
its construction, 123 
Bridewell, City Prison, 145; Hol- 
bein's Picture, 146 
Bridges over the Thames ; London, 
44; Southwark, ib. ; Black- 
friars, 45 ; llungerford, ib. ; 
Waterloo, 46; Westminster, 
ih. ; Vauxhall, 47 
Bridgewater House and its Picture 

Gallery, 17, 18 
British Museum, mode of admis- 
sion to the Beading Room, 
149-51 ; ground plan, 150 ; 
origin and progress of the 
Museum, 151 ; Egyptian an- 
tiquities, 152; Nineveh mar- 
bles, 153 ; Etruscan Boom, ib.; 
Elgin marbles, 154-5 ; Phiga- 
lian and Lycian marbles, 156 ; 
Townley collection, 157 ; Port- 
land Vase and its mishaps, 
157-8; modem marbles, 158; 
Romano-British antiquities, 
159; library of printed books, 
159 ; reading-room regula- 
tions, 160 ; manuscripts, 
160-61; prints, drawings, &c, 
161-62; zoological collection, 
162-4 
Brompton Cemetery, 132 
Brooks's Club, 217 
Brunei, Sirl.K., great engineer- 
ing work by, 47 
Buccleuch, Duke of, his town 

mansion, 14 
Buckingham Palace, juggle in 
which it originated, subse- 
quent alterations, iVc, l, 2 ; 
its chief pictures, 9, 8 
Bunhill Fields Burial Ground, 
US; its chief tenants, 188: 
enormous number Interred 
there, 134 
Burial places of eminent persons, 

240-244 
Burials in London, 130-1 
Burlington House, 21; Hogarth's 

caricature, 98 
Byron, Wm., 5th Lord; scene of 
his duel with Mr. Chaworth, 
256 



C. 



Cabs, regulations relative to, 
xxix, xxx 

Camberwell Church, 127 

Canova, characteristic anecdote of, 
46 

Canterbury, Archbishops of, addi- 
tions "to Lambeth Palace by, 
8 9 

Carlton Club, 217 

Carlton Ride Records, 58 

Carpenters 1 Hall, 288 

Cavendish, Hon. Chas., mansion 
of, 21 

( lavendish-sqnare, Plan of, 300 

Ca\sar, Sir .hilius; his curious 
monument and epitaph, 119 

Cemeteries and Burial Grounds, 
130, 133 

Chancery, Inns of, 143 

Chancery-lane, 278; Plan, 279 

Chapter House, Westminster, 58 

Charing Cross to Westminster 
Abbey, Plan, 283 

Charing Cross Hospital, 212 

Charitable Institutions and Hospi- 
tals, 203, 214 

Charles I., parting with his child- 
ren, 4 ; his execution, 6, 7 ; 
vicissitudes of the Charing 
Cross statue, 254 

Charles II. born, 4; statue of, 
254 

Charter-House School and Hospi- 
tal, 195; the poor brethren, 
196 

Cheapside, description of, 87S : 
Plan, 273 

Chelsea Hospital, 209 

Chesterfield House, IS; its associ- 
ations, 18,19 

Christ's Hospital, 186; its notabi- 
lities, 187 : eminent scholars, 
197-8; mode of admission, 188. 

Churches and Places of Worship, 
Cathedral and Episcopal. '.'_>. 

127; Dissenting. ISM! 

man Catholic, r_'S ; 1< 

188: Jews, 130 
City of London School, 201 
City the, and the City Halls and 

Companies, 888 -888. \i 
City Prison, llolloway, 149 
Citj Road. 880 

Clayton, Mr.; his aquatic feat. IS 
Clement's Inn. and its 

Bona, 1 1 ) 
Clerkenwell BetJkffli House, 137 



in hi: a. 



321 



Clothworkers' Hall, 235 

Clubs and Club Houses, 215—222 

Coal Exchange, 09 ; number of 
Seamen employed in the 
Trade, 70 

Cocknev, traditional origin of the 
epithet, 224 

Cold Bath Fields House of Correc- 
tion, 148 

College, v., Heralds, 186 

College of Physicians. (See Phy- 
sicians.) 

College of Surgeons. (See Surgeons.) 

Colleges and Schools, 191 — 202 

Colliers, Regulations of the port of 
London relative to, 44 

Colonial Office, 49 

Commercial buildings, banks, &c, 
59, 70. (-See the various 
heads under which same are 
placed.) 

Commercial Docks, 69 

Companies of London, and their 
Halls, 229—238 

Conservative Club, 21S 

Corn Exchange, 69 

Cornhill, description of, 274 ; Plan, 
275 

Cornwall, Duchy of, office of the, 55 

County Courts, 137 

Courts of Law and Justice. 134 — 
137 

Covent Garden Market, 73; plan 
of, 303 

Covent Garden Opera House, 176 

Cowper, the poet, suicidal inten- 
tions of, 50 

Cromwell, Oliver, last moments 
of, 132 j his inauguration, 135 

Crystal Palace, description of the, 
xlix. — lvi. 

Custom House, 49 



D. 



Danish CecbCH, 129 

Deaf and Dumb, Asylum for the, 

214 
Debtors' Prisons, 149 
Delafield, Mr.; ruinous experience 

of, as an Opera-house lessee, 

176 
Design, Government School of, 202 
I tevonshire House, its pictures and 

literary treasures, IS 
Dining and Supper places, xxxiii 

— xxxvii 
Diorama, xxxvi 



Dissenters' Chapels, 127-8 
Docks; West India, East India, 

St. Katherine's, London, Com- 
mercial, 65 — 69 

Domesday Book, 58 

Drapers' Hall and Gardens, 231 

Dreadnought, Seamens' Hospital 
Ship, 214 

Drury-lane (the street so called) : 
ancient state of, 276 ; plan, 277 

Drury-lane Theatre, 1 7tJ 

Dulwich Gallery of Paintings, 168 : 
its chief pictures, 169 

Dupin, M., on Waterloo Bridge, 4ii 



E. 

East India Docks, 66 

East India House, 64; museum 
and notabilities, 65 

Electric Telegraph, xvii 

Ellesmere, Earl of; his mansion 
and gallery, 17 

Eminent persons ; London birth- 
places of, 239 ; burial places, 
240—244 ; dwelling places, 
244—249 

Engineers, Civil; Institution of, 
188 

Events, remarkable, 249—253 

Exchequer, office of the, 49 

Excise Office, 50, 55 

Exeter Hall, 180 

Exhibition, Tbx, xlix 

Exhibition of the Koyal Academv. 
183. 

Exhibitions in general, xxxvi (<SW 
Museums.) 



P. 

Farrixgdox Market, 74 
Fishmongers' Hall, 231 
Fish-street-hill, Plan of, 289 
Flaxman Museum, 192 
Fleet Prison, the late, 149 
Fleet-street. 270 ; Plan of, 271 
Foreign Churches and Chapels. 

128, 129 
Foreign Office, 49 
Foundling Hospital, 212; me 

Chapel. 218 
Free Exhibitions. (See Museums.) 
Free Boi pital, 212 
French Protestant Church, 129 
French Pom. Catholic Chapel, 

129 



322 



INDEX. 



Garrick Club, 220; its pictures 
221 

Gas, introduction of, 256 

Geographical Society, 190 

Geological Society, 190 

Geology (Practical), Museum of, 
174 

George's (St.), Roman Catholic 
Cathedral, 128 

George's (St.), Church. Hanover- 
square, 126 

George's (St.), Hospital, 208 

George II. and his Queen, 4, 8; 
junction of their remains, 97 

George, III., statue of, 254 

(icorgc IV. horn, 4, statue of, 254 

German Lutheran Church and 
Chapel, 129 

Giles (St.), Church, Cambcrwell, 
127 

Globe (Wyld's), xxxvi 

Goldsmiths' Hall, 232 

Gospel, Society for the Propaga- 
tion of the, 256 

Government Offices and Establish- 
ments, 48,-59 

Gracechurch-street, Plan of, 289 

Gray's Inn. and Gray's Inn Gar- 
dens, 143 

Great Queen-street, Lincoln's-inn- 
ficlds, Plan of, 282 

Green Park, 31 ; objects to be ob- 
served, 82 

Greenwich Hospital and Hall, 210; 
the Chapel, &c, 211 

Greenwich Park, and the Astro- 
nomical Observatory, 34, 35 

Grocers' Hall, 230 

Grosvenor House, its pictures, 
&c, 15 

nor-placc, Plan of, -2s~> 
nor-square, Plan of, 297 

Guards' Club, 216 

Guildhall. 226; its Btatues, &c., 
296 

Gny*B Hospital, 208 



ii. 



1 1 Mi.!;!' L8HBR8' 11 I 

Haiiowcii, Capt, hii present to 
Lord Neh 1 18 

llanovcr-si|Uar.', I'lan of, 288 

Harcourt Honse,22 
ll.tyiiiarkti tlic street BO called . 
Plan of, 284 



Haymarket Theatre, 177 

Helen's (St.), Bishopsgate, and its 
interesting monuments, 118, 
119 

Heralds' College, 186; objects of 
interest there, 187 

Hertford House, and pictures, 22 

Hervey. John, Lord; scene of his 
duel with Pulteney, 32 

Highgate Cemetery, 132 

High-street, Soutliwark, Plan of. 
291 

Highwayman, exploit of a, 16 

II ill's i Rowland) Chapel, 128 

Holborn and Its eminent residents, 
266 ; Plan of, 267 

Holford, l.\ 3 n 1 ; . mansion and 
pictures of, 26 

Holland House and its successive 
owners, and anecdotes con- 
nected with it, 19; epitaph of 
the late Lord, 20 

Hope, H. T., Esq. M.P., mansion 
23; his picture gallery. Jl 
mode of admission, 25 

Horse Guards, 53 

Horsemonger-lane Gaol, 146 

Horticultural Society, 1SU 

Hospitals and Charitable Institu- 
tions, 207 

Hotels, xxxiii 

Houses and dwelling-places of 
eminent persons, 244-48 

Houses of Correction. 1 is 

Houses of Parliament, 36-41 ; mode 
of admission to hear d< 
41 

Humane Society, Royal, 214 

Hungerford Market. 71 

Hnngerford Suspension P. ridge, 46 

Hyde Park, -J7 : plan. 28; its at- 
tractions. 27 29 



Inland Ki.vrNn. »>i : 

Inns of Court and Chancorv. 

L88-M 
Institute of Architects, 188 
Institution of Civil BngbM 
Institutions and Societies, 181-91 
[ntramural burials, hon 

I ". 131 
Ironmongers' Hall, 286 
Italian Opera Houm ■: Her Ma- 
jesty's Theatre, 175 : Corent 
< I)., ra, 178 



INDEX. 






J. 

James's (St.) Chcbch, Piccadilly, 
124; its font by Gibbons, 
124 
James's (St.) Theatre, 178 
James's (St.) Palace, 4 ; drawing- 
rooms, levees, &c, mode of 
presentation, &c, 4, 5 
James's (St.) Park : its history, 
29-31 ; plan, 30 ; objects to be 
observed, 31 
James's (St.) Square, Plan of, 229 
James's (St.) Street and its nota- 
bilities, 202 
Jekyll, the Wit, anecdote of, 135 
Jews' Synagogue, Great Saint 

Helens, 130 
Johnson, Dr., at Thrale's Brewcrv, 

76 
Judges, salaries of the, 184 
Junior United Service Club, 216 



Kathf.rixe's (St.) Docks, 66 
Katherine's (St.) Hospital. 34 
Kensal Green Cemetery and its 

tenants, 131 
Kensington Palace, 7 ; its German 

pictures, 8 
Kensington Gardens and the Ser- 
pentine, 35, 36 
Kew Botanical Gardens, 36 
King's College and School, 192; 
educational arrangements, 193 
King's College Hospital, 213 
Kneller, Sir Godfrey, his dying 
observation, 109 



L 



Lamb, Charles, Che real works of, 
65 

Lambeth Palace, its early and 
present state, its attractions, 
8,9 

Lansdowne House, its sculpture 
and pictun 

Leadenhall Market, 71 

Learned Societies and Institu- 
tions, 181-91 

Leicester-square, Plan of, 300 

Letters, postage of. (See Post 
Office.) 

Lincoln's Inn, 141 ; its chapel, 
hall, and library, 142 



Lincoln's-Inn-fields, Plan I 

Linnaan Society, 191 

Lloyd's Booms, 61 j Lloyd's Re- 
gister, 89 

Lock Hospital, Chapel, and Aey- 
lum, 213 

Lodgings, xxxi 

London, geographical position of; 
its population, ix ; supplies 
of food, sewerage, &&, x. ; 
its boundaries— Westminster. 
xi.; Tyburnia and Belgravia. 
xii.; Regent's Park, .Maryle- 
bone and Piloomsbury, xiii. : 
"The City," xiii., xiv."; Spital- 
ficlds and Bethnal Gr 
Clerkenwell and Islington— 
the Surrey side, xv. ; bearings 
of the streets, xv., xvi.; how 
to see the Metropolis, and 
objects of interest on tlie vari- 
ous routes, xvii— xxiii; the 
Thames, and objects on it^ 
banks, xxiii— xxviii.; best 
time for seeing London— what 
to avoid, xxviii. ; cat) fares 
and regulations, xxix., xxx. ; 
omnibuses, xxxi., xxxii. : 
hotels and lodgings, xxxiii— 
xxxv.: restaurants and dining 
houses, xxxvi.; supper! 
xxxvii. > .■: Post < Mtiee. 
Exhibitions, Panoramas, Re- 
markable Places. &C. 

London and North Western Rail- 
way Station, 70 

London, Bishops of, Residence of 
the, 9 

London Bridge, 44 ; Port of Lon- 
don, its extent, 48 

London Bridge Railway Station, 
70 

London Docks, ("7 : the Wine 
Stores, 68 

London Hospital, 212 

London Library, terms of subscrip- 
tion, 191 

Lord Mayor's Show, j-J 1 

Lyceum Theatre. 177 

Lyons' Inn. 1 1 1 



M 



MAGDALEN Iio-riTA'. 918 

Hagnns (St.) Church, London 
Bridge, 123 

Mansion House, the, 224 
Markets, 70—75 



324 



INDEX. 



Mnrl bo rough House and Vernon 

Gallery, 167-8 
Martin-in-tbe-Fields (St.) Church, 

125; eminent persons buried 

in, 126 
Martin, John, the painter, 43 
Martin's St. i Hall, 180 
Marylebone (St.) Church, 126 
Marv-le-Bow (St.) Church, Cheap- 
side, 122 
Mary-le-Savoy (St.), Strand, 120 
Marv Woolnoth (St.) Church, 125 
Mary's (St.) Hospital, 212 
Mary's (St.) Roman Catholic 

Chapel, 128 
Mercers' Hall and Chapel, 280 
Merchant Tailors' Hall, 234 
Merchant Tailors' School, 109; 
charge for education, 200 ; 
eminent scholars, 201 
Millbank Prison, 148 
Mint, the Royal, mode of admission 

to, &c, 57 
Missionaries' Museum, 175 
Model Prison, 148 
Money Orders. {See Post Ollice.) 
Montague House, its portraits and 

miniatures, 15 
Monument, the, on Fish-street 
Hill, 228; suicides from its 
gallery, 229 
Museums and Galleries of Art, to 
which admission is free, 149 — 
175. (See British Museum, 
Dulwich G alien-, Geological 
Museum, Missionaries' Mu- 
seum, National Gallery, Soane 
Museum, Surgeons' College, 
United Service Museum, Yn- 
non Gallery. Also the various 
Institutions and Societies.) 
Musical Performances, xxxix. 
Munro, H. A. -J., Esq., pictures of, 
26 



V 



Nahh.f.ox's Wn.r., 58 

National Gallery,Trafalg&rj-square, 

164 : chief pictures, 160-6 ; 

English Bchool of Paintings, 

167 
Nelson. Lord, his only interview 

with Wellington, 48 : Capl . 

Hallow-ell's present to him, 

US; column to his memory, 

as i 

Nelson, Loci: dress irqva i>v him 

at the liattle .,f Trafalgar. 211 



New River, 77 
New Road, 280 
Newgate Market, 74 
Newgate Prison, 145 
Newgate-street, Plan of, 287 
Norfolk House, and its historical 

records and pictures, 14 
Northumberland House, 10 ; its 

successive names and owners, 

11 : pictures and objects of 

interest, 11, 12 
Norwood Cemetery, 132 
Nnnhead Cemetery, 132 



<>. 



Old Bailey Sessions 11' : 
Omnibus Routes, xxxi, xxxii. 
Ordnance Offices, 54 
Opera Houses, 175, 176 ; Mr. Dela- 

field's enormous losses, 176 
Oxford and Cambridge Cluh, 220 
Oxford-street, description of, 280 



Paixtkk Staixkls' Hall, 238 

Palaces of the Sovereign : — Buck- 
ingham, 1-3 ; St. James's, 
4, 5; Whitehall, 5-7 ; Kens- 
ington, 7, 8 

Pall Mall, and its celebrities, 256; 
Plan. 269 

Pancras-in-thc-riehls. St., Old 
Church and Monuments, ii: 1 . 
ISO; New Church, i-'t>, 127 

Panoramas and Miscellaneous In- 
hibitions, xxxviii, xxxix. 

Park Lane, Plan of, 286 

Parks, Gardens, fto. : — Hyde, 87- 
29 ; St. James's, "29-31 ; 
Green, 81,88; Regents', 88- 
."■i : Victoria, 84 ; Batterwa, 
84 ; Greenvi Ich, 84 : Richmond, 
.:."> : Kensington, 86; Keu. Bd; 
Zoological, 88, 180 : Surrey 
Zoological, 181 

Passports, where and huw obtain - 

able, LB 
Paul's (St. x ,, Cathedral, 109; 
ground Plan, 110; its history, 

111 : spoliation of Wren's de- 
sign by .lames I I., 1 T_' ; mo- 
numents, us, 113 ; thick room, 
whispering gallery, »ve.. 1 1 1 
Paul's ,t Gardi n, 

church and parish rsgtster, 181 



JN'DEX. 



325 



Paul's (St.), School, 193 ; eminent 
scholars, 194 

Paymaster General's Office, 52 

Peel, Sir Robert, mansion and 
pictures of, 23; room in which 
the late Sir Robert died, 42 

Penitentiary and Pentonville 
Prison, 148 

Peter the Great's Mulberry Tree, 
70 ; his lawyers, 135 

Physicians, College of, 185-6 

Piccadilly and its eminent inha- 
bitants, &c, 258-260; Plan of, 
261 

Pictures, collections of, public and 
private, xxxviii, xl. xli 

Places which visitors ought to 
see, xliv. — xlvii 

Pleasure Seeker's List, xxxviii, 
xxxix 

Police Courts, City and Metro- 
politan, 137 

Police Establishment, particulars 
of the, 138 

Poor-Law Commission Office, 56 

Portland, Duke of, his town man- 
sion, 22 

Portman-square, Plan of, 298 

Post Office, 50 ; income and extent 
of the office, 51 ; money orders, 
ib.; general directions, 52; 
postal regulations, xxxii 

Poultry, The Plan of, 273 

Prerogative Will Office, 58 and 
note 

Princess's Theatre, 180 

Prisons, Gaols, &c, 145-49 

Property-Tax Office, 50 

Pnlteney, scene of his duel with 
Lord Hervey, 32 



Queen's Bench Prison, Id 
Queensbury, Duke and Duchess 
of, 20 



K. 



Record Offices, 58 

Reform Club, 219 

Regent's Park, origin and history 

of, 32; Plan, 33; notabilities, 

34 
Regent-street, description of, 264 ; 

Plan, 265 
Registrar General's Office, 56 



Remarkable Events, places and 
sites connected with, 219,-253 

Restaurants, xxxii 

Richmond Park, :-;:> 

Rogers, Samuel, Esq., Ibmse and 
Pictures of, 25; mode of ad- 
mission. L'l) 

Roman Catholic Cathedral and 
Chain 

Rothschild, Karon Lionel de, Pic- 
tures and articles of vertu of, 
26 

Rothschild's Pillar, Royal Ex- 
change, 61 

Roubiliac, the Sculptor, instance 
of enthusiasm in, 100 

Royal Academy of Arts, 56, 183-5 

Royal Academy of Music, 185 

Royal Exchange, 61 ; Lloyd's 
Rooms and Register, 62 ; the 
first Exchange, 63 

Royal Humane Society, 214 

Royal Institution of Great Britain, 
189 

Royal Pers nages, statues of, 254 

Royal Socic ty, 56, 181 ; its por- 
traits, &c, 182 

Royal Society of Literature, 189 

Russel-square, Plan of, 302 



I 



Saddlers' ITatx, 238 

Sadler's Wells Theatre, 178 

Salters' Hall, 235 

Sardinian Chapel, 128 

Saviour's (St.) Church, 115; ac- 
tors and poets buried in, 116. 

Savoy Chapel, 120; Savoy Confer- 
ence, 121 

School of Design, 202 

Schools and Colleges, 191—202 

Scottish Churches, 128 

Sculpture to be seen, xli 

Seamen's Hospital Ship, 214 

Silwvn, George, anecdote of, 19 

Sewerage of London, 78 

Shakspeare's Will, 58 

Sheepshanks, John, Esq., pictures, 
Ac., 26 

Skinners' Hall, 233 

Smithfield Market. 7". 78 

Soane Museum, mode of admis- 
sion, 172 ; objects of interest, 
17_'-1. 

Societies and Institutions, 181—191 

Soho-square, 301 

Soho Theatre. 180 



326 



Somerset House and its offices, 
55, 56; the watch legend- 
number of windows, 56, 57 

Southwark Bridge, 45 

Spanish Chapel, 128 

Spencer House, 32 

Stables, Royal; how to obtain 
admission to view them, 2 

Stafford House ; its architecture, 
pictures, &c, 13; rent, cost, 
&c, 14 

Stamps and Taxes, office of, 50 

Staple Inn, 144 

State Paper Office ; mode of access 
to papers in the, 53 

Sfationers' Hall, 236-7 

Statistical Society, 191 

Statues of Royal and eminent 
personages, 254-5 

Steaks Club, 222 

Steamboats on the Thames ; when 
first seen, 42 

Steevens, George ; eccentric habit 
of, 144 

Stephen's (St.) Church, Walbrook, 
123 

Stephen's (St.) Church, West- 
minster, 127 

Stock Exchange, 63; mode of elec- 
tion, &c, 64 

Strand, the, and its ancient inhabi- 
tants, 268 ; plan, 269 

Streets and thoroughfares of Lon- 
don ; hints and suggestions, 
xv — xxii.; plans and descrip- 
tions of the principal, 255— 
304 

Surgeons, College of; mode of 
admission to the museum, 170; 
anatomical collection, 171 

Surrey Chapel (late Rowland 
Hill's), 128 

Surrey Theatre, 179 

Surrey Zoological Gardens, 181 

Sussex, Duke of; library and 
residence, 8 

Sutherland, Duke of ; his mansion. 
13 

Swedish Church, 129 



T. 

Tatters a t.t.k' and the Jockev 
Club, 75 

Temple Bar, 227 

Temple Church (the) and its nota- 
bilities, 117-18 

Temple, Inner and Middle ; their 



Halls and historic associa- 
tions, 138—141 

Thames, River; and objects of 
interest on its banks, xxvii., 
41 -44 ; plan of the river, 292, 
—296 

Thames-street, Upper and Lower, 
Plan of, 290 

Thames Tunnel, 47 

Theatres, and Places of Amuse- 
ment, 175 — 181, xxxv 

Thomas's (St.) Hospital, 207 

Tithe and Copyhold Commission 
Office, 56 

Tower of London, 79; ground Plan, 
80; horse armoury, 82, — 84; 
Queen Elizabeth's armoury, 
84, 85 ; jewel-house, 86 : lion 
tower, 87 ; eminent persons 
confined there, 87, 88; per- 
sons murdered, 89; persons 
born, ?7>.; executions, 90; in- 
terments, 91 

Tower Hamlets Cemetery, 132 

Trafalgar-square, plan of", 304 

Treasury, the, 48 

Trinity House, Corporation of the, 
63 

Tunnel under the Thames, xxv., 
42 ; its construction, and the 
difficulties attending it, 47 

Tossaad's Wax Works, xxxvii 

Tvburnia, x 



Uxios Club, 220 

United Service Club, 215 ; Junior 

ditto. 216 
United Service Museum, how to 

obtain admission to see the, 

174 
University of London. Somerset 

House, 191 
University Club, 220 
University College, 191 ; school 

terms and fees. L98 
rnivi'isity College Hospital, 212 
Uxbridge Soaae Marqula of An- 

gleeeft'a mansion, 20 



Yat-xuati. r.uiDOE, 47 
Vernon Gallery, 167 
Victoria Cemetery, 18S 
Victoria Park, site of, 34 



INDEX. 



327 



Victoria Theatre, 179 
Vintners' Hall, 235 



\V 



Wash-houses axd Baths, 21-4 

"Watch -face, Somerset House, 
legend of the, 5G, 57 

Waterloo, model of the Battle of, 
174 

"Water Companies, 76 — 78 

"Waterloo Bridge, 46 

Weavers' Hall, 237 

Wellington, Duke of; his mansion, 
9 ; his only interview with 
Nelson, 49 ; statues, 255 

Wesleyan Chapel, City-road, 127 

AVest India Docks, C5 

Westminster Abbey, 93; when 
founded, 93; hours of admis- 
sion, 93 ; ground Plan, 94 ; 
chapels and tombs, 95-99 ; 
monuments in the transepts, 
choir, and nave, 100-103; 
Poets' Corner, 104-106 ; clois- 
tei*s, 107 ; eminent persons 
buried in the Abbey, 108, 109 

Westminster Bridge, 46 

Westminster Hall: foundation of, 
134; its legal and historical 
associations, 135, 136 

Westminster Hospital, extent of 
relief afforded by, 212 



Westminster, Marquis of; his 
mansion, 15 

Westminster School and its cele- 
brities, 194 

White's Club, 216 

Whitecross-street Prison, 149 

Whitefield's Chapel, Tottenham- 
court-road, 127 

Whitehall Palace : its origin and 
destruction, 5, 6 ; King 
Charles's execution, 6, 7 ; 
paintings, scurfture, &c, 7 

Whittington Club, 221 

Windows, number of, in Somerse 
House, 57 

Windsor Castle, xliv 

Woods and Works' Office, 50 

Woolwich, xlv 



Y. 

Yarborough, Eahl 

sion of the, 32 
York Column, 253 



Z. 

Zoological Gardens, Regent's- 
park, 32, 180; Surrey ditto, 
181 



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To Tourists ft 



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THE SCOTTISH TOURIST, CORRECTED TO MAY 1851. 







In July will be published, 

LIVER AND BOYD'S SCOTTISH TOURIST : a Guide 

to the Picturesque Scenery, Antiquities, &c. Embellished with very numerous 
Engraviugs, illustrative of the Cities and Towns, Seats of the Nobility, Lake Scenery, 
and Antiquities of Scotland ; together with carefully prepared Maps. 
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firesent being in great part rewritten, and revised and corrected throughout, so as to 
nclude all the information that is likely to be useful to the Scottish Tourist. The 
numerous bountiful Engravings will always serve as a Souvenir of the scenes most 
interesting to the stranger. 

OLIVER AND BOYD, EDINBURGH; SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, AND CO., 
LONDON. 



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executed by this unique process comprise every varie'v of Ornamental Glass, and 
are peculiarly suitable, from the novelty and splendour of material, and singular 
elegance of design, lor presents of every description. 

*,* Londo* Visitobs are particularly solicited to inspect the ShowRooms of 

S. Mellish, 148, Regent Street. 



SOYERS SYMPOSIUM OF ALL NATIONS, 
GORE HOUSE, HYDE PARK, 

CONTAINS A LARGE COLLECTION OF 

ARTICLES IN PATENT GLASS SILVERING, 

APPLIED TO INNUMERABLE PURPOSES OK UTILITY ANI> ADORNMENT 

naoueoooi thai mjmptuoui mtabushjcu p. 



16 MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OP LONDON ADVERTISER. 



THE GREAT EXHIBITION. 



HINTS TO VISITOR-. 

AMONG the tens of thou- 
sands who -will grace the Industrial 
Fair, every natiou will contribute bright 
samples of its youth, beauty, and fashion. 
The frequenters of the Ball, the Public 
Assembly, and the Promenade, will find 
both personal comfort and attraction pro- 
moted by the use of Rowland and So.\s' 
valuable aids; and. what better mark of 
esteem can be offered to friends on their 
return home, as a memento of the Great 
Exhibition, than a packet of 

" ROWLANDS' ' 
UNIQUE DISCOVERIES." 



Rowlands' Macassar Oil, 

For the growth, and for preserving, im- 
proving, and beautifying the Human 
II air. Price 3*. <></. and" Is. ; family bottles 
(equal to four small), 10*. 6rf. ; and double 
that size, 21*. per bottle. 

Rowlands' Kalydor, 

For improving and beautifying the Skin 
and Complexion, eradicating all cuta- 
neous eruptions, sunburn, freckles, and 
discolorations, and for rendering the 
skin soft, clear, and fair. Price l*.6«f. and 
8». 6d» per bottle. 

Rowlands' Odonto, 

OR PEARL DENTIFRICE, 

For preserving and beautifying the Teeth, 
strengthening the Gums, and for render- 
ing the Breath sweet and pure. Price 
It. \*d. per box. 

The patronage of Royalty throughout 
Europe, their general use by the Aristo- 
cracy and the elite of Fashion, and the 
well known infallible efficacy of these 
articles, have given them a celebrity 
unparalleled. 



BE W \RE 

of SPURIOUS imitations: 

The onlv Gkwinf. of each bears the 
name of "ROWLANDS'," prrceding that 
of the article on the Wrapper or Label. 

SOLD BT 

A. ROWLAND AMD 1 

Co, II vtton Garden, Losdos; asd bt 
Chemists a>d Perfumers. 



ORPHAN 
WORKING SCHOOL, 

IIavekstock Hill, Hampstead Road, 

For Children of both Sexes. 
Of all Denominations, and from erery part 
of the Kingdom. 

Under the Immediate Patronage of the 
Queen. 

Offices, 32, Lcdgate Hill, Losdun. 

THIS Charity was instituted 
at Hoxton in 175S, for Twenty boys, 
afterwards removed to the City Road, 
where accommodation was provided for 
Thirty-five boys and Thirty-five girls. 
The present building was erected in IS47, 
where 2-10 children are now educated, 
clothed, and wholly maintained until 
they arrive at the age of Fourteen. The 
positive increase during the last nine years 
has been 140, or at the rate of Ifi per annum. 
During the present year'Fortr will be 
admitted at the April ami November 
elections. Candidates must be in good 
health, and between Seven and Eleven 
years of age. Any person may present an 
orphan for admission upon the payment 
of 10 Guineas, and have one in the 
School during the life of the presentee by 
contributing 250 Guineas. 

Governors are constituted by pay- 
ment of 21*. annually, or 10 Guineas and 
upwards as a Donation. Subscribers 
lo*. fd. annually, or a Donation of 5 
Guineas. 

Forms of application, &c, may be ob- 
tained at the office, as above, daily, be- 
tween 10 and 4, where contributions will 
be thankfully received, and tickets may 
be had to visit the schools. 

JOSEPH SOUL, Secretary. 

April, Wth, IS1. 



THE GROTTO, Oatlands 

J- Park, near the Weybridge Station of 
the South Western Railway, constructed 
by the l»uke of Newcastle at a cost of 
4OJB09L, and in which George the Fourth 
entertained his friends at supper, is open 
on Saturday, Sundav, and Monday after- 
noons, from May till October. 

•»• Trains from Waterloo Bridge in one 
hour. 



BOARD AND RESIDE X< K 
may be obtained by Ladies and 
Gentlemen, and married couples, in an 
establishment of the highest respecta- 
bility, in the immediate vicinity of Rus- 
sell and Brunswick Squares. The house 
is commodious and airy, and the party 
-elect and cheerful. The use of a Piano 
is offered, and the French and German 
languages spoken. References exchanged. 
For card* apply to M. B., Mi • 
brary, 23, Upper" King Street, Bloomsbury 
Square: or to Mr. Pabh.>s, Stationer, 
25, Oxfori - 



MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OF LONDON ADVERTISER. 17 
VISITORS TO OXFORD 

(1 Hour and 20 Minutes from London) 

ARE invited to inspect SPIERS AND :STA- 

-ci- BLISHMENT, U3 ft 1Q8, High Strert, (opposite St. Mart's Chcrch 
Corner). Their Stock, one of the largest and most varied out of London, includes 
Goods of ererv description suitable for Presents or for Remembrances of Oxford. 
Among those for the use of Tourists are Guide-Books and Maps of the University and 
Neighbourhood, of every description published; Ordnance Maps, Engraved Views of 
< KiorJ. and Models of its Public Buildings; Desks, Dressing Case*, Cutlery, Articles, 
of Taste and Vin 

MANUFACTORY FOR DECORATED PAPIER MACHE. consisting of Table*, 
Screens, Cabinets. Desks, Albums, Portfolios, Work Boxes, Tea Caddies, Card Cases, 
&c. Ornamented with Views of Oxford and its Neighbourhood, by eminent Artsts. 

Spiers asd Son are Publishers of the Illustrated "Memorial por Visitors to 
Oxpord; containing Views, Maps, and General Local Information useful to the 
Tourist." 

Information of every description readily afforded to strangers visiting their Esta- 
blishment. 

Oxford is on the road to Bath, Bristol, Clifton, and the West of England; also to 
Stratford-on-Avon, Leamington, Warwick, Kenilworth, Birmingham, and the North ; 
to Cheltenham, Gloucester, and South Wales. In its immediate neighbourhood are 
Blenheim, Nuneham, and other places of interest. 

Oxford, 102 & 103, High Street ; and 1 & 2, Oriel Street. 




BIB. 

Price 1«. lid., 2*.9d., and 11«. per Box. 

THIS is an aromatic and aperient Medicine of great efficacy 
for regulatine the secretions, and correcting the action of the Stomach and Liver, 
and is the only safe remedy for all BiLiors Affections. 

axso, 

DR. LOCOCK'S PULMONIC WAFERS. 

GIVE INSTANT BELIEP, AND A RATID CURE OF 

ASTHMA. CONSUMPTION, COUGHS. COLDS, AND ALL 

DISORDERS OP THE BREATH AND LUHl - 

They have a pleasant taste, and may be taken br iufants as well as adults. 

oers axd Public Sprakrrs these Wafers are invaluable; as by their 
action on the throat and limes they remove all hoarseness in a few hours, and wonder- 
fully increase the power and flexibility of the voice. Price 1«. 1JA, £*.9J., and 11*. 
per "Box. 

Noti.— Full Direction! are giren teith every box, in the English, German, and French 
language*. 

AXSO, 

DR. LOCOCKS FEMALE WAFERS. 

The best Medicine for Ladies. Have a pleasant taste. Price 1*. \\L, '2t.9d^ and lis. 
per Box. With full directions for use. 

•«* All Pills under similar Names are Counterfeits. 

TO VISITORS TO THE CONTINENT AND TO 

J- ARTISTS. Messrs. J. and R. M'CRACK I . nts, and Agents to the 

Royal Academy, No. 7, Old Jewry, beg to remind the Nobility, Gentry, and Artists, 
that they continue to receive consignments of Objects of Fine Arts, Baggage, &c, 
from all parts of the Continent for clearing through the Custom Houses, ic, and 
that they undertake the Shipment of Effects to all parts of the world. 

C 



18 MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OF LONDON ADVERTISER. 

DIATONIC FLUTE. By Royal Letters Patent.— 
This iiistrument is exclusively used by Mr. Richardson, Mr. Pratten (first 
nut 3 at the Royal Italian Opera), and many other Professors iu London and in the 
Provinces,— by Messrs. Nicholson, Leicester; Percivai., Liverpool ; Creed Royal, 
Manchester; Sykks, Leeds; Jackson, Hull; Coram, Bristol; Clare, Bedford, &c. 
Descriptions of this Flute, with Testimonials, &c, forwarded free. 

Manufactory, 135, Fleet Street. 

A. SICCAMA, Patentee. 



MURRAY'S ENGLISH HANDBOOKS. 
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MODERN LONDON ; or, London and its Neighbourhood, 

in 1851. With full Descriptions of all the Sights and Objects of Interest in 
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advantage. With a Clue Map and Plans. lGiuo. 



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rian and General Account of London Past and Present. Containing 
full Descriptions of all the Old Churches, Palaces, Public Buildings, Anti- 
quities, &c. PostSvo. 16«. 

in. 

WESTMINSTER ABBEY : its Art, Architecture, and 

Associations. lGmo. 1«. 



THE BRITISH MUSEUM: its Antiquities and Sculp- 
ture. Woodcuts. Post 8vo. 



GALLERIES OF PICTURES in and near London. 

With Catalogues, Biographical and Critical Notices, and an Index. rost8vo. 10*. 



WINDSOR AND ETON: the Castle, St. George's 

Chapel, and Eton College. 16ino. Is. 



ENGLAND AND WALES. Giving an Account of the 

Places and Objects in England best worth visiting; arranged in connexion with 

the most frequented Railways and Roads. 

Part I.— The Eastf.iin Counties : Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Cambridge, 

and Lincoln. (A early Heady.) 
Part V1L— Devon and Cornwall. Post 8vo. C«. (Ready.) 

Yin. 

THE OFFICIAL HANDBOOK; or, Manual or Political 

and Historical Reference. Fcap. 8vo. (Nearly Ready.) 



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TRAVEL-TALK; or, Conversations in English, German, 

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20 MUKK AY'S HANDBOOK OF LONDON ADVERTISED. 



MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. 



This Series of Popular Works is printed on superfine paper, and forms 
a compact and portable Work, the bulk of which does not exceed the 
compass of a single shelf, or of one trunk, suited for all classes and all 
climates. 

Dr. Johnson says : " Books that you may carry to the fire, and hold readily 
in your hand, are the most useful after all. A man will often look at them, 
andbe tempted to go on xohen he would be frightened at books of a larger size 
and of a more erudite appearance." 

*j* May be had complete in 76 Parts at 2s. 6d. each, sewed; or 111. 7s. 
bound in cloth. 

1. THE BIBLE IN SPAIN. By George Borrow. 

2. JOURNALS IN INDIA. By Bishop Heber. 

3. TRAVELS IN THE HOLY LAND. By Captains 

Irby and Mangles. 

4. THE SIEGE OF GIBRALTAR. By John Drinkwater. 

5. MOROCCO AND THE MOORS. By J. Drummond Hay. 

6. LETTERS FROM THE BALTIC. By a Lady. 

7. THE AMBER WITCH. By Lady Duff Gordon. 

8. OLIVER CROMWELL AND JOHN BUNYAN. By 

Robert Southey. 

9. NEW SOUTH WALES. By Mrs. Meredith. 

10. LIFE OF SIR FRANCIS DRAKE. By John Barrow. 

11. FATHER RIPA'S MEMOIRS OF THE COURT OF 

china. 

12. A RESIDENCE IN THE WEST INDIES. By M. G. 

Lewis. 

13. SKETCHES OF PERSIA. By Sir John Malcolm. 

14. THE FRENCH IN ALGIERS. By Lady Duff Gordon. 

15. BRACEBRIDGE HALL. By Washington Irving. 

16. VOYAGE OF A NATURALIST. By Charles Darwin. 

17. HISTORY OF THE FALL OF THE JESUITS. 

18. LIFE OF LOUIS PRINCE CONDE. By Lord Mahon. 

19. GIPSIES OF SPAIN. By George Borrow. 

20. TYPEE ; or, TnE Marquesas Islanders. By Hermann 

Mei.villk. 

21. LIVONIAN TALES. By a Lady. 

22. MISSIONARY LIFE IN CANADA. By Rev. J. Abbot, 



MUKKAY'S HANDBOOK OF LONDON ADVEKTISEK. 21 



MURRAY'S HOME AND COLONIAL LIBRARY. -(Continued.) 

23. SALE'S BRIGADE IN AFFGHANISTAN. By Rev. 

G. R. Gleig. 

24. LETTERS FROM MADRAS. By a Lady. 

25. HIGHLAND SPORTS. By Charles St. John. 

26. JOURNEYS ACROSS THE PAMPAS. By Sir F. B. 

Head. 

27. GATHERINGS FROM SPAIN. By Richard Ford. 

28. SIEGES OF VIENNA BY THE TURKS. By Lord 

Ellesmere. 

29. SKETCHES OF GERMAN LIFE. By Sir Alexander 

Duff Gordon. 

30. OMOO ; or, The South Sea Islanders. By Herman 

Melville. 

31. STORY OF THE BATTLE OF WATERLOO. By Rev. 

G. R. Gleig. 

32. A VOYAGE UP THE RIVER AMAZON. By W. H. 

Edwards. 

33. THE WAYSIDE CROSS. By Captain Milman. 

34. MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF INDIA. By Rev. 

C. ACLAND. 

35. CAMPAIGNS AT WASHINGTON. By Rev. G. R. 

Gleig. 

36. ADVENTURES IN MEXICO. By G. F. Ruxton. 

37. PORTUGAL AND GALLICIA. By Lord Carnarvon. 

38. LIFE OF LORD CLIVE. By Rev. G. R. Gleig. 

39. TALES OF A TRAVELLER. By Washington Irving. 

40. SHORT LIVES OF THE POETS. By Thos. Campbell. 

41. HISTORICAL ESSAYS. By Lord Mahon. 

42. LONDON AND NORTH-WESTERN RAILWAY. 

By Sir F. B. Head. 

43. ADVENTURES IN THE LYBIAN DESERT. By 

Bavle St. Joiin. 

44. A RESIDENCE AT SIERRA LEONE. By a Lady. 

45. LIFE OF GENERAL MUNRO. By Rev. G. R. Gleig. 

46. MEMOIRS OF SIR FOWELL BUXTON. By his Son. 

47. OLIVER GOLDSMITH. By Washington Irving. 



JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STRKKT. 



22 MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OF LONDON ADVERTISER. 



STANDARD WORKS. 



GIBBON'S DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN 

EMPIRE. Edited, with Notes, by M. Guizot and Dean Hxucah. Second 
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GROTE'S HISTORY OF GREECE. From the Earliest 

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CAMPBELL'S LIVES OF THE LORD CHANCELLORS 

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TICKNOR'S HISTORY OF SPANISH LITERATURE. 

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HALLAM'S CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY OF ENG- 
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HALLAM'S LITERARY HISTORY OF EUROPE. Third 

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RANKE'S HISTORY OF THE POPES OF ROME. Trans- 

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WILKINSON'S MANNERS AND CUSTOMS OF THE 

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8vo. 12*. 

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LYELL'S PRINCIPLES OF GEOLOGY. Eighth Edition. 

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MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OP LONDON ADVERTISER. 23 



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BOSWELL'S LIFE OF JOHNSON. Edited by Mr. Croker. 

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24 MURRAY'S HANDBOOK OF LONDON ADVERTISER. 




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